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CHAPTER 4 : PHOTOGRAMMETRY
(IMP FOR 2 LONG Q = 16 MARKS)(NUMERICAL 1)
Prepared By:
Asst. Prof. Pramesh Hada
MSC in Urban Planning
B.E In Civil
Asst. Professor, Civil Engineering Dept.
Nepal Engineering College
CHAPTER 4 : PHOTOGRAMMETRY
Introduction and Basic Terms of photogrammetry
(Short note – 13 marks)2006,
Uses & importance of Photogrammetry (pu2010)
Types of Photogrammetry
Types of Photographs (pu07)
Scale of Vertical Photograph(pu09,010)
Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
Scale of Vertical Photograph(pu09,010)
Relief Displacement (pu08,010*2, 011,)
Instruction on Field Works
Phototheodolite -2006,stereoscope & stereoscopic vision -06,07,
Define – Vertical,oblique photograph,forward,side overlap.-07*2,09,
Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
TUTORIAL -2 (IMPORTANT QUESTIONS)
Write a short note on construction and use of phototheodolite. (6)
2006
What is relief displacement ? Derive an expression to find the relief
displacement ? (7) 2008,2010*2,2011
Derive an expression to find the scale of a vertical photogaph.
(7)2009,2010
What is photogrammetry. Discuss its limitations. (7) 2010
Write short notes: (pu 2006, 2007)
vertical photograph
Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
vertical photograph
Camera axis
Forward & side overlap
Isocentre
Fiducial Mark
Aerial camera
Oblique photograph
Stereoscope and Stereoscopic vision
Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
INTRODUCTION
Photogrammetric surveying or photogrammetry is the branch of
surveying in which maps are prepared from photo-graphs taken from
ground or air stations.
With an advancement of the photogrammetric techniques,
photographs are also being used for the interpretation of geology,
classification of soils and crops,etc.
Is the science of making measurements from photographs,
especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points.
Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points.
Used to recover the motion pathways of designated reference
points located on any moving object, on its components and in the
immediately adjacent environment.
Photogrammetry may employ high-speed imaging and remote
sensing in order to detect, measure and record complex 2-D and
3-D motion fields.
Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,necEr.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,necEr.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec

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Photogrammetry- Surveying

  • 1. CHAPTER 4 : PHOTOGRAMMETRY (IMP FOR 2 LONG Q = 16 MARKS)(NUMERICAL 1) Prepared By: Asst. Prof. Pramesh Hada MSC in Urban Planning B.E In Civil Asst. Professor, Civil Engineering Dept. Nepal Engineering College
  • 2. CHAPTER 4 : PHOTOGRAMMETRY Introduction and Basic Terms of photogrammetry (Short note – 13 marks)2006, Uses & importance of Photogrammetry (pu2010) Types of Photogrammetry Types of Photographs (pu07) Scale of Vertical Photograph(pu09,010) Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec Scale of Vertical Photograph(pu09,010) Relief Displacement (pu08,010*2, 011,) Instruction on Field Works Phototheodolite -2006,stereoscope & stereoscopic vision -06,07, Define – Vertical,oblique photograph,forward,side overlap.-07*2,09, Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 3. TUTORIAL -2 (IMPORTANT QUESTIONS) Write a short note on construction and use of phototheodolite. (6) 2006 What is relief displacement ? Derive an expression to find the relief displacement ? (7) 2008,2010*2,2011 Derive an expression to find the scale of a vertical photogaph. (7)2009,2010 What is photogrammetry. Discuss its limitations. (7) 2010 Write short notes: (pu 2006, 2007) vertical photograph Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec vertical photograph Camera axis Forward & side overlap Isocentre Fiducial Mark Aerial camera Oblique photograph Stereoscope and Stereoscopic vision Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 4. INTRODUCTION Photogrammetric surveying or photogrammetry is the branch of surveying in which maps are prepared from photo-graphs taken from ground or air stations. With an advancement of the photogrammetric techniques, photographs are also being used for the interpretation of geology, classification of soils and crops,etc. Is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points. Used to recover the motion pathways of designated reference points located on any moving object, on its components and in the immediately adjacent environment. Photogrammetry may employ high-speed imaging and remote sensing in order to detect, measure and record complex 2-D and 3-D motion fields. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 7. Photogrammetry is the practice of determining the geometric properties of objects from photographic images. Is the making of precise measurements from photographs; the making of maps from photographs, especially from aerial surveying. The science of using aerial photography and other INTRODUCTION Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec The science of using aerial photography and other remote sensing imagery to obtain measurement of natural and man-made features on the earth. In this method, object are measured without being touched. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 8. Definition Process of making surveys and maps using photographs. The science of deducing the physical dimensions of objects from measurements on images (usually photographs) of the objects. The making of maps by photography from the air using reference points of known level and position which can be identified on the photographs. The art and science of obtaining reliable quantitative and Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec The art and science of obtaining reliable quantitative and qualitative measurements through the use of photographs. A series of techniques for measuring position and altitude from aerial photographs or images. Is the Art, Science and Technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment through processes of recording, measuring and interpreting photographic images. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 9. Broadly Photogrammetry Requires: Planing & taking the photographs Processing the photographs Measuring the photographs & Reducing the measurement to produce end results. Field Application of Photogrammetry : Used to conduct topographical survey or engineering surveys. Suitable for mountainous and hilly terain with little vegetation. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec Used for geological mapping which includes identification of land forms, rock type & rock structures. Used for projects demanding higher accuracy, since it provides accurate measurements. Used in urban and regional planning applications. Used mostly in Planning/designing in transport planning, bridge, pipeline, hydropower, urban planning, security and strategic planning, disaster management, natural resources management, city models, conservation of archaeological sites etc. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 10. Its applications include satellite tracking of the relative positioning alterations in all Earth environments (e.g. tectonic motions etc.), The quantitative results of photogrammetry are used to guide and match the results of computational models of the natural systems, thus helping to invalidate or confirm new theories, to design novel vehicles or new methods for predicting or/and controlling the consequences of earthquakes, tsunamis, any Importance/application of photogrammetry Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec controlling the consequences of earthquakes, tsunamis, any other weather types. Photogrammetry also helps for the solving of triangulation, trilateration and multidimensional scaling. In the simplest example, the distance between two points that lie on a plane parallel to the photographic image plane can be determined by measuring their distance on the image, if the scale (s) of the image is known. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 11. Used in different fields, such as topographic mapping, architecture, engineering, manufacturing, quality control, police investigation, and geology, as well as by archaeologists to quickly produce plans of large or complex sites and by meteorologists. Importance/application of photogrammetry Advantage •Covers large area •Less time consuming/fast Disadvantage • Complex system, highly trained human resource needed Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec •Less time consuming/fast •Can ‘reach’ inaccessible and restricted area •Cheap/cost effective for large area and in a long run •Easy to interpret, understand resource needed •Costly at the time of installation/initiation •Heavy and sophisticated equipments needed •Lengthy administrative procedure for getting permission to fly •Weather dependent Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 12. PRINCIPLE OF PHOTOGRAMMETRY Principle of photogrammetric survey in its simplest form is very similar to that of the plane table survey. Only difference is that the most of the work which in plane table survey is executed in the field, is done in office. The principal point of each photograph is used as a fixed station and rays are drawn to get points of intersections very similar to those used in plane table. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec intersections very similar to those used in plane table. Is suitable for topographical or engineering surveys and also for those projects demanding higher accuracy. It is unsuitable for dense forest and flat-sands due to the difficulty of identifying points upon the pair of photographs. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 13. TYPES OF PHOTOGRAMMETRY / PHOTOGRAPHS The photographs used in photogrammetry may be broadly classified into two types depending upon the camera position at the time of photography. The types are- Terrestrial Photographs Aerial Photographs Terrestrial Photographs Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec Terrestrial Photographs Photographs taken from camera station at a fixed position on or near the ground is known as Terrestrial Photographs. The photographs are taken by means of a phototheodolite which is combination of a camera and a theodolite. Based on the principle that “if the directions of same objects photographed from two extremities of measured base are known, their position can be located by the intersection of two rays to the same object. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 14. TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHS Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec •photographs are taken from elevated ground stations. •Method is very similar that the camera is in stationary position. •Camera used in this method is called photo-theodolite as it will require the same features as theodolite. •It is much cheaper and can be carried out by individual surveying firms also. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 16. Difference between this and plane tabling is that more details are at once obtained from the photographs and their subsequent plotting etc. is done by the office while in plane tabling all the detailing is done in the field itself. Fig A and B are the two stations at the ends of base AB. Arrows indicate the directions of horizontal pointing (in plan) of the camera. For each pair of pictures taken from the two ends, the camera axis is kept parallel to each other. From economy and speed point of view, minimum number of photographs should be used to cover the whole area and to achieve this, TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHS Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec photographs should be used to cover the whole area and to achieve this, it is essential to select the best positions of the camera stations. Study of the area should be done from the existing maps, and a ground reconnaissance should be made. Selection of actual stations depends upon the size and ruggedness of the area. These photographs provides the front view of elevation & are generally used for the survey of structure & Architectural Monuments. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 17. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS Photographs taken from a Aerial camera mounted on a aerial vehicle Used for various purpose, mainly information extraction on the ground surface Aerial photographs are obtained from the aerial cameras mounted on aerial vehicle(aeroplane for the purpose of photography) Used for various purpose, mainly information extraction on Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec Used for various purpose, mainly information extraction on the ground surface Photographs are taken from camera station in the air with the axis of camera vertical or nearly vertical. Is the branch of photogrammetry where the photographs are taken from air station. This is the best mapping procedure yet developed for large objects and are useful for military intelligence. For this, aerial camera is used which are fixed on flying aircraft. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 19. According to the direction of the camera axis at the time of exposure aerial photographs may be classified into: Vertical photographs Oblique photographs Vertical photographs These photographs are taken from the air with the axis of the Camera vertical or nearly vertical . A truly vertical Photograph closely resembles a map. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec A truly vertical Photograph closely resembles a map. These are utilized for the compilation of topographic and engineering surveys on various scales. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 20. Vertical photographs Oblique photographs Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,necEr.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 21. OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPHS Photographs are taken from air with the axis of the camera intentionally tilted from the vertical. An oblique photograph covers larger area of the ground but clarity of details diminishes towards the far end of the photograph. Depending upon the angle of obliquity, oblique photographs may he further divided into two categories. Low oblique photographs : An oblique photograph which does not show the horizon, is known as low oblique photograph. Such photographs are generally used to compile reconnaissance maps of Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec Such photographs are generally used to compile reconnaissance maps of inaccessible areas. High oblique photograph: • An oblique photograph which is sufficiently tilted to show the horizon, is known as high oblique, photograph. •Such photographs were previously used for the extension of planimetric and height control in areas having scanty ground control. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 24. THE PHOTO-THEODOLITE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF PHOTOTHEODOLITE (PU 2006) Is a combination of camera and theodolite mounted on the same tripod, Used in terrestrial photogrammetry for mapmaking and other purposes. Photographs obtained are used for the construction of topographic maps, classification of soil, interpretation of geology. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec While taking the photographs the camera axis is kept parallel to each other. It consists of : A camera box of fixed focus type A hollow rectangular frame placed vertically to the rear side The sensified photographic plate. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 25. THE PHOTO-THEODOLITE Camera box is supported on the tripod and is furnished with an inner and outer axis each of which is fitted with a clamp and fine adjusting screw. The graduated horizontal circle carries verniers reading to single minutes. These are supported on a levelling head carrying three foot screws. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec foot screws. On the top of the box, a telescope is fitted. The telescope can be rotated in a vertical plane about a horizontal axis and is fitted with vertical arc with verniers, clamp & slow motion screw. The line of sight of the telescope is set in the same vertical plane as the optical axis of camera. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 26. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH / CAMERA (PU2006) Aerial camera are used to have aerial photographs which are fixed on flying aircarft. Primary function of the terrestrial camera as well as the aerial camera is the same, i.e., that of taking pictures. Aerial camera is mounted on a fast moving aeroplane, its requirements are quite different. Aerial camera requires : Fast Lens Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec Fast Lens High speed & sufficient shutter High speed emulsion for the film A Magazine to hold large rolls of film Aerial camera is considered to be a surveying instrument of great precision. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 27. An aerial camera consists of following essential parts lens assembly consists of lenses, the diaphragm, shutter and the filter.(Fig-6,8,9) Camera cone which supports the entire lens assembly including the filter. (fig - 5) focal (2) plane exactly above the collimation mark. camera body (3) provided at the top of cone AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH / CAMERA (PU2006) Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec camera body (3) provided at the top of cone which acts as an integral part to preserve the interior orientation. Drive mechanism which is housed in camera body & used for winding and tripping the shutter, operating the vaccum system for flattering the film, winding the film. The magazine (1) which holds the exposed and unexposed films & houses the film flattening device at the focal plane. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 29. There are three types of Aerial Camera : Super wide angle camera – f=100mm (used in flat areas like terai of nepal & in plain areas) Wide angle camera – f=150mm (Used in hilly areas) Narrow angle camera – f=300mm (Used in higher himalayas, sky scrappers & city like New york) Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,necEr.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 30. DETERMINATION OF A SCALE OF THE VERTICAL PHOTOGRAPH (PU 2004,2009,2010) IMP (NUMERICAL IMP) The scale of the vertical photograph is the ratio of a distance on the photo to the corresponding distance to the ground. Let N = Perspective centre H= flying height of the camera f = focal length of camera h= height of ground above mean sea level N Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec level Construction : Draw BK perpendicular to NV meeting at K From similar triangles Nvb and NKB, Scale of Photograph ( SA ) = f H- h Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 31. If the terrain is perfectly flat or plane at the mean sea level then , h=0, So, Scale of photograph = f H SCALE OF THE VERTICAL PHOTOGRAPH Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec This shows, the scale of vertical photographs over the flat terrain is the ratio of the photo distance to the ground distance. Note : Relation between Photoscale & Mapscale Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 32. RELIEF DISPLACEMENT (2008,2010,2011) •The scale of an aerial photograph is partly a function of flying height. •Thus, variations in elevation cause variations in scale on aerial photographs. • Specifically, the higher the elevation of an object, the farther the object will be displaced from its actual position away from the principal point of the photograph (the point on the ground surface Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec principal point of the photograph (the point on the ground surface that is directly below the camera lens). •The lower the elevation of an object, the more it will be displaced toward the principal point. This effect, called relief displacement, is illustrated in the diagram below. • Note that the effect increases with distance from the principal point. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 34. •Ground relief is shown in perspective on the photograph due to which every point on the photograph is displaced from their true orthographic position. •This Displacement is called relief displacement. •It is denoted by d. Determine an expression for determining the relief displacement on a vertical photograph (PU 08,10,11,12) relief d Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec relief d Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 35. Determine an expression for determining the relief displacement on a vertical photograph (PU 08,10,11,12) From equations (3) and (4) above, we conclude the following : •Relief displacement increases as the distance from the principal point increases. • Relief displacement decreases with the increase in the flying height. •For point above datum, the relief Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec •For point above datum, the relief displacement is positive being radially outward. •For point below datum (having negative value), reIief displacement is negative, being radially inward. • Relief displacement of the point vertically below the exposure station is zero. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 36. TILT DISPLACEMENT Defined as the difference between the distance of the image of a point on the tilted photograph from the isocentre and the distance of the image of the same point on the photograph from the isocentre if there had been no tilt. An error in the position of a point on the photograph due to indeliberate Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec the photograph due to indeliberate tilting of the aircraft Due to instability of aircraft May be due to tilting of the aircraft along the flight line and/or perpendicular to the flight line Increases radially from the isocenter Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 38. BASIC TERMS USED IN PHOTOGRAMMETRY Tilted Photograph: An aerial photograph taken with a camera having it’s optical axis tilted usually less than 3º from the vertical is known as tilted photograph. Exposure (or air) station (O): The exact position of the front nodal point of the lens in the air at the instant of exposure. Flying height (H): (2009) Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec Flying height (H): (2009) The elevation of the air station above the mean sea level is known as flying height of the aircraft. Nadir Point (Plumb Point): (2009) The point where a plumb line dropped from the front nodal point strikes the photograph Camera Axis : (2006) It is the line passing through the centre of the camera lens perpendicular both to the camera plate (negative) and the picture plane (photography). Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 39. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec TERMS USED IN PHOTOGRAMMETRY Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 40. Fiducial mark – 2006,2007 (Reference mark) A fiducial mark is one of two, three or four marks, located in contact with the photographic emulsion in a camera image plane to provide a reference line or lines for the plate measurement of images. Iso centre (2006) The point in which the bisector of the angle of tilt meets the photographs is known as Isocentre. It lies on the principal line at a distance of f tan t/2 from the principal point. Principal Point The point where a perpendicular dropped from the front nodal point strikes BASIC TERMS USED IN PHOTOGRAMMETRY Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec The point where a perpendicular dropped from the front nodal point strikes the photographs is known as principal point of photograph Focal length – It is the perpendicular distance from the centre of the camera lens to either the picture plane or the camera plate. Tilt : The deviation of a plate from the horizontal plane at the time of exposure is known as tilt. Horizontal Point (h): The point of intersection of the principal line (VIP) and the horizontal line (oh) through the perspective centre O is known as horizontal point. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 42. INTERPRETATIONS THROUGH MAPS AND AERIAL PHOTOS Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,necEr.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 43. INTERPRETATIONS THROUGH MAPS AND AERIAL PHOTOS AERIAL IMAGE - 1957 SATELLITE IMAGE- 1998 Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec AERIAL IMAGE- 1981 PATAN DURBAR SQUARE AREA Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 44. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec IRS1 CPAN1 04052A0_23NOV1996 OF KATHMANDU CORONA1M_KATHMANDU 05FEB 1967 Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 45. PATAN DURBAR SQUARE AREA Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec AERIAL PHOTO 1957 Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 46. Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec AERIAL PHOTO 1981 AERIAL PHOTO 1998 Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec
  • 50. Thank you Best of luck for Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec Best of luck for the Exam Er.PrameshHada,Asst.Professor,nec