Reference and SenseReference deals with the relationship betweenthe linguistic elements, words, sentences, etc.,and the non-linguistic world of experience.Sense relates to the complex system ofrelationships that hold between the linguisticelements themselves (mostly the words); it isconcerned only with intralinguistic relations.
ExamplesA chair(reference)A chair is a piece of furniture with a raisedsurface used to sit on, commonly for use by oneperson. (sense)Referring is the act of picking out or identifyingwith words
Basic notions related to ReferenceReferring expressions are any linguisticexpression which is used to identify an entity.eg. Mary, The bookNon-referring expression is any linguisticelements which can never be used to refer.Eg. So, very, may be, of, etc
Cont’…….Constant Versus Variable Reference(1) Any expressions which have the samereferent across range of utterances areconstant reference. Eg. The Eiffle Tower,Pacific Ocean(2) Any expressions which have their referencetotally dependent on context are variablereference .Eg. I wrote to you.
Referent and ExtensionThe term referent is used for the thing pickedout by uttering the expression in a particularcontext.Eg. The referent of IndonesianPresident in 1997 is Suharto, the referent of atoad inThe term extension is used for the set ofthings which could be the referent of theexpression
ExamplesExpressionIndonesian President nowIndonesian president in 1997I’ve just stepped on a toadThe extension of the wordtoad is the set of all toads.Referent• SBY• SuhartoA toad here would be theunfortunete animal on thebottom of my shoe
Referents and Referring expressions• A referring expression is not a referentEg. Howard is your cousin, isn’t it?Howard is your cousin’s name, isn’t it?• There is no natural connection betweenreferring expression and referent• The existance of a referring expression doesnot guarantee the existence of a referent inthe physical social-social world that we inhabit• Eg. The present emperor of texas,
Cont’• Two or more referring expression may havethe same referent, but they do notnecessaraly have the same meaning, eg Ani Yudoyono Susilo bambang Yudoyono’s wifeIbas’ mother
Different kinds of referentsa. Unique and non unique referentsA referring expression has fixed reference whenthe referent is unique entity or unique set ofentities, such as Lake Toba, Japan, Boris YeltsinEg. We swam in Lake TobaWe swam in a lakeA referring expression has variable reference ifits referent may be different every time.Eg. That dog, my uncle, a lake, etc
b. Concrete and abstract referentConcrete referents are objects that can beseen or touched. Door, leaf, stoneAbstract referents mean they can not beperceived directly through the senses.reason, knowledge, etc
What about this….?• The key to the front doorThe key to success• A bright lighta bright future
Countable and non-countable referentsa. countable expression refers to items that areseparate from one another which can ordinarily becounted one by oneEg. (1) Apple,coin (concrete(2) idea, problem, suggestionb. Non- countable expressionConcrete reference1) Some refers to continuous substances which donot consist of natural discrete partsEg. Apple sauce, ink, toothpaste, etc
Cont’2)Others refer to substances that consist ofnumerous particles not worth counting.Eg. Sand, rice3) A few non- countables refer to collectionswhose parts have quite different names.Eg. Furniture, jewelryAbstract non-countables which treated asindivisibleEg. Advice, beauty, information
What is sense• The sense of an sxpression is its palce inasystem of semantic relationship with otherexpression in the language. The first semanticrelationships that we will mention is samenessof meaningEg. Almost = nearly; vertical = uprightRupert took off his jacket = Rupert took hisjacket off
In some cases one word can have more than onemeaningDoes the word bank have the same meaningin the following sentence pair?(1) I have an account at the Bank of ScotlandWe steered the raft to the other bank of river(2) The DC 10 banked sharply to avoid the crashI banked the furnace up with coke last night.
What is the meaning of the followingsentences• The chicken is ready to eat• He greeted the girl with the smile• John was looking for the glasses.All these sentences are ambiguous.
What about these sentences(1) His typewriter has bad intentions.(2) My unmarried sister is married to a bachelor.(3) (a) The needle is too short.(b) The needle is not long enough.(4) (a) Many of the students were unable to answer yourquestion.(b) Only a few students grasped your question.(5) (a) How long did Archibald remain in Monte Carlo?(b) Archibald remained in Monte Carlo for some time.
(1) is an example of an anomalous sentence,(2) of a contradictory one(3) illustrates paraphrase or synonymoussentences;(4) one sentence follows from the other,(5) the first implies or presupposes the second.