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Language and meaning (ch 3) power point

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Language and meaning

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Language and meaning (ch 3) power point

  1. 1. Language and meaning (Ch3) MARIA SUBERT
  2. 2. What is language? Language is a collection of symbols, letters, words with arbitrary meanings, governed by rules and used to communicate.
  3. 3. Language has rules: osemantics osyntax opragmatics
  4. 4. Semantics: The study of the way humans use language to evoke meaning in others. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GcBvGToIxgA
  5. 5. Syntax: the way we arrange words to form phrases and sentences
  6. 6. Pragmatics: Language as it is used in social context https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5aeCxWyNAQQ
  7. 7. Phatic communication: When we Do NOT to communicate information or ideas, rather to establish a mood of sociability. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v80J9E11tlk
  8. 8. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: “Language shapes reality.” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Df25r8pcuI8
  9. 9. Words are arbitrary: They have NO inherent meaning They have only the meanings people give them…
  10. 10. Denotative meaning: the dictionary meaning of a world
  11. 11. Connotative meaning: individualized or personalized meaning
  12. 12. avoid these when you speak: grammatical errors Slang Clichés Euphemism Profanity Jargon Regionalism  sexist/racist/heterosexist/ageist languages
  13. 13. Slang, Cliché Slang: informal, casual street language Cliché: overused expression that lost originality
  14. 14. Profanity: language that is disrespectful of sacred things http://www.worldmag.com/2011/11/profanity_and_art
  15. 15. Euphemism: avoiding language that would be offensive in a social setting (not necessary to be avoided) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CNk_kzQCclo
  16. 16. Jargon, Regionalism Jargon: language particular to a specific profession Regionalism: words and phrases specific to a region Technical Jargon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aW2LvQUcwqc Regionalism, and why it works: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8TWfuOiNzE
  17. 17. Descriptiveness and Paraphrasing Descriptiveness: instead of judging it, we describe the observed behavior or phenomena Paraphrasing is restating the content of the message by rephrasing
  18. 18. Operational definition identifying something by describing ◦how it works ◦how it is made ◦what it consist
  19. 19. Confusion can arise… If you suspect someone might misunderstand your terminology, you must define the term. Define potentially confusing words when you speak. It is recommended to use concrete language rather than vague or abstract when you speak.
  20. 20. Dating & Frozen evaluation Dating: specify when you made the observation since everything changes over time. Frozen evaluation: in which you don’t allow your assessment to change over time. Dating is the opposite of frozen evaluation.
  21. 21. Observation & Inferences Observation: descriptions of what is sensed Inferences: conclusions drawn from observations

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