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Types of-supervision


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  • Thank you for sharing. It is for the interest of learners to look at those types of supervision in relation to a field or sector or area of application. For example, in education sector, the age of student may direct you to opt for a certain type of a style.U5s more guidance and participatory approaches will produce better results than autocratic. In military, yes threats, forceful and so on work better and so on.n
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Types of-supervision

  3. 3. Direct supervision - is a term that is used to refer to situations in which a supervisor is present at all times. The supervisor oversees activities as they occur and provides constant direction, feedback, and assistance. Indirect supervision - is characterized by some form of authority over the work of employees not under direct supervision. In other words, the "supervisor" who provides indirect supervision is responsible for the work, but not for the worker TYPES OF SUPERVISION
  4. 4. TYPES OF SUPERVISION Types of Supervision: Autocratic, Laissez-faire, Democratic and Bureaucratic Supervision! These Types of supervision are generally classified according to the behavior of supervisors towards his subordinates. These are also called as techniques of supervision.
  5. 5. TYPES OF SUPERVISION Autocratic or Authoritarian supervision: Autocratic supervision, also known as authoritarian leadership, is a leadership style characterized by individual control over all decisions and little input from group members. Autocratic leaders typically make choices based on their ideas and judgments and rarely accept advice from followers. Under this type, the supervisor wields absolute power and wants complete obedience from his subordinates. He wants everything to be done strictly according to his instructions and never likes any intervention from his subordinates. This type of supervision is resorted to tackle indiscipline subordinates.
  6. 6. TYPES OF SUPERVISION Typical Characteristics of an Autocratic Leader: * The leader tells and enforces * Little feedback is sought or needed from the team members * Decision on process, tasks, goals are all created by the leader *There is a sense that team members are rarely trusted with tasks and methods * The leadership style points at a method of just getting the job done * No real sense of empowerment normally morale can suffer in the long term
  7. 7. TYPES OF SUPERVISION The benefits of Authoritarian Leadership For the long term, adopting nothing but an autocratic leadership style can be more damaging than rewarding, as it is seen as a cold, dictatorial. “I’m right” management style which can undermine people and stifle creativity. The art of leadership is to be flexible, whereby the leader selects and uses the correct style to suit the situation. That said, there are benefits to using the authoritarian leadership. Most appropriately, if tasks have to be completed with great and are time critical, setting clear tasks and expectations whilst making the decision seems a logical step, as often there is no time for discussion. In such conditions, one needs structure, discipline and to get the job done.
  8. 8. TYPES OF SUPERVISION Also too, as in the situational leadership model, adopting a more autocratic style is applicable for not only actions that need to be completed quickly, but also if a team member’s skills for the task is very low or novice. In which case, giving clear direction and making the right decisions allows the person to focus on learning or applying their skill. The Negative of Authoritarian Leadership People that normally opted for this style regularly, can be seen a bossy, cold, and a dictator. Let’s just say, if it is the only style you use, the chances are you won’t be voted as the next best leader sometime soon. Long term use of its use can also build a resentment and a feeling of festering, whereby those team members are never given a chance to grow, proceeding to a feeling of being unvalued and distrusted.
  9. 9. TYPES OF SUPERVISION Research has indicated that due to the nature of a authoritarian leader, and that he / she makes decision and controls the group, creative problem solving is often thwarted as a result. When to use authoritarian supervision? • When a task is urgent and needs to be completed quickly, with little time for thought and –planning. •Use this style when skills are in short supply and people need to be guided through task or tasks with clarity and structure. •Where there is little or no margin of error. • When conditions are dangerous – rigid rules can keep people out of harm’s way.
  10. 10. One thing to remember though; if your team are not skilled in specific tasks, don’t resort to an authoritarian approach in the long term. Find ways to teach, coach and mentor them, so you can do more delegation and less direction. TYPES OF SUPERVISION
  11. 11. Laissez-faire or free-rein supervision: This is also known as independent supervision. Under this type of supervision, maximum freedom is allowed to the subordinates. The supervisor never interferes in the work of the subordinates. In other words, full freedom is given to workers to do their jobs. Subordinates are encouraged to solve their problems themselves. TYPES OF SUPERVISION
  12. 12. Laissez-faire leadership, also known as delegative leadership, is a type of leadership style in which leaders are hands-off and allow group members to make the decisions. Researchers have found that this is generally the leadership style that leads to the lowest productivity among group members. TYPES OF SUPERVISION Laissez-faire supervision is characterized by: •Very little guidance from leaders •Complete freedom for followers to make decisions •Leaders provide the tools and resources needed •Group members are expectedto solve problems on their own •Power is handed over to followers, yet leaders still take responsibility for the groups decisions and actions
  13. 13. Benefits of Laissez-Faire supervision Like other leadership styles, the delegative style has both a number of benefits and shortcomings. Laissez-faire leadership can be effective in situations where group members are highly skilled, motivated and capable of working on their own. Since these group members are experts and have the knowledge and skills to work independently, they are capable of accomplishing tasks with very little guidance. TYPES OF SUPERVISION
  14. 14. TYPES OF SUPERVISION The delegative style can be particularly effective in situations where group members are actually more knowledgeable than the group's leader. Because team members are the experts in a particular area, the laissez-faire style allows them to demonstrate their deep knowledge and skill surrounding that particular subject. This autonomy can be freeing to some group members and help them feel more satisfied with their work. The laissez-faire style can be used in situations where followers have a high-level of passion and intrinsic motivation for their work. While the conventional term for this style is 'laissez- faire' and implies a completely hands-off approach, many leaders still remain open and available to group members for consultation and feedback.
  15. 15. TYPES OF SUPERVISION Downsides of Laissez-Faire Leadership Laissez-faire leadership is not ideal in situations where group members lack the knowledge or experience they need to complete tasks and make decisions. Some people are not good at setting their own deadlines, managing their own projects and solving problems on their own. In such situations, projects can go off-track and deadlines can be missed when team members do not get enough guidance or feedback from leaders. In some situations, the laissez-faire style leads to poorly defined roles within the group. Since team members receive little to no guidance, they might not really be sure about their role within the group and what they are supposed to be doing with their time.
  16. 16. TYPES OF SUPERVISION Laissez-faire leaders are often seen as uninvolved and withdrawn, which can lead to a lack of cohesiveness within the group. Since the leader seems unconcerned with what is happening, followers sometimes pick up on this and express less care and concern for the project. Some leaders might even take advantage of this style as a way to avoid personal responsibility for the group's failures. When goals are not met, the leader can then blame members of the team for not completing tasks or living up to expectations. If group members are unfamiliar with the task or the process needed to accomplish the task, leaders are better off taking a more hands-on approach. Eventually, as followers acquire more expertise, leaders might then switch back to a more delegative approach that gives group members more freedom to work independently.
  17. 17. TYPES OF SUPERVISION Leadership Styles: Democratic Leadership Style The democratic leadership style is a very open and collegial style of running a team. Ideas move freely amongst the group and are discussed openly. Everyone is given a seat at the table, and discussion is relatively free-flowing. What is it? Democratic supervision: Under this type, supervisor acts according to the mutual consent and discussion or in other words he consults subordinates in the process of decision making. This is also known as participative or consultative supervision. Subordinates are encouraged to give suggestions, take initiative and exercise free judgment. This results in job satisfaction and improved morale of employees.
  18. 18. TYPES OF SUPERVISION This style is needed in dynamic and rapidly changing environments where very little can be taken as a constant. In these fast moving organizations, every option for improvement has to be considered to keep the group from falling out of date. The democratic supervision style means facilitating the conversation, encouraging people to share their ideas, and then synthesizing all the available information into the best possible decision. The democratic leader must also be able to communicate that decision back to the group to bring unity the plan is chosen.
  19. 19. TYPES OF SUPERVISION When is it Used? Democratic leadership style can bring the best out of an experienced and professional team. It capitalizes on their skills and talents by letting them share their views, rather than simply expecting them to conform. If a decision is very complex and broad, it is important to have the different areas of expertise represented and contributing input – this is where democratic leader shines. When situations change frequently, democratic leadership offers a great deal of flexibility to adapt to better ways of doing things. Unfortunately, it is also somewhat slow to make a decision in this structure, so while it may embrace newer and better methods; it might not do so very quickly.
  20. 20. TYPES OF SUPERVISION Bureaucratic supervision: Under this type certain working rules and regulations are laid down by the supervisor and all the subordinates are required to follow these rules and regulations very strictly. A serious note of the violation of these rules and regulations is taken by the supervisor. This brings about stability and uniformity in the organization. But in actual practice it has been observed that there are delays and inefficiency in work due to bureaucratic supervision.
  21. 21. What is Bureaucratic Supervision? How Rules Can Guide People Bureaucratic supervision is one of the oldest forms of leadership. It dates back to the first world rulers, including Genghis Khan and Julius Caesar. In order to govern huge territories, these leaders were forced to create rules, regulations and hierarchies that were easily replicable. TYPES OF SUPERVISION
  22. 22. TYPES OF SUPERVISION Employees in bureaucracies are promoted based on their ability to conform to the rules. Bureaucratic supervision is based on strict hierarchies and often depends on written job descriptions and organization charts to explain the hierarchy and their relationships. Bureaucratic supervision: Definition and beliefs Bureaucratic supervision rely on rules and regulations and clearly defined positions within organizations. They tend to be people who are well organized. People in bureaucratic supervision are likely to report only to their immediate supervisor or, in the case of a president or CEO of a company, to the board of directors. Stepping out of the organizational role they play is difficult for them.
  23. 23. TYPES OF SUPERVISION Six tenets of bureaucratic supervision In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Max Weber developed formal definitions and described six tenets that define bureaucratic supervision : 1.Astrict hierarchy that is formalized by the leadership and strictly adhered to. 2. The organization is controlled by immutable rules, regulations, or laws 3. The organization is structured along the lines of specialties. People with like talents are grouped together 4. The organization has one of two missions: ● “Up-focus,” meaning it focuses on the board of directors or stockholders ● “In-focus,” which means the organization serves a product-oriented goal such as increasing profits market share 5. Bureaucratic supervision is impersonal. It is about performance, not the worker 6. Employment is based on the most technically proficient