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  1. 1. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Wellness, Fitness & Lifestyle ManagementDefine Key Terms & ConceptsWellness: optimal health and vitality, encompassing the six dimensions of well beingInfectious disease: a disease that spreads person to person created by viruses andbacteriaChronic disease: disease that develops over a long period of timePhysical fitness: physical attributes that allows the body to adept and respond to thedemands placed upon it.Unintentional injury: an injury that occurs without harm being intendedTarget Behavior : an isolated selected as the object of a behavior change programSelf-efficacy: the belief in one ability to take action and perform a specific taskLocus of control: the figurative place a person designates as the source of responsibilityfor the events in his or her lifeStudy Questions1. How is wellness determined?They are determined by the six dimensions of wellness.How does a person go about attaining a high level of physical wellness?Absence of disease, physical exercise, a proper diet,What are some key components of emotional wellness?The ability to deal with ones emotionsWhat role does life-long learning play in intellectual wellness?It encourages people to engage in activities that challenge ones mind.What does spiritual wellness add to ones life?It gives people purpose in life1
  2. 2. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________What part does active participation play in social wellness?It allows one to maintain healthy relationshipsWhat can one people do to improve the health of the planet?Recycle, bike to work/class, walk to placesHow has the cause of death changed in the past 100 years, and how can one persons behavior contribute to their risk of lifestyle diseases?Sanitation vs. obesity and heart disease; exercise more, eat less fatty foods, a morebalanced dietWhat factors contribute to a healthy lifestyle? A. physical activity B. healthy diet C. maintain a healthy body weight D. manage stress E. avoid tobacco and alcohol F. protect against diseaseWhat are some selected Healthy People 2000 goals related to: Safety-protect against disease and injury Fruits & vegetables-choose a healthy diet Being overweight-choose a healthy diet, maintain a healthy body weight Stress-manage stress Cigarette smoking-reduce use of alcohol and cigarette use Heavy drinking-reduce use of alcohol Sexual activity-protect against disease and injury Helmut safety-protect against disease and injury2
  3. 3. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ How should you start a lifestyle change program?Examine your current health habitsWhat are the secrets to lifestyle change? Motivation-knowledge is the key to behavior change Locus of control-Ones ability to manage their own lives and view themselves in controlHow do you decide what behavior you should change?Examine the pros and cons of the behaviorHow should you develop your plan of action? Behavior-One should examine ones behavior and determine if it is good or bad Patterns- determine whether one can control patterns of behavior and how they should be controlled Goals-establish short term as well as long term goals to achieve success Action plan-determine how one should go about achieving goals as well as how to reward success Personal contract-a contract formed to establish when you will start, the steps to measure success, how to promote change, date you will reach your goal.How can you improve your chances of success with your new program? Social influences-surround yourself with people that motivate positive behavior Motivation and commitment-one cannot establish change until motivation is established. Until this motivation is achieved commitment won’t last. Technique and effort-Determine if it is technique holding you back or effort Stress barrier-Determine if it is stress factors rather than commitment thatprevents your success.3
  4. 4. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ Procrastinating, rationalizing, and blaming-eliminate procrastination andbehaviors that encourage it. Don’t make excuses for behavior. Don’t blame others foryour failures in changing behavior.4
  5. 5. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________What are some campus resources for the many wellness domains? Physical-the young center Spiritual-Campus crusades Intellectual-Coffee and politics Social-The dorms Emotional- friends on campus Environmental-the campusWhat are the ten warning signs that you may be well? 1.physical activity 2.friends 3.lack of stress 4.controlled feelings 5.spiritual well being 6.intellection activity 7.positive attitude 8.sanitary environment 9.healthy diet 10.job satisfaction5
  6. 6. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ CHAPTER 2 Basic Principles of Physical FitnessDefine Key Terms & ConceptsPhysical activity: movement carried out by skeletal muscle that requires energyExercise: planned structured movement that is repeated to improve or maintain physicalfitnessHealth-related fitness: physical capacities that contribute to healthCardio respiratory endurance: ability of the body to perform prolonged large muscleexercise at high levels of intensity.Muscular strength: the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single max effortMetabolism: sum of vital processes by which food energy and nutrients are used by thebody.Muscular endurance: ability of a muscle to maintain repeated contraction.Flexibility: The ability to move joints to their full range of motionBody composition: proportion of fat to fat free mass in the bodyFat-free mass: non fat component of the human body, made of skeletal muscle, bone,and waterSkill-related fitness: Physical capability that leads to performance in a sport or activityPhysical training: the performance of different types of activities that cause the body toadapt and improve fitness levelSpecificity: the trainign principle that the body adepts to a given stressProgressive overload: The bodies ability to adapt to progressive stress placed upon itReversibility: The bodies loss of fitness as demands are lowered upon itOvertraining: decreased physical activity brought about through excessive or intensetrainingExercise stress test: a test used to determine if heart disease is presentGXT: exercise that starts of easy and progresses to maximum capacity6
  7. 7. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________Study Questions1. According to your textbook, what is physical fitness?physical capacities of the bodyWhat are the components of health-related fitness and how does each component affect your personal health?Cardio endurance, muscular strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, body composition,3. How does the term "training specificity” apply to training goals?It allows one to focus on a given health component4. What determines how much physical training a personal needs?A self assessment based upon one’s set goals5. How does a person go about choosing activities to engage in for health and fitness?It is determined by ones fitness goals, abilities, and needs; as well as what activites one enjoys6. How much exercise does it take to become physically fit?It is dependent on each individual7. When should a person not exercise?If injured, ill, or physically unable8. What are the limits for physical fitness?They are determined by one ability to avoid being over trained. They are also gradualand should not be expected immediately.7
  8. 8. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________9. How important is workout -time for exercise compliance?It establishes an ability to prevent fitness loss through too much time between exercise10. When is it not safe to begin an exercise program?If one has health complications or extreme heart risks11. What are some things you can do today to get moving?Train the way you want to change your body, train regularly and slowly, establish a plan8
  9. 9. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ CHAPTER 3 Cardiorespiratory EnduranceDefine Key Terms & ConceptsPulmonary circulation: part that moves blood between the heart and lungsSystemic circulation: moves blood between the heart and the rest of the bodyAtria: part of the body that blood collects in before passing ventriclesVenae cavae: large veins that which blood is returnedVentricles: one of the two lower chambers of the heart, from which blood flows thougharteries to the lungs and other parts of the body.Aorta: Receives blood from the left ventricleSystole: Contraction of the heartDiastole: relaxation of the heartVeins: carries blood to the heartArteries: carries blood away from the heartCapillaries: small vessels that distribute blood through the rest of the bodyRespiratory system: lung, air passages, and breathing musclesAlveoli: tiny air sacs in the lung that carry oxygen to the blood and co2 outCardiac output: function of the heart rate and stroke volumeGlucose:a simple ssugar that circulates in the blood, turned to ATPGlycogen: a compley carbohydrate found in the liver and skeletal musclesAdenosine triphosphate (ATP): a cells energy sourceImmediate energy system: supplies energy to muscle cells through breakdown of ATPNonoxidative (anaerobic) energy systems: supplies energy to muscles through thebreakdown of glucose and glycogenAnaerobic: occurs in the absence of oxygenLactic acid: acid resulting from metabolism of glucose9
  10. 10. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________Oxidative (aerobic) energy system: supplies energy to the cells breaking down glucoseAerobic: dependent on the presence of oxygenMitochondria: intercellular structure that turns food to energyMaximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): highest rate of oxygen consumption the body can use in physicalactivityCardiovascular disease (CVD): disease that affect the heart and its processesCoronary heart disease: is a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood andoxygen to the heart.Endorphins: the feel good chemical released during exerciseNeurotransmitters: Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals which transmit signals from aneuron to a target cell across a synapseTarget heart rate zone: The rate of heartbeat that burns fatHeart rate reserve: total ability of the heart to beat at a max rateRatings of perceived exertion (RPE): exercise intensity based on assigning a number tothe subjective perception of target intensitySynovial fluid: fluid found in the synovial joints10
  11. 11. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________Study Questions1. How does the textbook define cardiorespiratory endurance?The ability of the heart to maintain its regular processes2. What are the benefits of regular cardiorespiratory endurance exercise?Increased physical fitness3. How is metabolism affected by regular cardiorespiratory endurance exercise?It runs at a higher rate4. What influence does regular cardiorespiratory endurance exercise have on body composition?It becomes leanerHow is psychological and emotional well being affected by regular cardiorespiratory endurance exercise?Endorphins are released decreasing stress/ increasing happynessWhat factors are important for an activity to be considered cardiorespiratory endurance exercise?Target heart rates and the repeated movement of large muscle groupsWhat are three factors that are important when designing a cardiorespiratory endurance exercise? 1.frequency of training 2.intensity 3.time8. What is the recommended training intensity for cardiorespiratory endurance11
  12. 12. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ exercise and what may happen if you are above or below the recommended training zone?14-15, lack of improvement and injury Why is warm up and cool down important for an exercise program, and what activities are important to include in each?It lowers soreness and prevents injuryWhat treatment is recommended following a minor athletic injury?Rest , ice, compression, elevationWhat is a good score or value for cardiorespiratory fitness?It depends upon the individualWhat would a person do if they can’t exercise for 30 minutes at a HR=150 bpm because the intensity if too great? How can they get the same benefit?Exercise more intensely for a shorter period of timeWhat can you do if your daily schedule does not allow 30 minutes for exercise?Exercise harder for a short period of timeWhat are some lifestyle choices you can make to improve or contribute to your cardiorespiratory fitness?Exercise moreWhat can you do today that will contribute to your overall physical activity that you do not normally do each day? eat better12
  13. 13. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ CHAPTER 4 Muscular Strength and EnduranceDefine Key Terms & ConceptsLigamentTestosterone: a hormon most commonly found in higher proportions by menRepetition maximum (RM): the max amount of reps a muscle can maintainRepetitions: total number of times a resistance can be liftedMuscle fiber: a single muscle cellMyofibrils: protein structuresHypertrophy: an increase in muscle fiber sizeSlow-twitch fibers: fatigue resistant muscleFast-twitch fibers: muscle fibers that contract rapidlyPower: max forceMotor unit: a motor nerveStatic (Isometric) exercise: exercise without a change in muscle lengthDynamic (Isotonic) exercise: exercise with a change in muscle lengthConcentric muscle contraction: muscles get shorter with contractionEccentric muscle contraction: muscles stretch with contractionEccentric loading: loading the muscle as it stretchesPlyometrics: rapid stretching of a muscleSpeed loading: moving a load quicklyIsokinetic: application of forceSpotter: assistant in exerciseAgonista contracted muscle13
  14. 14. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________Antagonist: an subcontracted muscleSet:> a group of repsAnabolic steroids: a drug used to build muscleStudy Questions1. How does increasing your muscular strength and endurance impact your recreational activities? It allows you to lift more with more power, more often2. How does increasing a person’s muscular strength and endurance reduce the incidence of injuries? The muscles can withstand more repetition and load before injury3. How does strength training improve your body composition?Metabolic system burns more4. How is self-image affected by weight training?It improves5. What is muscular strength and how does it differ from muscular endurance?Strength is how much can I lift, endurance is how many times 6. How do muscles increase in size as a result of weight training?It scars and breaks down, then rebuilds 7. How does strength training improve a person’s bone health?It improves bone density and structural muscle perfomance14
  15. 15. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ 8. What role does strength training play in preventing and managing chronic disease? Very little 9. How is muscular strength assessed?How much can you lift, how many times10. What are fast and slow twitch muscle fibers?Fast= fast contracting low enduranceSlow= slow contracting, high endurance11. What are some of the physiological changes and benefits of weight training?Improved body image as well as endorphin production13. What are the pros and cons of exercise machines and free weights?Machines reduce injury but also reduce strength gained through control of the weight.It also improves efficiency of the work out as well as the amount of time needed14. How should you warm up and cool down for weight training?Light weights and moderate rep amounts15
  16. 16. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________15. What exercises should be included in a well-balanced strength-training program forimproving your health?Both upper and lower body exercise, that cover all of the major body groups16. What are some supplements that are often taken to improve a person’s response tostrength training?Ginseng, green tea, insulin, IGF, growth hormone16
  17. 17. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________CHAPTER 6 Body CompositionDefine Key Terms & ConceptsEssential fat: fat needed for regular body processesNonessential (storage) fat: fat not needed for the body’s essential processesAdipose tissue: connective tissue fat is storedPercent body fat: percent of the body that is fat massOverweight: body weight over recommended weightObese: severely overweightAmenorrhea : absent or infrequent menstruationFemale Athlete Triad:abnormal eating, ; lack of menstration, decreased bone densityAmenorrhea: absent or infrequent menstruationBody mass index (BMI):direct measure of body fat versus muscle massCaliper: tool used t determine thicknessStudy Questions1. What is body composition and why is it important?The balance of fat mass and muscle mass in the body2. What is the difference between essential fat and storage fat?Essential fat is the amount needed for daily life, storage fat is excess fat not needed.3. Can a person who has a “normal” weight according to height and weight charts beclassified as overfat?yes17
  18. 18. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________4. How prevalent are over fatness and obesity in the United States?67% are overweight5. What are some possible causes of the rise in obesity over the past 30-40years?Fast food rise, television, computer technology6. What are some of the health concerns for obese and overfat people, and would the incidence of lifestyle disease decrease if everyones body composition were in the recommended range?Risk of heart disease, diabetes, yes7. How does the distribution of body fat on our body impact our health risk?Those with fat distribution on the abdomen have increased heart disease risk8. How does excess body fatness impact physical activity?It makes it more difficult9. What are the health concerns for people whose body compositions are too low?Lack of fat for essential bodily function, organ failure10. What is the body mass index (BMI), and how may it be used?The measure of the bodies fat versus muscle mass, it can determine if some one is overfat, under fat.11. How are skinfold measurements used to predict percent body fat?It uses thickness measurements in certain areas of the body to determine fatcomposition12. How does a persons body fatness correlate to their floating ability and how is UWW used to predict body composition?Fat people float easier because fat is less dense than muscle18
  19. 19. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________13. How does bioelectrical impedance predict body composition?It measures how easily currents of electricity travel through the body, fat is a goodconductor of electricity.19
  20. 20. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________14. How does the Bod Pod predict percent body fatness?It measures body fat through air displacement15. What would be a realistic goal percent body fat for a woman in her 30s?21-3216. What would be a realistic goal percent body fat for a man in his 20s?8-1920
  21. 21. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ CHAPTER 7 Putting Together a Complete Fitness ProgramDefine Key Terms & ConceptsCross training: training that involves all of the major fitness importance such asflexibility, cardio, strength training, etcCalorie cost: how many calories burned in an exerciseInterval training: gradually increased workloads over an extended period of time used toincrease performanceStudy Questions1. What considerations should a person make when setting fitness goals?Fun, skill, fitness level, time, cost, special health needs2. When selecting activities, what is important for creating a successful program?Setting goals and the considerations above3. What is cross training?Exercise programs that involve all of the physical fitness components4. What are the recommendations for maintaining a fitness program?Make a commitment and develop ways to monitor goals5. What purpose does an activity log serve?It shows improvement and gives motivation6. What considerations should be made for a sedentary individual initiating a fitness program with respect to the training intensity?Don’t start to hard, injury and motivation loss will occur21
  22. 22. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________7. How may interval training be used to improve cardiorespiratory fitness?Increase frequency, time, training, and intensity8. What advantage does interval training have for someone initiating a fitness program?It allows improvement rather than maintenance9. What is the relationship between walking speed and calories burned per minute during an exercise session?Intensity increase= more calories burned10. What equipment requirements are there for walking?Good shoes11. How does the total walking distance differ for beginners and advanced walking?Beginners will walk less12. What equipment is essential for cycling safety and comfort?A helmet, reflectors, a good seat, good shoes, and possible pads13. What advantage does swimming offer for someone whom is obese or has joint problems?It decreases joint injury and joint soreness14. What adjustments to a persons target heart rate should be made for a swimming program?It should be decreased15. What are some realistic rewards for reaching your goal?A night out with friends, a movie, etc22
  23. 23. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ CHAPTER 8 NutritionDefine Key Terms & ConceptsNutrition science of food and its use in healthEssential nutrients: susbtances the body needs for day to day, that it can’t make on itsownDigestion: process of breaking down food so the body can absorb itKilocalorie (kcalorie):measure of energy content in foodCalorie:a kilocalorieProtein: a compound made of amino acids that contain C, H, O, and NAmino acids: building blocks of proteinLegumeshigh fiber veggiesMonounsaturated fat: single lined fatsPolyunsaturated fat: multilinked amino acid fatsHydrogenation: hydrogen is added to unsaturated fatTrans fatty acid: fat produced through hydrogenationCholesterol: waxy substance found in blood and cellsLow-density lipoprotein (LDL): blood fat that transports cholesterol to organs and tissueHigh-density lipoprotein (HDL): blood fat that transports cholesterol out of arteriesOmega-3 fatty acids: polyunsaturated fats found in fish, good for the heartCarbohydrate: an essential nutrient; sugarsGlucosea simple sugar needed by the bodyGlycogen: animal starch stored in the liver and musclesWhole grain: the entire edible part of grainGlycemic index: measure of how a food affects blood glugose23
  24. 24. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________Dietary fiber: non digestible carbs and ligninSoluble fiber: fiber that dissolves in waterInsoluble fiber: fiber that does not break down in waterDiverticulitis:Vitamins: organic chemicals that promote and regulate chemical reactionsAntioxidant: a chemical in the body that prevents the destruction caused by free radicalsin the bodyMinerals :inorganic compounds in the body that regulate body tissue and growthAnemia: deficiency in the oxygen carrying red blood cellsOsteoporosis: condition where bones become thin and brittleFree radical: an electron seeking component that reacts with fat and dna, damaging cellmembranes and mutates cells.Phytochemicals: a substance found in plants that helps prevent chronic disease likeheart diseaseCruciferous vegetables: vegetable that belong to the cabbage family, such as cabbageand broccoliDietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): an umbrella term for four nutrient standards: AI, EAR,RDA, and ULFood guide pyramid: a categorization of recommended food groupsDietary Guidelines for Americans: general principles oof good nutrition intended to helpprevent diet diseasesRecommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs): The amount of given food groupsrecommended for good healthDaily values: a simple version of the RDA’s used on food labels; also included arevalues for nutrients with no established RDAVegan: a vegetarian that doesn’t eat animal productsLacto-vegetarian vegetarian that eats milk and cheese24
  25. 25. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________Lacto-ovo-vegetarian: vegetarian that eats egg and milkPartial, semi vegetarian, or pesco-vegetarian: a vegetarian that occasionally eats meat,poultry, egg, milkPathogen: microorganism that causes diseaseFood irradiation: the use of gamma rays, x-rays and high voltage to kill microbes andextend shelf lifeOrganic: food grown without the use of pesticides and growth hormonesStudy Questions1. What impact does diet have on chronic disease?It directly correlates to chronic disease, poor diets high in fat lead to chronic disease2. What are the essential nutrients?Substances needed by the body that it does not produce3. What is the major function of protein and what are the major food sources for this nutrient?It is the building block of tissue, meat, beans, poultry, fish, etc4. What is the major function of fats and what are the major food sources for this nutrient? They are essential for organ function and many of the bodies regular processes. Meat, vegetable oils, milks, etc25
  26. 26. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________5. What is the major function of carbohydrates and what are the major food sources for this nutrient?They are used for the production of glucose and cell ATPHigh grain foods, fruits, vegetables6. What is the health benefit of dietary fiber, and what are the best food sources for this nutrient?Improved digestion as well as skin health, whole grain, leafy vegetables7. How much fiber should you get daily?14 grams8. What is Glycemic index and how can you use Glycemic index to control your blood sugar?How much glucose is in your system, it allows you to avoid foods that contain to muchglucose for a healthy body9. What is the major function of vitamins and what are the major food sources for this nutrient?They aid chemical reactions. Fruits, veggies, grains10. What is the major function of minerals and what are the major food sources for this nutrient?They aid chemical reactions. Fruits and veggies as well as grains11. What is the major function of water and what are the major sources for this nutrient?Metabolic rate control digestion and chem reactions, water12. What is the normal route that foods take during the digestive process and why is26
  27. 27. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ digestion necessary?Down the esophagus, to stomach, through the intestines, where food is absorbed.13. What is a calorie and what is the function of caloric energy?It allows for metabolic energy14. How much energy does each of the six nutrients provide?none15. What does "high-quality" or "complete" protein mean?They supply all of the essential amino acids16. How are fats categorized?Low-density, HDL, Trans fat, saturated, unsaturated17. What does the process of hydrogenation do to liquid oils, and what is the health consequence?They don’t break down in the body properly18. What is the health consequence of limiting fats in the diet?The body cannot properly dissolve some vitamins and nutrients19. How does fiber in the diet contribute to disease prevention, and how does the difference in fiber relate to different lifestyle diseases?It allows the body to better digest food, those on the go I.e. college students often don’teat fiber20. What foods are highest in fiber?Whole grains21. How does the body gain and lose water?Digestion and metabolic ratesingestion27
  28. 28. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ 22. What is the difference between water- and fat-soluble vitamins, and do they have different sources?One is dissolved in water the other in fat; yes23. If your diet is deficit in vitamins and minerals, should you take supplements? When might supplements be needed?Yes, they supply the body with the needed materials24. What are the Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs)?The recommended daily vitamins25. What are the eight general guidelines for Americans concerning their diet? Adequate nutrients within calorie needs Weight management Physical activity Avoid excess alcohol Keep foods safe to eat Control body weight Choose fats wisely Choose low salt foods26. How does the typical American diet differ from what is recommended?To much salt, fat, and portion size27. What dietary concerns should a person considering vegetarianism have?Protein consumption28. How should a person assess and modify their diet?They should evaluate problem areas and realistically work to change them28
  29. 29. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ Chapter 9 Weight ManagementDefine Key Terms & ConceptsOverweight: body weight over recommended weightObesity: extremely overweightResting metabolic rate (RMR): resting calorie consumptionBinge eating: pattern of eating in which normal consumption is interrupted by highconsumption ratesSelf-talk: talking ones self out of an unhealthy behaviorBody image: ones perception of ones own bodyMuscle dysmorphia: an unhealthy predisposition with muscle growthEating disorder: a severely unhealthy eating habitAnorexia nervosa: a condition where people do not eat enough to maintain proper bodyweightBulimia nervosa: a condition in which people binge eat and then throw up the foodPurging :the use of vomiting to control dietBinge-eating disorder: n eating disorder in which binge eating is frequent and a lack ofcontrol existsStudy Questions1. What percentage of adults is predicted to be overweight in 25 years?75%2. Why do most people fail to manage their body weight?Poor body image3. What are some of the health risks of obesity?Increased heart risk, diabetes29
  30. 30. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________What is the estimated annual cost of obesity-related health problems in the U.S.?$75 billion5. What are some factors that contribute to excess body fat?High fat diet, lack of exercise6. What contribution does genetics play in obesity?Some individuals are predisposed to being overweight7. What are the components of metabolism?How quickly the body burns calories8. How much of a role do hormones play in body fat accumulation?Hormones determine where and when fat will be stored9. Is weight cycling or yo-yo dieting dangerous?Yes, it cause severe damage to the organs10. How much of a factor is overeating for overweight individuals in weight gain?It plays a huge role11. What has happened to physical activity levels for the average adult?It has decreased12. How has the American lifestyle changed since the turn of the century, and has this change had an impact on your metabolic rate?We live more sedentary lives and eat more fat foods, yes13. What link has been shown between eating style and obesity?The diet and amount one eats contributes to obesity30
  31. 31. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________14. What dietary concerns are evident relative to portion sizes and effective long-term weight loss?The body cannot metabolize the food fast enough to control weight gain16. How can dietary fat impact weight management?Dietary fat can aid in controlling how the fat is accumulated as well as digested17. What role does carbohydrate play in weight management and a healthy diet?It is essential in muscle energy as well as metabolic rate as such it is essential incontrolling weight management18. What role does physical activity play in weight control?Physical activity allows the body to control calorie metabolic rates and lose weight19. What recommendations are usually made concerning exercise and weight management?Exercise more eat healthier20. Does how you think about yourself impact weight control?Yes, low self esteem often leads to obesity21. What are some potentially dangerous practices concerning fad diets and diet aids? They fail and people give up on diets in general31
  32. 32. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ CHAPTER 10 STRESSDefine Key Terms & ConceptsStressor: a condition that makes a physical or emotional responseStress response: reactions to a stressorStress: responses to stimuli that disrupts an individuals homeostasisAutonomic nervous system: nervous system that controls basic body processesParasympathetic division: nervous system that restores energy suppliesSympathetic division: supplies that reacts to danger or other challengesNorepinephrine: a neurotransmitter released by the nervous system onto specific tissueto increase their function in the face of a difficultyEndocrine system: secretes hormones into the blood system to influence bodily functionHormone: a chemical messenger produced in the body to regulate body activityCortisol: a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal glandEpinephrine:a hormone that controls organ functionNorepinephrine: a hormone that causes arousal and awarenessEndorphins: feel good chemical usually released after exercise, controls painFight-or-flight reaction: the reaction to stress that involves either the body preparing tofight or runHomeostasis: a state of stabilitySomatic nervous system: part of nervous system that controls motor functionGeneral adaptation syndrome (GAS): alarm, resistance, and exhaustionEustress: stress from a pleasant stressorDistress: stress from an unpleasant stressorPsychoneuroimmunology (PNI): study of interactions among the nervous, endocrine,32
  33. 33. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________and immune systemsBurnout: overload of stressRelaxation response: a feeling or warmth and quiet mental alertnessDepression: an overwhelm ing feeling of sadness.Study QuestionsWhat is stress and what causes stress?The bodies response to a challengeWhat occurs during the general adaptation syndrome?People become accustomed to a given stressHow does exposure to low-grade, long-term stress exhaust the human body?It establishes the body at a given level of stress and begins to wear upon an individualWhat are some coping skills that a person may use to alleviate anxiety during a stressful situation?Deep breaths, music, visualizationWhat are some things you enjoy that others may find stressful?Political debatesWhat are some effective and ineffective behavioral responses to stressful situations? Effective IneffectiveDeep breaths angerMusic fearCalming down combining stressorexercise33
  34. 34. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________What are the different personality types and how these personality types tend to influence our response to stressful situations?ABC, it helps to determine how an individual responds to stress.A= angerB= calmc=depressionHow does our gender influence our response to stressful situations?Men are more likely to respond with angerDo past experiences influence our stress responses?yesWhat are common symptoms of “Excess Stress”? Physical Responses Emotional Responses Behavioral ResponsesExhaustion depression, anger, lack of organization, Anger withdrawalWhat is the short and long-term health problems associated with “Allostatic Load” (excess stress)?Short term= exhaustion, negative behavior, relationship damage, etcLong= high blood pressure, heart risk, etc34
  35. 35. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________What is PNI?Self assessed stress levelsHow is the stress response related to cardiovascular disease?It relates to blood pressureWhat influence do “Major Life Changes” have on our health?It aids in controlling stressorsWhat effect do daily hassles have on our health?They create unnecessary stressorsWhat are some common stressors for college students?College homework, friends, family, relationships, workWhat is “burnout” and what are some useful techniques you can use to cope with this?Overload of stress, decreasing the number of stressors re-organizing and planningactivities, time management exercise, nutrition, sleepHow does social support affect the stress response?It decreases itWhat are some counterproductive strategies for coping with stress?Anger, rushing, procrastinating crammingHow is exercise an effective coping mechanism?’It releases endorphins and helps clear the mind of stressors, it works as an escape35
  36. 36. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________How can diet be used to cope with stress? Strategies?Some diets encourage over stimulation such as caffeine, good diets enhance feelings ofcontrolHow does sleep impact stress? Is fatigue a problem for most people? You?Fatigue exhausts you and creates more stress and irritability, yes, yesDoes social support assist with your coping skills?yesWhat is the health impact of not having a good social support network?A lack of venting builds stressHow can communication skills be used to improve your stress response?It allows you to vent your stress and express reasons for stressHow does spirituality influence your stress response?It allows one to look at the bigger pictureHow important is time management for dealing with stressors in our life?Very important, it greatly reduces stress if used properlyWhat are some time management coping strategies for dealing with stress?don’t procrastinate, stay organized, delagate responsibility, avoid time sinksWhat are self-talk issues related to stress?Talking yourself through a problem and finding a good plan of action in dealing withthem36
  37. 37. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________How does “Progressive Relaxation” work to reduce the stress response?It addresses muscle tension and alleviates the tension createdCan visualization be used to enhance performance?Yes it allows one to see the ultimate goal and how to do soIs deep breathing useful in reducing the stress response?Yes it decreases tensionCan music be used to reduce stress?Yes, music can be soothingHow is “Biofeedback” used to cope with stress?Allows one to become more aware of ones level of psychological arousalHow does hypnosis work to cope with stress?It aids in identifying stressors and compressed problemsDoes massage work to improve academic performance?Yes, it decreases muscle tensionWhat are some options that you have outside of the self-help strategies discuss in the book?I spend time with friends and family and make time for myself to relaxWhat is something you can do to reduce your stress level right now in five minutes? Talk to my girlfriend37
  38. 38. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ CHAPTER 11 Cardiovascular HealthDefine Key Terms & ConceptsCardiovascular disease (CVD)= diseases of the heart and blood vesselsHigh-density lipoproteins (HDL)= lipoprotein that has little cholesterolLow-density lipoproteins (LDL)= )= lipoprotein that has lots of cholesterolPlatelets= cell fragments in the blood that are necessary for the formation of blood clotsEnvironmental tobacco smoke (ETS)=second hand smokeHypertension= high blood pressureAtherosclerosisartery walls are thick and irregular because of plaqueLipoproteins= proteins that carry fats and cholesterolGlycemic index (GI)= How much glucose is in your system, it allows you to avoid foodsthat contain to much glucose for a healthy bodyPlaque=a deposit of fatty substance on the artery wallsCoronary heart disease (CHD)= heart disease cause by plaqueHeart attack= damage or death to heart muscle resulting from failure by the arteries tdeliver blood to the heartAngina pectoris= a condition where the heart does not receive enough bloodArrhythmia= a change in normal heart beatSudden cardiac death= sudden death of heart musclesStroke= a condition caused when plaque prevents the heart from delivering blood to thebrainCongestive heart failure: blood backs up into the veins causing fluid to build up in thelungs38
  39. 39. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________Study QuestionsHow much control does an individual have over their CVD risk?People can control their diet and exercise, thus greaty decreasing the riskWhat are the major risk factors for CVD that can be modified?Obesity, alcohol and drugs, triglyceride levels, fat intakeWhat are the Cholesterol guidelines?The recommended amount of cholesterol consumed dailyWhat are the contributing risk factors for CVD that can be modified?Obesity, alcohol and drugs, triglyceride levels, fat intakeWhat are the risk factors that cannot be modified?Age, heredity, gender, ethnicityAt what age is your greatest risk of a new or recurrent heart attack?65What are some possible risk factors for CVD that are being identified?Obesity, aging., heredity, weight displacement, ethnicity, alcohol, drugsWhat is considered high blood pressure?130/85What causes hypertension?Heart blockage, lack of blood reaching the heart, high stressHow does hypertension affect heart health?It damages artery walls39
  40. 40. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________What is atherosclerosis?Artery walls become thick with plaqueShould symptoms of a heart attack be ignored, and treated as something that will pass?noWhat is something that almost everyone has in their home to treat the symptoms of a heart attack if immediate medical care is not available?aspirinHow does a stroke differ from an MI?Cant find look up laterWhat are some things that you can do more of to reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease?Exercise more, eat less fatty foods, control blood pressureWhat are some things that you should do less of to reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease?I need to eat less fast food40
  41. 41. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________Why should you decrease your dietary fat intake?Eat less fast foodWhat does a diet high in fiber do to reduce your CVD risk?It better digests foods and controls cholesterolIs alcohol beneficial to your heart health?yesWhat is healthy about alcohol, and when does alcohol become a health risk?It can alleviate stress if not abused, when its abusedWhat is DASH? 1.exercise regularly 2.avoid tobacco 3.manage blood pressure 4.know cholesterol levels 5.handle stress right 7.keep foods safe 8.Is regular exercise beneficial to heart health?yesWhat influence does tobacco use have on heart disease?It decreases oxygen to the heart and increases blood pressureWhat are some things you can do today to reduce your CVD risk?Exercise more, eat less fast foodWhat are some Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes you can make to reduce your cholesterol? eat less fast food41
  42. 42. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ CHAPTER 12 CancerDefine Key Terms & ConceptsCancer: abnormal cell growthMalignant tumor: cancer that spreadsBenign tumor: a tumor that is not cancerousLymphatic system: system of vessels that returns fluid and protein to the circulatorysystemMetastasis: spread of cancer cellsCarcinogen: substances that cause cancerMammogram: a low dose x-ray of the breast used to check for cancerUltrasonography: ultrasound is used to create an image of inside the bodyBiopsy: removal and examination of tissuePSA blood test: a test used to determine prostate cancer based on blood level antigensPap test:a scraping of cervical cells to check for cancerUltraviolet (UV) radiation: light emitted by the sunBasal cell carcinoma: cancer in the deepest layer of skinSquamous cell carcinoma cancer on the surface area of skinMelanoma: skin tumor that comes from pigment cellsChromosomes: threadlike bodies in a cell nucleus contain DNADNA: chemical substance that contains genetic informationGene:basic unit of heredityOncogene: a gene that turns normal cells into cancer cellsCarotenoids:: the livers process of turning yellow and red plants pigments into vitaminA.Antioxidant: chemical processes that prevent free radicals42
  43. 43. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________Free radicals: an electron seeking component that reacts with fat and dna, damagingcell membranes and mutates cellsPhytochemicals: a naturally occurring chemical found in plants that helps reduce cancerrates and heart diseaseStudy QuestionsWhat is cancer?Abnormal cell growthIs all cancer malignant?noWhat are the leading risk factors for cancer?Tobacco use, dietary factors, obesityHow many people in the United States will be affected by cancer?1.5 million a yearWhat is thought to be the link to the rise in lung cancer in women?Tobacco useWhat is the chief risk factor for lung cancer?Tobacco useHow much does family history or genetics impact colon cancer?It has a substantial impactWhat lifestyle choices adversely impact colon caner?Obesity and high saturated fat dietsWhat lifestyle choices have a positive impact on colon cancer?High fiber diets and exercise, as well as high veggie and fruit diets43
  44. 44. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________How many women will develop breast cancer?192,370 a yearWhy is breast cancer called a "disease of civilization"?Couldn’t find the answerWhat is the three-part program for early detection in breast cancer as recommended by the American Cancer Society?Mammograms, clinical breast exams, self breast examHow common is prostate cancer in men and what are the risk factors for this type of cancer?192,680. Heredity, age, poor dietHow does age affect the incidence of uterine and cervical cancer?It increases as age does most specially after 65What preventative steps can women make to reduce the likelihood that they will face cervical cancer?Get vaccinated for HPVWhat precautions should a person take to decrease their risk of skin cancer?Wear sunscreen, don’t tan in bedsWhat signs should a person look for when assessing a mole and possible cancerous changes?Does it differ in color uniformity, does it have irregular edges, doesit grow in sizeWhat is the primary risk factor for oral cancers and what role does alcohol play in the incidence of these cancers?It is difficult to cure and alcohol use increases the risk of oral cancerWhat influence does genetics have on cancer and how does genetics compare to environmental hazards in terms of cancer risk?44
  45. 45. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________Genetics plays an important role, however environmental factors are far moredangerousWhat role do cancer promoters play in the cancer puzzle?I couldn’t find this answerWhat dietary concerns are evident for cancer risk?Diets high in saturated fat as well as low in fiber. Same with diets high in red meats.What role does alcohol play in cancer risk?Alcohol use increases oral cancer risks by 15 timesHow does dietary fiber impact cancer risk?It greatly decreases the chance of cancerDo eating fruits and vegetables reduce your cancer risk? Why?Yes, many fruits and vegetables aid in controlling free-radicals as such cancer riskdecreasesWhat are some helpful strategies to increase our fruit and vegetable consumption and hopefully reduce our cancer risk?Buy more, eat more, incorporate them into more mealsWhat impact does exercise and body fatness play in cancer risk?Exercise decreases cancer risk, whereas body fat levels increase the risk45
  46. 46. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________How do ingested chemicals that are used to preserve foods increase our risk of cancer? They often contain chemicles that damage cell structure and encourage cell mutationsAre environmental chemicals and our exposure to them responsible for a majority of cancer cases?No, but they greatly increase the riskWhat are some common forms of radiation that we should avoid if possible?U.V., X-rays, microwavesCan bacteria and viruses contribute to cancer risk?yesWhat are five steps you can do to lower your risk of developing cancer? 1.exercise more 2.avoid U.V rays less fatty foods more fruits and vegetables 5.stay tobacco freeWhat are the seven warning signs of cancer? CHANGES IN BLADDER OR BOWEL MOVEMENT SORE DOES NOT HEAL UNUSUAL BLEEDING OR DISCHARGE LUMP IN BREAST DIFFICULTY SWALLOWING CHANGES IN WORT OR MOLE HOARSENESS46
  47. 47. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ What are some positive steps your authors suggest you can do today? Exercise more, eat a better diet, avoid tobacco, avoid alcohol abuse, avoid fried foods What are the screening guidelines for early detection of cancer in asymptomatic (healthy) people?Site RecommendationBreast Self screenings, mammogram, clinical examsColon/Rectum Watch for bowel changes or bleedingProstate Prostate exams, DREUterus Pelvic examCancer-related Clinical exams and blood testscheck-up When should testicular self-examination (TSE) be conducted, and by whom? After a warm shower or bath , the individual When should breast self-examination (BSE) be conducted, and by whom? 47
  48. 48. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________When breasts are not swollen, by the individual48
  49. 49. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ CHAPTER 13 Substance Use and AbuseDefine Key Terms & ConceptsDrug: a chemical intended to affect the functions of the bodyPsychoactive drug: drugs that affect the consciousnessIntoxication: state of being affected by a chemicalAddictive behavior: behaviors if addiction that have gotten out of controlSubstance abuse: a maladaptive pattern of using a substance that persists despiteadverse social, medical, consequences.Physical dependence: Tolerance and withdrawal associated with a drugSubstance dependence: the reliance upon a given drug, without the ability for theabuser to control addiction or function without experiencing withdrawalTolerance: lower sensitivity to a drugWithdrawal: physical and mental symptoms if a drug is interrupted.Ethyl alcohol: the intoxicating element in fermented liquidBlood alcohol concentration (BAC):The amount of alcohol in the blood systemCirrhosis of the liver: liver is damaged by toxins or infectionFetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)birth defect caused by excessive alcohol use duringpregnancy; associated with facial deformities, mental impureness, and heart defectsAlcohol abuse: the use of alcohol that causes physical damage, impairs function, andresults in negative behaviorAlcohol dependence: the inability to function due to alcohol abuseAlcoholism: a characteristic of excessive compulsive drinkingBinge drinking: periodic drinking to the point of severe intoxicationDTs (delirium tremens): state of confusion brought about as an alcoholic is givenreduced alcohol intakeNicotine: a poisonous addictive substance found in tobacco49
  50. 50. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS): second hand smokeMainstream smoke: smoke inhaled and exhaled by a smokerSide stream smoke: smoke brought about by the end of a cigaretteEctopic pregnancy: pregnancy that occurs in the fallopian tubeStudy Questions1. What is considered a drug? Any chemical that changes the structure of the body2. What is addiction? Dependency on a drug3. What are some examples of addictive behaviors?Withdrawal from normal activities, compulsive behavior, failure to uphold responsibility4. Why do people use drugs?To escape from stress, social judgment, etc5. What are some warning signs of drug dependency?Tolerance, withdrawal, large amounts of the drug taken, desire to cut down on use,6. What are alternatives to drugs?Exercise, social participation, natural highs7. What risks are involved in using drugs during college?Failing classes, illegal activity, failure in responsibility, loss of friends50
  51. 51. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________8. What affect does ethyl alcohol have on the human body?It enters the metabolism and suppresses pain receptors throughout the body. It alsoinduces relaxation9. What are the health consequences of alcohol abuse?Liver damage, brain damage, organ poisoning10. What is considered alcohol abuse?A reliance or dependency on alcohol, drinking more than 2 beers a day for men, 1 forwomen11. How can binge drinking impact your life as a college student?Failing classes, illegal activity, failure in responsibility, loss of friends11. What can a person do to drink responsibly?Find a DD, limit access and amounts drank, do it legaly12. To whom is tobacco hazardous?Everyone in contact with the smoke13. How addicting is nicotine?Very addictive14. What are the health hazards of tobacco use?It increases lung cancer as well as other cancer risks, heart disease, decreases oxygenavailability15. What bodily changes occur when a person quits smoking?51
  52. 52. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________Increased lung function, blood pressure drops, circulation improves, pulse rates drop 16. What are the health consequences of environmental tobacco smoke?The same as actual use 17. What options are available for someone that desires quitting tobacco?Patches, cold turkey, counseling, peer support 18. What are some things you can do today to take charge of your life and sever your dependence on nicotine?I don’t have a dependency, so it does not apply52
  53. 53. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ CHAPTER 14 Sexually Transmitted DiseasesDefine Key Terms & ConceptsAcquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): a fatal incurable STDSexually transmitted disease (STD): a diease incurred through sexual contactHIV infectionHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Virus that causes HIV and AIDSCD4 T cell: the primary white blood cell target suppressed by AIDSHemophilia: a disease where the blood doesn’t clotHIV-positive: someone infected with IIVChlamydia: an STD transmitted by Chlaymdia trachomatisGonorrhea: Neisseria gonorrhoeaePelvic inflammatory disease (PID): an infectious disease that has infected the vagina,cervics, uteris, and pelvic cavityLaparoscopya method for examining the internal organs using a small tube and lightGenital warts: std with growth on the genitaksHuman papillomavirus (HPV): std that causes genital wartsGenital herpes: infection caused by the herpes simplex virusHepatitis: inflammation if the liver caused by drugs, infection, or toxins often causedthrough STD’sJaundice: A symptom of hepatitis associated with hepatitis, yellowing of gums and manyskin membranesSyphilis: std caused by Treponema pallodumChancre: sore caused by syphilis53
  54. 54. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________Study Questions 1. Why have STDs increased over the last few years?People have increased the rate of unprotected sex 2. Why is HIV such a challenge to health officials and the public?It often goes unnoticed for years 3. How is HIV transmitted?Sexually, through blood to blood contact 4. What can a person do to protect himself or herself from HIV?Use condoms 5. What physical symptoms are associated with HIV?Prolonged illness, flu like symptoms, swollen lymph nodes 6. What are the treatment options for someone with HIV?Its incurable 7. Who is at greatest risk for HIV?Heterosexuals 8. How prevalent is Chlamydia, and why is it so harmful?1 million new cases a year, it can caused infertility 9. What are the signs of Chlamydia?Painful urination and discharge from penis, pain or bleeding during sex 10. How is Chlamydia diagnosed and treated? A lab exam of the fluid from the genitals, antibiotics such as Doxycycline 11. Who is at greatest risk for gonorrhea?54
  55. 55. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________15-24 year olds 12. What are the physical signs of gonorrhea?Yellowish discharge, painful urination 13. How is gonorrhea diagnosed and treated?Gram stain, samples of urine.Cephalosporins used 14. What is the relationship between gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and PID?They are bacterial 15. What is PID?Pelvic inflammatory disease 16. What are the symptoms of PID?Pelvis scaring, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting 17. What impact does PID have on fertility?It can cause infertility 18. How is PID diagnosed and treated?Laparoscopy can be used as well as visual exams.Antibiotics are used 19. What is HPV?Human Pamplona virus 20. What are the symptoms of HPV?Genital warts 21. How is HPV diagnosed and treated? Appearance of the legions55
  56. 56. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ Freeze/burn off, no cure56
  57. 57. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ What is Genital Herpes?An std associated with skin lesions 23. What are the symptoms of Genital Herpes?Painful skin lesions 24. How is Genital Herpes diagnosed and treatedSample of fluid from the warts are tested,No cure drugs can be taken to control outbreaks, antiviral drugs 25. What is hepatitis?inflammation if the liver caused by drugs, infection, or toxins often caused throughSTD’s 26. What are the physical signs of hepatitis?Nausea, flu like symptoms, dark colored urine 27. How is hepatitis diagnosed and treated?Blood tests, no cure but vaccines exist 28. What is Syphilis?std caused by Treponema pallodum 29. What are the signs and symptoms of syphilis?Chancre occurs early on, and then a mild flu like symptoms, skin rash, then latersymptoms include blindness, mental dementia, organ failure 30. How is syphilis diagnosed and treated?Examination of infected tissue and blood tests, antibiotics 31. What are the three different stages of syphilis? 1st= chancre57
  58. 58. Wellness Study Guide Name__matt laidlaw____________ 2nd= flu like symptoms, skin rash 3rd or late= dementia, organ damage, blindness, death58