What is language?
Language is a collection of symbols, letters, words with
arbitrary meanings, governed by rules and used to
Language has rules:
The study of the way humans use language to evoke
meaning in others.
the way we arrange
to form phrases
Language as it is used in social context
When we Do NOT to communicate information or
ideas, rather to establish a mood of sociability.
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis:
“Language shapes reality.”
Words are arbitrary:
They have NO inherent meaning
They have only the meanings people give them…
the dictionary meaning of a world
individualized or personalized meaning
avoid these when you speak:
Slang: informal, casual
Cliché: overused expression
that lost originality
Profanity: language that is disrespectful of sacred things
avoiding language that would be offensive in a social
setting (not necessary to be avoided)
Jargon: language particular to a specific profession
Regionalism: words and phrases specific to a region
Technical Jargon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aW2LvQUcwqc
Regionalism, and why it works: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8TWfuOiNzE
Descriptiveness and Paraphrasing
Descriptiveness: instead of judging it, we describe the observed
behavior or phenomena
Paraphrasing is restating the content of the message by rephrasing
identifying something by describing
◦how it works
◦how it is made
◦what it consist
Confusion can arise…
If you suspect someone might misunderstand your terminology, you
must define the term.
Define potentially confusing words when you speak.
It is recommended to use concrete language rather
than vague or abstract when you speak.
Dating & Frozen evaluation
Dating: specify when you made the observation since everything
changes over time.
Frozen evaluation: in which you don’t allow your assessment to
change over time.
Dating is the opposite of frozen evaluation.
Observation & Inferences
Observation: descriptions of what is sensed
Inferences: conclusions drawn from observations