Grammar Notebook


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Grammar Notebook

  1. 1.  Qué vs Cuál  Verbos como Gustar Ser: doctorped  Reflexive Verbs Estar: helping › Sentirse Gustar  Modal Verbs Transitions Words  Tú Commands Imperfect › Affirmative › Triggers › Negative › Irregular › Irregulars Acabar de + infinitive  DOP + placement Hace expressions  Preterite Formulas
  2. 2. Example:  What? •¿De que color es los zapatos?  Used when asked for •¿Cuál es tuQué defintions numero de telefono?  Most often used before nouns  Same singular and pural form  Which or What?  Usually used before es and other forms of ser when not seeking aCuál definition  Used to seggest a choice or selection form a group  Singular: Cuál Pural: Cuáles
  3. 3. ossession › ¿De quienes? vents escription › ¿Cyando/donde es?› ¿Qué es? ates rigin › ¿Qué dia es hoy?› ¿De dondé es? haracteristics› ¿Cómo es?ime› ¿Qué hora es? ccupation› ¿Qué hace?elationships› ¿Quien es?
  4. 4. Heath Emotions Location Present Condition¿Como ¿Como ¿Donde estas? estas? esta? ¿Como esta? I ar: ando N ir/er: G ir/er: endo -yendoEstar is used when you are talking about something temporary.
  5. 5. Me gusta Nos gusta You should clarify or make it easier for the reader/listenerTe gusta Os gusta to understand who or what likes the ____, since theLe gusta Les gusta pronouns are not very direct. Place an “a (name or Singular: regular pronoun) + gustar •The singular forms of gustar are used pronoun + gustar. when the object that follows is singular. Examples: Ex. Me gusta el boligrafa A mi me gusta – clarify that I like it. Me gustan Nos gustan A Juan le gusta – clarifying Juan likes it. Te gustan Os gustan Le gustan Les gustan To say you do NOT Plural: like something, you •Use the plural form when the object put a NO before the following gustar is also plural. me,te, le, nos, os, or Ex. Me gustan los bibligrafas. les.
  6. 6. Por la noche in the night  Antes before Primero first  Segund second Entonces then  Igualmente generally Después after  También also Normalmente normally  Una vez once Típicamente tipically  Por la tonto accordingly Cada diás everyday Por la mañana in the morning Por la tarde in the adternoon
  7. 7. Only Regular Imperfect Verbs.AR ER/IR- aba Yo - ía- abas Tú - ías- aba Usted - ía Examples:- ábamos Nostrosos - íamos Todos los días yo hablaba- abais Vostoros - íais Everyday I talk.- aban Ustedes - ían Cuando era una niña, montaba los Uses cabollos. When I was a little › Ongoing past tense action girl, I rode horses. › Repeated action › No definite beginning or end  Like a film not just a single snap shot › Time/date/age/feelings/descriptions
  8. 8.  Have the same uses! 3 irregular verbs are ir, ser, and ver. Ir Ser Ver • iba • era • veía • ibas • eras • veías • iba • era • veía • íbamos • éramos • veíamos • ibais • erais • veíais • iban • eran • veían
  9. 9. todos los a a veces Siempre cada día los lunes días menudo •sometimes •always •everyday •Mondays •everyday •oftengeneralmente mientras De vez en Muchas frecuentemente•generally •while cuando veces •frequently •occasionally •Very often
  10. 10.  Acabar de : to just have finished  Use this formula to say you have just done something, you have just completed an action Conjugate acabar: Yo Acabo de Tú Acabas de › Examples Usted Acaba de  I have just finished Nosotros Acabamos de swimming Ustedes Acaban de  Acabo de nadar.  Acabar conjugated de infinitive
  11. 11.  Hace + time + que + conjugated verb › = have mush time you have spent doing something The conjugated verb can be in any tense Examples › I spent 4 hours working on my Spanish Grammar Book › Hace cuatro horas que trabajo en mi Español Libro Gramática  Hace + time + que + conjugated verb
  12. 12.  Hace + time + que + conjugated verb This formula is used to talk about how much time you have been doing something. Hay + que + infintive This formulas is used to talk about how much time you have been doing something. Se prohibe + infintive This formula is used to talk about what needs to be done or what must de done. It is very impersonal and is directed to no one in particular. Ir + a + infintive This formula tells what someone is going to do. * Remember to conjugate ir and leave what they are going to do in the infinitive.
  13. 13. Pronouns Verbs Me • gusta Gustar • gustan (to like) The singular and plural Te • falta • faltan Faltar (to miss, missing) forms rules apply to these verbs Le • duele • duelen Doler (to hurt, hurts) too. The clarifying rules are also Nos • fascina • fascinan Fascinar (to fasinate) the same. Les • molesta • molestan Molestar (to bully, bother)
  14. 14.  Verbs to do for or to yourself -se stuck on to the end of the verb › Example: Levarse, Peinarse The do-er and reciever of the action are the same. › I wash my face. I am doing the washing but I (my face) is also receiving the washing. Refelxive pronouns: me nos te os se se
  15. 15.  Reflexive verb, reflects on how oneslf feels Stem changer (e – ie) “boot” ¿Cómo te sientes? › Me siento… ¿Cómo se sienten? › Se siente… Me siento Nos sentimos Te sientes Os sentís Se siente Se sienten
  16. 16. ir + a + infinitive (going to do something)poder + infinitive (are able to do something)querer + infinitive (want to do something)deber + infinitive (should do something)* Conjugate and pair the modal verb with an infinitive toget a new meaning.
  17. 17. The o now has an accent because  Conjugate into tú form when you attach a DOP to a affirmative  Simply drop the “s” commands, you have to accent  DOPs can be attached to the endAffrimative the third to last syllable so the › Examples pronunciation says the same  How do you say “Eat the hamburger!”  ¡Come la hamburguesa!  Or you can say ¡Cómelo!  Irregulars: TVDISHES Comer Conjugate to yo form  Conjugate to the yo form  Change the vowel › ar = e er/ir = a ComoNegative  Add a “s” Change vowel er verb =a  DOPs can NOT attach to the end, instead they come after Coma the no but before the verb. Add s › Examples  Don’t eat it  ¡no lo comas! Comas
  18. 18.  Affrimative  Negative Di Decir No digas Haz Hacer No hagas Ir No vayas Ve Pon Poner No pongas Sal Salir No salgas Sé Ser No seas Ten Tener No tengas Ven Venir No vengasDOP + placement rules are the same.
  19. 19. Me Nos te Os Reflexives › A sentence can have both a subject pronoun and reflexive Lo Los  Yo me quito la ropa La Las  El se pone el desodorante.  Subject pronoun reflexive pronoun conjugated reflexive verb … › Infintive Contruction: The pronouns are added to the end of the infintive reflexive verb  You replace the –se with the correct subject-verb agreement pronoun  Voy a afeitarme  Infintive reflexive verbreflexive pronoun. 3 ways to attach DOPs at the end › Infintives  Voy a Comerlo I am going to eat it › Affirmative Commands  ¡Cómelo! Eat it!  The o now has an accent because when you attach a DOP to a affirmative commands, you have to accent the third to last syllable so the pronunciation says the same. › Present Progressive  Estoy comiendolo I will eat it Negative Commands › Pronouns are placed after the no but before the verb in a negative command.  ¡No lo comas! Do not eat it!
  20. 20. Tigger words Endings for Preterite: Ayer yesterday AR ER/IR A noche at night -é Yo -í El año pasado last year - aste Tú - iste La semana passado -ó Usted - ió Last week - amos Nostrosos - imos Ante ayer before yesterday - aran Ustedes - ieron Uses › Simple happened and its over action; a definite time in the past › Has a beginign and or ending › It’s a single snapshot in time › Example • The boy fell and broke his leg. It happened at that single point in time.
  21. 21. FIN