Grammar book

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Grammar book

  1. 1. Grammar Book Estrella Gerber
  2. 2. Table of Contents1. Nationalities2. Stem Change3. Para4. IOP5. Pronoun Placement6. Gustar7. Affirmative & Negative Word8. Superlativos9. Reflexivos10. Affirmative tu commands11. Negative tu commands12. Sequencing Events13. Preterits14. Trigger words for preterits15. -car, -gar, -zar16. Deber + Infinitive17. Modal Verbs18. Present Progressives19. Adverbs
  3. 3. Nationalities• Guineana Salvadorena• Peruana Estadounidense• Costarricense Hondurena• Paraguaya Norteamericana• Venezolana Guatemalteca• Uruguay Colombiana• Panamena Nicaraguense• Dominicana Argentina• Espanola Ecuatoriana• Cubana Mexicana• boliviana
  4. 4. Stem-Changers Dormir (o > ue) Preferir (e> ie)yo duermo Nosotros dormimos yo prefiero Nosotros preferimosTu duermes Tu prefieresEl/ella/ud. Ellos/ellas/uds. El/ella/ud. Ellos/ellas/uds.duerme duermen prefiere prefieren Jugar ( u > ue) Pedir (e >i)yo juego Nosotros jugamos yo pido Nosotros pedimosTu juegas Tu pidesEl/ella/ud. Ellos/ellas/uds. El/ella/ud. Ellos/ellas/uds.juega juagan pide piden
  5. 5. Para• Use para to indicate: - Recipient of items: Compro un regalo para mi mama. - Purpose: Vamos al café para comer. - Implied purpose: Tengo dinero para (comprar) algo.
  6. 6. Indirect Object PlacementIndirect object pronouns me nos are given to represent who the action is to. – I gave money to her. Indirect object pronouns te are different for who is receiving the action and are placed before the verb. le les
  7. 7. Object Pronoun Placement• 1. Attach the pronoun to the infinitive.• 2. Attach the pronoun to a progressive• 3. Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command• 4. Place the pronoun before the conjugated verb
  8. 8. Gustar Me: gusta Nos: gusta• Gustar means to like. However, instead of or gustan or gustan conjugating gustar as you would a usual verb, it stays the same in all Te: gusta forms. It changes or gustan between gusta and gustan depending on how many objects a person Le: gusta Les: gusta likes. or gustan or gustan
  9. 9. Affirmatives and NegativesAlgo Something Nada NothingAlguien Someone Nadie No oneAlguno/a Some Ninguno/a None, not anyTambién Also Tampoco Either, neither
  10. 10. Superlatives• Added to adjectives and adverbs. It is the same as saying very or extremely.• Example: Malo becomes malismo or muchas becomes muchismas.• Adjectives and adverbs ending in c, g, or z change to qu, gu, and c.• Example: rico becomes riquisimo, larga becomes larguiisima, and feliz becomes felicisimo.• Adjectives and adverbs ending in n or r, add cisimo.• Example: joven becomes jovencisimo.
  11. 11. Reflexives• Reflexive pronouns are used with reflexive verbs to indicate Me: To me Nos: To us that the subject of the sentence receives the action of the verb.• Many verbs can be used with or without reflexive pronouns. Te: To you Without a reflexive pronoun, the person doing the action does not receive the action.• When you use the infinitive form of a reflexive verb after a Le: To him Les: To conjugated verb, you have to use the correct reflexive or To her them prounoun.
  12. 12. Affirmative Tu Commands• In affirmative decir di commands, put the hacer haz verb in it’s tu form and ir ve then drop the “s.”• Example: caminar becomes iCamina! poner pon salir sal ser se tener ten vener ven
  13. 13. Negative tu commands tener No tengas• 1. Put the verb in it’s vener No vengas yo form dar/decir No des/digas• 2. Change the vowel (ar > e; er, ir > a) ir No voyas• 3. Add an “s.” ser No seasExample: hablar > hablo > iNo hables! hacer No hagas estar No estés saber No sepas, salgas
  14. 14. Sequencing Eventsprimero Entonces Luego/des Por fin Antes de/ Por la Los lunes, pues despues manana/ etc. de tarde/ nocheFirst Then Later/after Finally Before/afte In/during On r the (no mondays specific time given
  15. 15. Preterits AR ER/IR-é -amos -í -imosHablé Hablamos Comí comimos-aste -isteHablaste comiste-Ó -aron -ió -ironHabló Hablaron comió Comiron
  16. 16. Trigger words for preterits• Ya• Una vez• A las• Ocho• Dos veces• Un día• Anteayer• A noche• El cinco de “ “• Por fin• Ayer• El mes pesado• Hace un ano
  17. 17. -car, -gar, -zarJugar Tocar comenzarjugué toqué comencéjugaste tocaste comenzastejugó tocó comenzójugamos tocamos comenzamosjugaron tocaron comenzaron
  18. 18. • Deber means should Debo Debemos or ought to.• You put deber in front of an infinitive without debes changing the form of the infinitive, only deber. debe deben
  19. 19. Modal Verbs• When verbs are used deber Should, in modal verb form, ought to only the first verb is desear To desire conjugated. Soler Usually, used to saber To know Querer To want Poder Can, could Necesitar To need
  20. 20. Present Progressives• When you use a present progressive, you use the word Verb: Irregular estar, followed by a gerand (- ando or iendo). Present• If you use a pronoun with the Participle: present progressive, you can put it before the conjugated Leer Leyendo estar, or attached to the present participle. Traer Traendo• Some verbs have irregular present participle forms. Pedir Pidiendo• When the stem of an –er or –ir verb ends in a vowel, change Servir Sirviendo the –iendo to –yendo. Decir Diciendo Dormir Viniendo
  21. 21. Adverbs cuidadosamente especialmente• To describe how fácilmente something is done, use adverbs. felízmente• When an adjective ends in z, e, or l, just add – frecuentemente mente to the end. If it ends in o, change the o to lentamente an a. normalmente• If two adverbs are used, only add the mente to the rápidamente second one. recientementeKEEP ACCENTS! tranquilamente
  22. 22. Irregular AdverbsMuy- very Tan – so Mal – badMucho – a lot Peer – worse Siempre – alwaysNunca – never Ya – already Bastante – quiteDesiado – too Poco – little Bien - good

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