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Grammar Book SP4H


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Grammar Book SP4H

  1. 1. Spanish 4 Grammar Book Catalina Vivlamore Spanish 4H Period 1
  2. 2. Tabla de Contentos1. El Presente (3-5) 8. 8. Subjunctive in Adjective2. Ser o Estar (6-7) Clauses (25)3. Verbos Como Gustar (8) 9. 9. Mandatos (26-28)4. El Preterito (9-16) 10. 10. Object Pronouns (29-33)5. El Imperfecto (17-19) 11. 11. Possessive Adjectives and6. Preterito vs. Imperfecto (19) Pronouns (34-35)7. Subjunctive in Noun Clauses 12. 12. Demonstrative Adjectives (20-24) and Pronouns (36-37) 13. 13. Reflexive Verbs (38) 14. 14. Por y Para (39-41) 15. 15. To Become (42-43)
  3. 3. El Presente• Used to express actions or situations that are going on at the present time and to express general truths.• Also used to express habitual actions or actions that will take place in the near future.• Regular –ar, -er, -ir verbos• Nota: We normally omit subject pronouns.
  4. 4. Stem-Changing Present• E—>ie {ej. pensar)• O ue (ej. Poder)• EI (ej. Pedir)• Uue (ej. Jugar)• Construir, destruir, incluir, influir add a y before the personal endings, except in forms noted below• Change in all forms except nosotros y vosotros.
  5. 5. Irregular Yo Present Tense• Many –er and –ir verbs have irregular yo forms in the present tense.• -cer or –cir -zco• -ger or –gir -jo• Several verbs have irregular –go endings (ej. Caercaigo), and a few have individual irregularities• Others: caber—> quepo; saber se; verveo• Some verbs with irregular yo forms have stem changes as well• Verbs with prefixes follow the same patterns (ej. detenerdetengo)
  6. 6. Ser o Estar• Ser and estar both mean to be, but they are not interchangeable.• Ser is used to express the idea of permanence, such as inherent or unchanging qualities and characteristics.• Estar is used to express temporality, including qualities or conditions that change with time.• With most descriptive adjectives, either ser or estar can be used, but the meaning of each statement is different.• Some adjectives have two different meanings depending on whether they are used with ser or estar.• Nota: Estar, not ser, is used with muerto/a.
  7. 7. Uses of Ser y Estar• Uses of Ser: • Uses of Estar: ▫ Nationality and origin ▫ Location or spatial ▫ Profession/occupation relationships ▫ Characteristics of ▫ Health people,animals, and ▫ Physical states and things conditions ▫ Generalizations ▫ Emotional states ▫ Possession ▫ Certain weather ▫ Material of expressions composition ▫ Ongoing actions ▫ Time, date, season (progressive tenses) ▫ Where/when an event ▫ Results of actions (past takes place participles)
  8. 8. Verbos Como Gustar• Though gustar is translated as to like in English, its literal meaning is to please.• Gustar is preceded by an indirect object pronoun.• Because the thing or person that pleases is the subject, gustar agrees in person and number with it.• When gustar is followed by one or more verbs in the infinitive, the singular form of gustar is always used.• Gustar is often used in the conditional (me gustaria) to soften a request.• Many verbs follow the same pattern as gustar: ▫ Aburrir, apetecer, caer bien/mal, disgustar, doler, encantar, faltar, fascinar, hacer falta, importar, interesar, molestar, preocupar, quedar, sorprender• The construction a+prepositional pronoun or a+noun can be used to emphasized who is pleased, bothered, etc.• Faltar expresses what someone or something lacks and quedar expresses what someone or something has left. Quedar is also used to talk about how clothing fits or looks on someone.• Ejemplos
  9. 9. El Preterito A definite time in the past with a beginning and/or ending• Regular -ar Verbs: • Regular –er/-ir Verbs -é -amos -í -imos -aste -asteis -iste -isteis -ó -aron -ió -ieron
  10. 10. -Car, -Gar, -Zar• The first group of irregular preterite verbs.• It only changes in the first person tense.• This group pertains to verbs ending in –car, - gar, or –zar. Examples:Verbs ending Infinitive: Conjugation: in -Car • -qué Tocar ToquéVerbs ending in –Gar • -gué Jugar JuguéVerbs ending in –Zar • -cé Comenzar Comencé
  11. 11. Spock Verbs• Ir, ser, dar, ver, y hacer.• Another grouping of irregular preterite verbs. Ir/ser Dar/ver Hacer
  12. 12. Tablas para Verbos de Spock Ir/Ser Dar/Ver Hacer Fui Fuimos (d/v)i (d/v) imos Hice Hicimos Fuiste Fuisteis (d/v)iste (d/v)isteis Hiciste Hicisteis Fue Fueron (d/v)io (d/v)ieron Hizo Hicieron
  13. 13. Cucaracha Verbs• A third grouping of irregular preterite verbs.• A way to remember their conjugations is to sing them to the tune of ―La Cucaracha.‖• For the verbs ―conducir,‖ ―producir,‖ and ―traducir,‖ drop the ―i‖ in –ieron in the third person plural tense.
  14. 14. Tabla para Verbos de CucarachaAndar Anduv- -e -imosEstar Estuv- -iste -isteisPoder Pud-Poner Pus- -o -ieronQuerer Quis-Saber Sup-Tener Tuv-Venir Vin-Conducir Conduj-Producir Produj-Traducir Traduj-Decir Dij-Traer Traj-
  15. 15. Snakes and Snakeys• The last groupings of irregular preterite verbs.• In the ―snakes‖ group, there is a stem change in the third person.• In the ―snakeys‖ group, the ―i‖ changes to a ―y‖ in the third person. These verbs usually have double vowels in infinitive form.
  16. 16. Tablas de Snakes y Snakeys Snakes: Dormir Pedir Dormí Dormimos Pedí Pedimos Dormiste Dormisteis Pediste Pedisteis Durmió Durmieron Pidió Pidieron Snakeys: Leer Leí Leímos Leíste Leísteis Leyó Leyeron
  17. 17. Imperfect Tense• Used to describe past activities in a different way, it is an IMPERFECTED ACTION in the past. There is no definite beginning or ending.• It is like a movie; preterite tense is like a photo. -AR Verbs -ER/IR Verbs -aba -abamos -ía -íamos -abas -abais -ías -íais -aba -aban -ía -ían
  18. 18. Imperfect Tense Irregulars • There are only 3 irregulars, and never any stem changesIba Íbamos Era ÉramosIbas Ibais Ir Eras EraisIba Iban Era Eran Ser Veía Veíamos Ver Veías Veías Veía Veían
  19. 19. Imperfect Trigger Words• Todos los dias • Imperfect tense is used for: 1. Habitual/repeated actions• Mientras 2. Events/actions that were in• Los lunes, martes progress (etc.) 3. Physical characteristics 4. Mental/emotional states• Siempre 5. Time-telling• Muchas veces 6. Age• Cada dia/mes/noche/año• ***These will distinguish use of preterite from use of imperfect.***
  20. 20. Subjunctive in Noun Clauses• Subjunctive mood: attitudes, uncertain, hypothetical• Main clause + connector +subordinate clause• -ar: e, es, e, emos, en• -er/-ir: a, as, a, amos, an• Irregulars: dar (de), estar (este), ir (vaya), saber (sepa), haber (haya), ser (sea)• WEDDING: Wishing/wanting, emotions, doubt, disbelief, impersonal expressiosn, negation, God/grief
  21. 21. Impersonal Expressions• Es bueno que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es mejor que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es malo que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es importante que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es necesario que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es urgente que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Y mucho mas!
  22. 22. Verbs of Will and Influence• Aconsejar- to advise• Importar=- to be important, to matter• Ionsistir (en)- to insist (on)• Mandar- to order• Prohibir- to prohibit• Recomendar (e->ie)- to recommend• Rogar (oue)- to beg, to plead• Sugerir (eie) to suggest• Any of these+que+subjunctive
  23. 23. Common Verbs and Expressions ofEmotion• Alegrarse (de)- to be happy• Esperar- to hope, to wish• Senir (eie)- to be sorry, to regret• Sorprender- to surprise• Temer- to be afraid, to fear• Es triste- it’s sad• Ojala (que)- I hope (that), I wish (that)• Any of these+subjunctive
  24. 24. Expressions of Doubt, Disbelief, andDenial• Dudar- to doubt• Negar (eie)- to deny• Es imposible- it’s impossible• Es improbable- it’s improbable• No es cierto- It’s not true, it’s not certain• No es seguro- It’s not certain• No es verdad- it’s not true
  25. 25. Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses• An adjective clause is a group of words containing a verb that tells something about a noun.• The subjunctive is used in an adjective clause when the antecedent is someone or something whose existence in unknown, hypothetical, or uncertain from the point of view of the speaker.• EJ: Necesito un amigo que me comprenda.• There is NO personal ―a‖ because it’s not a definite person• If the antecedent is known to exist, then use the indicative mood instead• When the antecedent is not mentioned, introduce adjective clauses by using ―lo que‖
  26. 26. Mandatos- Usted Commands• Use an usted command to tell someone what to do using the formal tense.• Put the verb in ―yo‖ form and change ―o‖ ending to the opposite vowel (are; er/ira)• Do this for both affirmative and negative commands.• Add an ―n‖ at the end for a plural command.• IRREGULARES: TVDISHES– they are irregular in ALL commands ▫ T=Tener; V=Venir; D=Dar/Decir; I=Ir; S=Ser; H=Hacer/haber; E=Estar; S=Saber
  27. 27. Mandatos- Tú Commands• Use a tú command to tell someone what to do in the familiar tense.• For the AFFIRMATIVE: Conjugate to ―tú‖ form and simply drop the ―s‖!• For the NEGATIVE: Put it in ―yo‖ form and change the ―o‖ ending to the opposite vowel (like in a formal command), then add an ―s‖
  28. 28. Mandatos- Nosotros Commands• Use a nosotros command to tell a group of people you are in to do something with you.• Conjugate into ―yo‖ form and change the ―o‖ ending to these opposite vowel endings: aremos; er/iramos• This is for both affirmative and negative. (Just add a ―no‖ in front for negative.)• MONOS Verbs: Affirmative Nosotros Commands with a Reflexive Verb ▫ Drop the extra ―s‖! (EJ: VámosnosVámanos)
  29. 29. Object Pronouns• Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns.• Direct object pronouns directly receive the action of the verb. “what”• Indirect object pronouns identify to whom or for whom an action is done. Direct Objects Indirect Objects Me Nos Me Nos Te Os Te Os Lo/La Los/Las Le Les
  30. 30. Position of Object Pronouns• Direct and indirect object pronouns (los pronombres de complemento directo e indirecto) precede the conjugated verb.• Ej: IO- Carla siempre me da boletos para el cine. (Carla always gives me movie tickets.)• Ej: DO- Ella los consigue gratis. (She gets them for free.)• Object pronouns may attach to an infinitive, gerund, or affirmative command. Or they may go before the conjugated verb as usual.• EJ: Voy a hacerlo enseguida./Lo voy a hacer enseguida.• Lo is also used to refer to an abstract thing or idea that has no gender. ―It‖
  31. 31. Double Object Pronouns• The indirect object pronoun precedes the direct object pronoun when they are used together in a sentence.• EJ: Me los mandaron por correo.• Le and les change to se when they are used with lo, la, los, or las.• EJ: Se las damos.• The ―se‖ has nothing to do with reflexives!• When object pronouns are attached to infinitives, gerunds, or commands, a written accent is often required to maintain proper words stress.• Put accent over third-to-last or fourth-to-last syllable, depending on how many pronouns were attached.k
  32. 32. Prepositional PronounsPrepositional PronounsMí Me, myselfTi You, yourselfUd. You, YourselfÉl Him, itElla Her, itSí Himself, herself, itselfNosotros/as Us, ourselvesVosotros/as You, YourselvesUds. You, yourselvesEllos ThemEllas ThemSí Themselves
  33. 33. Prepositional Pronouns• Prepositional pronouns function as the objects of prepositions.• Except for mí, tí, and sí, they are identical to their corresponding subject pronouns.• EJ: Lo compramos para ti.• A + [prepositional pronoun] is often used for clarity or emphasis.• EJ: A mí me fascina.• The pronoun sí is the preopositional prnoun used to refer back to the same third-person subject. In this case, the adjective mismo/a(s) is usually added for clarifictation.• EJ: Juan se lo regaló a sí mismo.• When mí, ti, and sí are used with con, they become conmigo, contigo, and consigo.• These prepositions are used with tú and yo instead of mí and ti: entre, excepto, incluso, menos, salvo, según.• EJ: Todos están de acuerdo menos tú y yo.
  34. 34. Possessive Adjectives• Tells who is in possession of something– whose object the object is. (EJ: My book.)• Possessive adjectives must agree with the noun in gender and number. (Gender only applies to nosotros and vosotros forms) Mi (s) Nuestro (a, s, as) Tu (s) Vuestro (a, s, as) Su (s) Sus
  35. 35. Possessive Pronouns• Tells who is in possession of an object, but uses a pronoun to replace the noun. (EJ: Mine is blue.)• They also must agree in gender an number to the noun that they are replacing.• Possessive pronouns usually are used with the corresponding definite article. El/La mío (a) El/La nuestro (a) Los/Las míos (as) Los/Las nuestros (as) El/La tuyo (a) El/La vuestro (a) Los/Las tuyos (as) Los/Las vuestros (as) El/La suyo (a) El/La suyo (a) Los/Las suyos (as) Los/Las suyos (as)
  36. 36. Demonstrative Adjectives • To be more specific as to which an object is– ―this,‖ ―that,‖ or ―that one over there.‖Este/This must agree in gender and number. • They Singular PluralMasculin Este Estose Aquel Singular PluralFeminine Esta Estas Masculine Aquel AquellosEse/That Singular Plural Feminine Aquella AquellasMasculin Ese EsoseFeminin Esa Esase
  37. 37. Demonstrative Pronouns • To be more specific as to which an object is– ―this,‖ ―that,‖ or ―that one over there,‖ and replacing the noun with the following pronouns • Must agree in gender and numberEste/This Singular Plural • They’re the same as the adjectives!Masculin Este Estose Aquel Singular PluralFeminine Esta Estas Masculine Aquel AquellosEse/That Singular Plural Feminine Aquella AquellasMasculin Ese EsoseFeminin Esa Esas
  38. 38. Reflexive Verbs• Reflects the action of the verb back to the subject• If a verb acts on something other than the subject, use non-reflexive verb form• If verb acts on subject, use reflexive verb form Me Nos Te Os Se Se
  39. 39. Por y Para• ―For‖• However, they have specific usages, so they are easy to confuse, despite being translated to mean the same• In Spanish, you must use the correct one because using the wrong one may give the sentence a different meaning!
  40. 40. Uses of “POR”• Indicates motion/general location• Duration of an action• Reason or motivation for action• Object of a search• Means by which something is done• Exchange or substitution• Unit of measure• Mulitplication• Idiomatic Expressions (EJ: por ejemplo, por eso, por fin, etc.)
  41. 41. Uses of “PARA”• Destination• Deadline or specific time in future• Purpose/Goal + Infinitive• Purpose + Noun• Recipient of something• Comparison with others or an Opinion• In the employment of
  42. 42. “To Become”• In Spanish, there is no specific infinitive that means ―to become‖• Instead, a variety of other infinitives used in certain ways and phrases are used to convey the same meaning as ―to become‖• The verb used depends on the nature of the change that occurs (e.g. deliberate, involuntary)
  43. 43. Phrases for “To Become”• Llegar a ser: ―to eventually become,‖ usually change over a long period of time, usually with effort. ▫ EJ: Antonio became old= Antonio llegó a ser anciano.• Ponerse: Refers to a change in mood or emotion, especially a temporary or sudden change. It is also used to refer to changes in physical appearance and many other traits. Doesn’t have to apply to just people. ▫ EJ: I became sick= Me puse enferma.• Hacerse: Deliberate or voluntary changes, such as a change in identity, affiliation, religion, etc. ▫ EJ: Carmen became a Christian= Carmen se hace una cristiana.• Volverse: A typically involuntary change, generally applying to people. ▫ Jorge became/went crazy: Jorge se volvió loco.