Grammar Book Amelia Sanders
Table Of Contents1.    Nationalities2.    Stem changers3.    Para4.    IOP5.    Pronoun placement6.    Gustar7.    Affirmi...
Nationalities
Stem Changers Almorzar     O>UE          Pedir      E>IAlmuezo     Almorzamos   Pido       PedimosAlmuezas    Almorzaís   ...
Para                           Para means “for”•   Indicates the recipients of an item•   Indicates a purpose•   Indicates...
IOPMe/Nos   Tú/Vos   Le/Les
Pronoun Placement1. Attach the pronoun to the infinitive2. Attach the pronoun to a progressive tense3. Attach the pronoun ...
Gustarlike”                                Gustar means “to                        me    gusta         nos   gusta        ...
Affirmative and Negative Words         Affirmative                                  Negative•    Algo – something         ...
Superlatives•    Isimo/isimos     isima/isimas•    Suffixes added to adjectives/adverbs•    Equal to extremely/very before...
Reflexives•Used to describe people doing things for themselves•Example: washing yourself, combing your hair.•Reflexive pro...
Affirmitive Tú Commands • To give instructions or   commandsCaminar      Camina        Camina en el parque       Irregular...
Negative Tú Commands•Used when telling someone what NOT to do.•Formed by taking the the you form of thepresent tense, drop...
Sequencing Events•   Primero - first•   Entonces – then•   Luego/después – later/after•   Por fin – done•   Antes de/despu...
Deber + infinitive        -should/ought to        -Debo estudiar más.Debo                  DebemosDebesDebe               ...
Preterits               Ar         Er/IrYo            -e           -iTu            -aste        -isteEl/Ella       -o     ...
Trigger WordsEnglish                Spanish         english             spanishone day                un dia          whil...
-Car, -Gar, -Zar   Tocar        Jugar         ComenzarToque        Jugue            ComenceTocaste      Jugaste          C...
Modal Verbs•Two verbs that are paired together•The first one is conjugated•The second is left in its infinitive form•Examp...
Present Progressives•Verbs that, in English, would end in –ing•To conjugate:     1. Conjugate the verb “estar” to match th...
Adverbs•Adverbs are used to describe how something is done     •Example: sadly, slowly, calmly, etc.•The suffix -ly we use...
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Grammar book

  1. 1. Grammar Book Amelia Sanders
  2. 2. Table Of Contents1. Nationalities2. Stem changers3. Para4. IOP5. Pronoun placement6. Gustar7. Affirmitive and negative words8. Superlatives9. Reflexives10. Affirmative commands and irregulars11. Negative commands and irregulars12. Sequencing events
  3. 3. Nationalities
  4. 4. Stem Changers Almorzar O>UE Pedir E>IAlmuezo Almorzamos Pido PedimosAlmuezas Almorzaís Pides PedísAlmueza Almuerzan Pide Piden Pensar E>IE Jugar U>UEPienso Penamos Juego JugamosPiensas Penaís Juegas Jugaíspiensa Pienan Juega Juegan
  5. 5. Para Para means “for”• Indicates the recipients of an item• Indicates a purpose• Indicates an implied purpose• Used with an infinitive to mean “in order to do something”
  6. 6. IOPMe/Nos Tú/Vos Le/Les
  7. 7. Pronoun Placement1. Attach the pronoun to the infinitive2. Attach the pronoun to a progressive tense3. Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command4. Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb
  8. 8. Gustarlike” Gustar means “to me gusta nos gusta te gusta os gusta le gusta les gusta• When you talk about things that people like, change the form of gustar to match the singular or plural nouns for those things. • Singular: • Me gusta la idea • Nos gusta la idea • Plural: • Me gustan las personas • Nos gustan las personas• The form of gustar matches the noun, not the speaker.
  9. 9. Affirmative and Negative Words Affirmative Negative• Algo – something • Nada – nothing• Alguien – someone • Nadie – no one• Algún/alguno(a) – same • Ningún/ninguno(a) – none; not any• Siempre – always • Nunca – never• También – also • Tampoco – neither; eitherNotes• If a verb is preceded by no, words that follow must be negative. A double negative is required in Spanish when no precedes the verb. • No qiero nada – I don’t want anything • Carlos no quiere ninguno – Carlos doesn’t want any• If a negative word such as nunca or nadie comes before the verb, a second negative is not needed
  10. 10. Superlatives• Isimo/isimos isima/isimas• Suffixes added to adjectives/adverbs• Equal to extremely/very before an adjective or adverb• Adjective/adverb ending in –c/-g/-z change spelling to qu/gu/c Difícil Dificilsimo Feliz felicisimo Malo Malisimo
  11. 11. Reflexives•Used to describe people doing things for themselves•Example: washing yourself, combing your hair.•Reflexive pronouns are used with reflexive verbs to indicate thatthe subject of the sentence receives an action of the verb.•Many verbs can be used with or without reflexive pronouns. Ifthere is no reflexive pronoun the subject does not receive theaction.•When using the infinitive form of a reflexive verb after aconjugated verb, the correct reflexive pronoun must be used.
  12. 12. Affirmitive Tú Commands • To give instructions or commandsCaminar Camina Camina en el parque Irregulars Come toda la Infinitive Affirmitive tú commandComer Come hamburguesa. Decir Di Abre la puerta. Hacer HazAbrir Abre Quiero entrar. Ir Ve Poner Pon Salir Sal Ser Pronoun Placement Tener Venir Se Ten Ven •When you use a pronoun with an affirmative command, the pronoun attaches to the command. •Ex: ponTE otra camisa •When using an object pronoun, attach the pronoun to the end of the command •Ex: Cruza el parque > Cruzalo
  13. 13. Negative Tú Commands•Used when telling someone what NOT to do.•Formed by taking the the you form of thepresent tense, dropping the –o, and adding Pronounthe appropriate ending. Infinitive yo form negative tú command Placement •Object Pronouns precede the Hablar hablo no hablas Verbs in negative commands, just as with other conjugated Volver vuelvo no vuelvas verbs. • Ex: No lo uses. (Don’tIrregulars use it)•None of the yo forms end in –o.Infinitive (yo form) Negative tú commandsDar (doy) No le des mi dirección a nadie.Estar (estoy) No estés triste.Ir (voy) No vayas a la tienda.
  14. 14. Sequencing Events• Primero - first• Entonces – then• Luego/después – later/after• Por fin – done• Antes de/después de – before/after• Por la – in/during the (time)• Los lunes – on Mondays
  15. 15. Deber + infinitive -should/ought to -Debo estudiar más.Debo DebemosDebesDebe Deben
  16. 16. Preterits Ar Er/IrYo -e -iTu -aste -isteEl/Ella -o -ioNosotros -amos -imosEllos/Ellas -arron -ieron
  17. 17. Trigger WordsEnglish Spanish english spanishone day un dia while mientrasonce una vez every day cada diayesterday ayer often a menudoat night a noche many times muchas vecesa year ago hace un ano every day todos los diasalready ya always siemprelast month el mes pasado once in a while de vez un cuandoday before yesterday anteayer frequently frecuentementefor one hour por una hora sometimes a vecesfinally por fin twice dos vecesat eight a las ocho on february fifth en cinco de febrero
  18. 18. -Car, -Gar, -Zar Tocar Jugar ComenzarToque Jugue ComenceTocaste Jugaste ComenzasteToco Jugo ComenzoTocamos Jugamos ComenzamosTocaron Jugaron Comenzaron
  19. 19. Modal Verbs•Two verbs that are paired together•The first one is conjugated•The second is left in its infinitive form•Example: deber + infinitive •You say “yo debo beber” not “yo debo bebo”
  20. 20. Present Progressives•Verbs that, in English, would end in –ing•To conjugate: 1. Conjugate the verb “estar” to match the subject (yo) 2. Then take the verb of what you are doing (beber) and add the suffix “-endo” • You add the suffix “-endo” for er/ir verbs and the suffix “-ando” for ar verbs 3. The verb then becomes “Estoy Bebendo.” or “I am drinking.”•In the event that there are three vowels next to each otherafter conjugated and adding “-endo” change “-endo” to“yendo” •Example: trayendo•When dealing with stem changing verbs, change the e to an i
  21. 21. Adverbs•Adverbs are used to describe how something is done •Example: sadly, slowly, calmly, etc.•The suffix -ly we use in English, is replaced by the suffix -mente in Spanish•If the adjective ends in -e or a consonant, just add –mente •Example: feliz (happy) becomes felizmente (happily)•If the adjective ends in -o or -a then add -mente to thefeminine form •Example: rapido (quick) becomes rapidamente (quickly)

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