Grammar book sp2h Elyse

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Grammar book sp2h Elyse

  1. 1. By: Elena Anderson
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS1. Nationalities2. Stem- changers3. Use of Para4. IOP5. Object Pronoun Placement6. Gustar7. Affirmatives & Negatives8. Superlatives9. Reflexives10. Affirmative tú commands/irregulars/pronoun placement11. Negative tú commands/irregulars/pronoun placement12. Sequencing Events13. Preterite14. Trigger words15. -car, -gar, -zar16. Deber + infinitive17. Modal verbs18. Present progressives19. Adverbs
  3. 3. STEM-CHANGERS Yo Tú El,ella,ud Nosotros Ellos,ellas,uds Dormir . • duermo • Duermes • Duerme • Dormemos • duermen oue Yo Tú El,ella,ud Nosotros Ellos,ellas, uds. Pedir • Pido • Pides • Pide • Pedemos • piden ei Yo Tú El,ella,ud Nosotros Ellos,ellas,uds . Pensare • pienso • Pienses • Piense • Pensemos • piensen eie Yo Tú El,ella,ud Nosotros Ellos,ellas Jugar • Juego • Juega • Jugamos .uds • Juegas • juegan uue
  4. 4. PARA  Indicates the recipients of an item  Compro el regalo para tú mama  Indicates an implied purpose  Tengo dinero para(comprar) algo  Indicates a purpose  Vamos al resturante para comer
  5. 5. IOP  To whom, for whom  Indirect object pronouns replace or accompany indirect objects.  IOP = 3 places  Before conjucated verb  Attatch to an infinative  Attatch to a gerund  “ing”  Ex. Carlos acaba de vender le una revista a Rose  O: Carlos le acaba de vender una revista RoseSingular PluralMe NosTe OsLe Les
  6. 6. OBJECT PRONOUN PLACEMENT1. Attach the pronoun to the infinitive2. Attach the pronoun to a progressive tense3. Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command4. Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb
  7. 7. GUSTAR (Like/please) Use gusta before a singular noun. Gusta is always singular with infinitives. Gustan used before a plural noun. Me Me gusta gustan Te gusta Te gustan Le gusta Le gustan Nos gusta Nos gustan Os gusta Os gustan Les gusta Les gustan Gustar (singular) Gustar (plural)
  8. 8. AFFIRMATIVES & NEGATIVES  When you want to talk about an indefinite or negative situation, you use an affirmative or a negative word Affirmative Words Negative Words Algo something Nada nothing Alguien someone Nadie no one Algun/alguno(a) same Ningun/ninguno(a) none, not any Siempre always Nunca never Tambien also Tampoco none, either Notice that alguno(a) and ninguno(a) must match the gender of the noun they replace or modify. Alguno and ninguno have different forms when used before masculine singular nouns • Algunoalgun ninguno nungun If a verb is preceded by no, words that follow must be a negative. A double negative is required in Spanish when no precedes the verb.  No quiero nada However, if a negative word, such as nunca or nadie, comes before the verb, a second negative is not needed  Nadie quiere postre.
  9. 9. SUPERLATIVES  The suffix –isimo, -isimos, -isima, and –ismas are added to an adjective or adverb  Is equivalent to extremely or very before an adjective or adverb.  Malo>malisimo  Muchas>muchisimas  Dificil>difilismo  Adjective and adverb ending in c, g, z change spelling to qi, gu, and c respectively  Rico>riquismo  Larga>larguisima  Feliz>felicismo  Adjective that ends in –n or-r form by adding – cisimo(a)  Joven>jovencismo  Trabajador>trabajadorcismo
  10. 10. REFLEXIVES Me When you use the infinitive  To describe people form of a reflexive verb after a Te doing things for conjugated, be sure to use themselves, use reflexive verbs. correct reflexive pronoun Reflexive  Reflexive pronouns Se are used with Pronouns reflexive verbs to indicate that the Quiero levantar me temprano. subject of the Nos I want to get up early sentence receives the action of the verb Se You can also put the oMany verbs can be used with or without reflexive pronoun in front reflexive pronouns. When there is no reflexive of the conjugated verb pronoun, the person doing the action does not receive the action. Reflexive Not reflexive Me quiero levantar temprano.Pepa se lava Pepa lava el carro• Pepa washes •Pepa washes theherself car
  11. 11. AFFIRMATIVE TÚ COMMANDS/IRREGULARS/PRONOUN PLACEMENT Give instructions or commands to someone by using the Affirmative tú commands of regular verbs. Notice it is a tú command, but ends like a 3rd house form.caminar ¡Camina! ¡Camina en el parque!comer ¡come! ¡Come toda la hamburguesaabrir ¡abre! ¡Abre la puerta, quiero entrar! Irregular Affirmative Tú Commands • Tu commandsInfinitive Affirmative tu • Affirmative drop the “s” commands Pronoun PlacementDecir di 1. Affirmativehacer haz 2. Gerundir ve 3. Before conjugated verbponer pon 4. Affirmativesalir sal commandser se •When using an object pronoun, attach theTener Ten pronoun to the end of the command.venir ven •Cruzalo
  12. 12. NEGATIVE TÚ COMMANDS/IRREGULARS/PRONOUN PLACEMENT oPronoun Placement  Negative tú commands oAffirmative 1. Put in yo form oGerund oBefore conjugated verb 2. Change the vowel 1. ar  e er,ir a oAffirmative command oEx. 3. Add “s” oComela no la comas oTocala no la toques oCantala cantamelaNegative Irregular CommandsDar/decir No Des/digasIr No VayasSer No SeasHacer No HagasEstar No EstesSaber No Sepas/sagalasTener No TengasVenir No vengas
  13. 13. SEQUENCING OF EVENTSPrimero Entonces Luego/despues Por finFirst then Before/ after finallyAntes de/ despues de Los lunes, etc..Before / after Monday Por la manana/ tarde/ noche In/ during the… (No specific time) Sequencing event help arrange events from when they take place
  14. 14. = PRETERITE Past tenseYo é íTú aste isteÉl/ ella ó ió • PerfectedNosotros amos isteis action inEllos aron ieron the past • Snapshot Esto Es • beginning and/or ending El Pretérito
  15. 15. TRIGGER WORDS Preterito  trigger words from preterito  Un dia  Una vez  Ayer  A noche  Hace un año  Ya  El mes pasado  Anteayer  Por una hora  Por fin  A las nocho  El cinco de febero
  16. 16. -CAR, -GAR, -ZAR Tocar Jugar ComenzarOnly in toqué jugué comencéYo Tocaste Jugaste Comenzaste Tocó Jugó Comenzó Tocamos Jugamos Comenzamos Tocaron Jugaron Comenzaron
  17. 17. DEBER + INFINITIVE Remember you can put a pronoun in front of a conjugated verb or  The verb deber means should attach it to an infinitive or ought to. To say what people should do, use a conjugated form of deber eith the infinitive Por que te debo ayudar? of another verb.  Debo barrer el suelo. En vez de sacar fotos, debes ayudarme  Debes limpiar la cocina  Debe sacar la basuraDeber Should/ ought toDebo DebemosDebes DebeisDebe Deben
  18. 18. MODAL VERBS When verbs are used in model verb combinations, the 2nd verb is not conjugated, but rather left in the infinitive form. You never want to say “no puedo nado” Deber Should, ought to Desea To desire Necesitar To need Poder Can, could, might, be able to Querer Want, would like Saber Know, know how to Soler Usually, used to
  19. 19. PRESENT PROGRESSIVES Some verbs you know have irregular present participle forms  When the stem of an –er or –ir verb ends in a vowel, change the – iendo to –yendo to form the present participle  E  I stem-changing verbs have a vowel change in the stem  Some other verbs also have a vowel change in the stem Verb Irregular Present Participle Leer Leyendo Oir Oyendo Traer Trayendo Pedir Pidiendo Servir Sirviendo Decir Diciendo Dormir Durmiendo Venir Viniendo
  20. 20. ADVERBS For adjectives with o or  To describe how a endings, add -mente to the feminine form something is done, use adverbs. Many adverbs in Adjective Adverb Spanish are made by Cuidadoso Cuidadosamente changing an existing Rapido Rapidamente adjective. Lento Lentamente  ly= mente Tranquilo Tranquilamente Adjective Adverb Reciente Recientemente When you use 2 adverbs, drop Frecuente Frequentemente the –mente to the first one Facil Facilmente Lenta y tranquilamente Normal Normalmente Especial EspecialmenteWhen an adjective ends in e, I, or z,simply add –mente to the end

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