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SSG Black Land Nav

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The world famous land navigation course that I developed to teach how to read a map. Take it and use it, change it to suit your needs.

  • very nice - quite similar to the course I gave on map compass gps navigation -
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  • Hey, just wanted to give you props on an AWESOME presentation! IDK if it was all your handy-work or not, but either way, it was just what I was looking for. Thanks for not being stingy and sharing the info! ;-)
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SSG Black Land Nav

  1. 1. Land Navigation 071F5013 SSG Black
  2. 2. Safety Consideration Risk Assessment is LOW Fire exits Tripping hazards Failure to learn these skills may result in: Call for Fire on wrong position Improper movement Problems associated with being lost
  3. 3. Terminal Learning Objective Action: Navigate from one point on the ground to another while dismounted. Conditions: During day and night, given a classroom and training area, 1:50,000 map (Tenino) for the classroom, 1:50,000 map (Local) for the local training area, protractor, pencil, compass and or PLGR and FM 3-25.26. Standards: Plot, navigate and find a minimum 3 out of 5 points within 3 hours during daylight and/or night.
  4. 4. You will learn how to… • Identify Topographic Symbols on a Military Map • Identify Terrain Features on a Map • Determine the Grid Coordinates of a Point on a Military Map • Measure Distance on a Map • Convert Azimuths • Determine Azimuths Using a Protractor • Locate an Unknown Point on a Map and on the Ground by Resection • Locate one’s position on a Map and on the Ground by Modified Resection
  5. 5. Enabling Learning Objective A ACTION: Identify topographic symbols on a military map. CONDITIONS: Given a standard 1:50,000 scale military map. STANDARDS: Correctly Identify the topographic symbols, colors, and marginal information on a military map IAW FM 3-25.26.
  6. 6. Definition of a Map A graphic representation of all or part of the Earth’s surface drawn to scale as seen from above, with natural and man-made features illustrated as symbols, lines, and colors 15
  7. 7. Map Symbols Symbols are used to represent the natural and man-made features of the earth. cem
  8. 8. VEGETATION Map Symbols Woods Scrub Orchard Vineyard Mangrove
  9. 9. SUBMERGED AREAS Map Symbols AND BOGS Marsh or swamp Submerge marsh or swamp Wood marsh or swamp Submerge wood marsh or swamp Rice field Land subject to inundation
  10. 10. RIVERS, LAKES, AND CANALS Map Symbols Intermittent stream Perennial lake or pond Perennial stream Intermittent lake or pond Intermittent river Dry lake Well or spring Perennial river Small falls; small rapids Dam Large falls; large rapids Canal
  11. 11. MAN-MADE FEATURES and HIGHWAY & LAND GRIDS Map Symbols Built-up Areas Highway Buildings Land Grids Road 12 13 14 School Dirt Road 15 16 17 18 19 20 Church Bridge Airports Landing Strip Foot Bridge Cemetery cem Trail Mine Power Lines Gravel Pit Railroad
  12. 12. Colors on the Map • BLACK- Man-made Objects • RED- Cultural Features • BLUE- Water • GREEN- Vegetation • BROWN- Contour Lines • RED-BROWN- Cultural features, contour lines on red-light readable maps 21
  13. 13. What is a map? A graphic representation of all or part of the Earth’s surface drawn to scale as seen from above, with natural and man-made features illustrated as symbols, lines, and colors What color(s) are used to denote Cultural Features? Red and Red-Brown What is the scale of the Tenino map? Explain. 1:50,000. 1 mm/inch/foot/yard = 50,000 mm/inch/foot/yard What year was the Tenino Map printed? 1975 What is the Sheet Name of the map directly South of the Tenino Map? 1477 III Marsh or Powerline Highway swamp
  14. 14. Enabling Learning Objective B ACTION: Identify terrain features on a map. CONDITIONS: Given a standard 1:50,000 scale military map. STANDARDS: Identify the five major, three minor and two supplementary features on a map.
  15. 15. CONTOUR LINES On a map the vertical dimension it is referred to as “relief”. The most graphic technique ever devised to show relief information is the contour line. If you were to walk a contour line you would never go down hill and never up hill, and eventually you would arrive back where you started.
  16. 16. Contour Interval ~ The contour interval is the distance between each contour line. The contour A=700 ft interval is found along the bottom edge, center of the B=740 ft C=770 ft map. D=820 ft Index Contour ~ a bolder/wider brown line that has the elevation value marked at various intervals as a part of the line. Intermediate Contour ~ a brown line on a topographic map and represents a line of equal elevation. Example: contour is 20 feet interval
  17. 17. Terrain Relief Features Five Major Three Minor • Ridge • Spur • Hill • Draw • Saddle • Cliff • Valley Two Supplemental • Depression • Cut • Fill
  18. 18. RIDGE
  19. 19. HILL
  20. 20. S A D D L E
  21. 21. VALLEY
  22. 22. DEPRESSION
  23. 23. SPURS
  24. 24. DRAWS
  25. 25. CLIFF
  26. 26. C U T F I L L
  27. 27. F
  28. 28. D
  29. 29. A
  30. 30. E
  31. 31. B
  32. 32. C
  33. 33. Five Major Ridge Hill Saddle Valley Depression Three Minor Spur Draw Cliff A 700 C 770 Two Supplemental Cut B 740 D 820 Fill
  34. 34. Enabling Learning Objective C ACTION: Determine the grid coordinates of a point on a military map. CONDITIONS: Given a standard 1:50,000 scale military map and coordinate scale and protractor. STANDARDS: Determine a six-digit grid for the point on the map with a 100-meter tolerance (must contain the correct 100,000- meter identifier). Determine an eight-digit grid for the point on the map with a 50-meter tolerance (must contain the correct 100,000-meter identifier).
  35. 35. Universal Transverse Mercator
  36. 36. The military grid reference system 1. 10T (Locating a point within the Grid Zone Designation) 2. 10TEG (Locating a point within a 100,000-meter square) 3. 10TEG08 (Locating a point within a 10,000-meter square) 4. 10TEG0787 (Locating a point within a 1,000-meter square) This is as close as we can get now without a protractor 5. 10TEG071875 (Locating a point within a 100-meter square) 6. 10TEG07168754 (Locating a point within a 10-meter square) 7. 10TEG0716587545 (Locating a point within a 1-meter square) 2 1
  37. 37. 5. 10TEG071875 (Locating a point within a 100-meter square) 6. 10TEG07168754 (Locating a point within a 10-meter square) 7. 10TEG0716587545 (Locating a point within a 1- meter square)
  38. 38. You read a map to the RIGHT and UP Start from the bottom left-hand side and read RIGHT to the GRID LINE prior to your target and then UP to the GRID LINE prior to your target. 54
  39. 39. 10TEG071875 EG 07 87 88 071 875 X 87 86 85 05 06 07 08 55
  40. 40. If you forget how… SAMPLE 1,000 METER GRID SQUARE 100 METER REFERENCE 46 1. Read large numbers labeling the VERITICAL grid line left of point and estimate tenths (100 meters) x Sample from grid line to point 12 3 point 2. Read large number labeling the HORIZONTAL grid line below point and estimate tenths (100 45 meters) from grid line to point 45 6 12 13 EXAMPLE: 123456 100,000 M. SQUARE IDENTIFICATION WHEN REPORTING OUTSIDE THE 100,000 METER SQUARE AREA IN WHICH THE POINT EH LIES, PREFIX THE 100,000 METER SQUARE 00 IDENTIFICATION. EG Example: EG123456 GRID ZONE DESIGNATION WHEN REPORTING OUTSIDE THE GRID ZONE DESIGNATION AREA IN WHICH THE POINT LIES, PREFIX THE GRID ZONE DESIGNATION. 10T Example: 10TEG123456 56
  41. 41. Map 10T Section EG 52 What is the grid square? 51 EG1350 50 How do we determine, with 49 accuracy, the 12 13 14 15 location of the red star?
  42. 42. PROTRACTOR
  43. 43. What is the eight digit grid coordinate for the mine EG15808215
  44. 44. What is the Terrain Feature at… EG128985 Saddle EH093002 Depression EG148925 Valley EG105781 Fill EG183866 Ridge EG124793 Draw EG128979 Hill EG145855 Cliff EG157915 Spur
  45. 45. Now that we know how to plot points on a map it’s time to find distance between them
  46. 46. Enabling Learning Objective D ACTION: Measure distance on a map. CONDITIONS: Given a standard 1:50,000 scale military map, a strip of Paper with a straight edge, and a pencil. STANDARDS: Determine the straight-line distance in meters between Two points with no more than 5% error. Determine the road distance between two points with no more than 10% error.
  47. 47. DETERMINING DISTANCE MEASURE STRAIGHT LINE DISTANCE B 1 ½ 0 1 MILE 1½ MILES 1 ½ 0 1 KILOMETER A
  48. 48. DETERMINING DISTANCE MEASURE CURVATURE DISTANCE The accuracy of this method is dependent on the number of straight- line segments used. B Note: not a road  A
  49. 49. DETERMINING DISTANCE MEASURE CURVATURE DISTANCE NOTE – you can also use a string laid out on the planned route to measure distance. B B 2 1½ 1 ½ 0 1 2 MILE 3 ½ MILES A STRING STRING 2 1½ 1 ½ 0 1 2 KILOMETER A
  50. 50. What is the straight distance 4,550 meters from the Church of God in EG0385 to the buildings in the large intersection in EG0783
  51. 51. What is the road distance 5,350 meters from the Church of God in EG0385 to the buildings in the large intersection in EG0783
  52. 52. Its one thing to measure distance on a map… its another to convert that to an azimuth and trek through the forest
  53. 53. Enabling Learning Objective E ACTION: Determine azimuth using a protractor. CONDITIONS: Given a standard 1:50,000 scale military map, Protractor and Coordinate Scale and a pencil. STANDARDS: Determine the grid azimuth in degrees from one point to anther to within one degree.
  54. 54. Determine an Azimuth on the map between two points With protractor A aligned with GRID LINES drawn on the map and the center of the protractor aligned on your map position (you are here). You see that the azimuth is 29° or 520 MILS.
  55. 55. What is the Grid Azimuth from the Mines in EG1582 to the water tower in EG1185 308 degrees
  56. 56. 37 degrees Bonus Question… What is the What is the Magnetic Grid Azimuth Azimuth? from the Reservoir in EG0499 to the 16 degrees machine nest in EH0602
  57. 57. Enabling Learning Objective F ACTION: Convert azimuths. CONDITIONS: Given a standard 1:50,000 military map with a declination diagram, a pencil, and a magnetic azimuth that must be converted. STANDARDS: Convert the given magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth and the grid too magnetic.
  58. 58. There are Three Types of Azimuth True North Grid North Magnetic North
  59. 59. THREE TYPES OF DIRECTION • True North. A line from any point on the earth's surface to the north pole. Is represented by a star. • Magnetic North. The direction to the north magnetic pole G - M Angle Your indicated by the north-seeking needle of a 14° + 10° = 24° direction of magnetic compass. The magnetic north is travel usually symbolized by a line ending with half of an arrowhead. • Grid North. vertical grid lines on the map. Symbolized by the letters GN. Used for UTM grid by military and rescue teams for its accuracy and simplicity. G-M ANGLE. The angular difference between GN and MN.
  60. 60. CONVERSION (four ways to remember) Left to Right SUBTRACT WEST to EAST is least ( - ) SUBTRACT Right to Left ADD EAST to WEST is best ( + ) ADD MN GN GN MN When MN is to the west (left) of GN MN to GN subtract G-M ANGLE GN to MN add G-M ANGLE GN MN GN When MN is to the east (right) of GN MN MN to GN add G-M ANGLE GN to MN subtract G-M ANGLE
  61. 61. CONVERSION (example 1) G - M Angle 14° + 10° = 24° Left to Right SUBTRACT Your Right to Left ADD direction of travel HOW? From ground to map. 1. You measure the bearing of a landmark on the ground with a compass. It is 49° MN. 2. The G-M ANGLE on the Map is 24° 3. So MN to GN SUBTRACT 49°- 24° = 25° GN (Draw this on your map) From map to ground. 1. You measure the bearing of a point on the map with a protractor (next slides). It is 25° GN. 2. The G-M ANGLE on the Map is 24° 3. So GN to MN ADD 25°+ 24° = 49° MN (Put this on your compass)
  62. 62. CONVERSION (example 2) Left to Right SUBTRACT Right to Left ADD G - M Angle 14° - 5° = 9° HOW? From ground to map. 1. You measure the bearing of a landmark on the ground Your with a compass. It is 322° MN. direction of travel 2. The G-M ANGLE on the Map is 9° 3. So MN to GN ADD 322°+ 9° = 331° GN (Draw this on your map) From map to ground. 1. You measure the bearing of a point on the map with a protractor (next slides). It is 331° GN. 2. The G-M ANGLE on the Map is 9° 3. So GN to MN SUBTRACT 331°- 9° = 322° MN (Put this on your compass)
  63. 63. Lars Ulrich If you GO Left Add if you GO Right Subtract
  64. 64. What is the Magnetic What is the Grid Azimuth Azimuth for the following for the following Grid Azimuths? Magnetic Azimuths? 229 degrees 84 degrees 208 degrees 105 degrees 332 degrees 6 degrees 311 degrees 27 degrees 17 degrees 350 degrees 358 degrees 11 degrees Declination is 21 degrees
  65. 65. Now we can measure distance on a map, determine and convert azimuth… how do we apply this?
  66. 66. Enabling Learning Objective G ACTION: Locate an unknown point on a map by resection. CONDITIONS: Given an unknown location, a standard 1:50,000 scale military map, a straightedge, a coordinate scale and protractor, a pencil and two objects or terrain features that are identifiable on the map. STANDARDS: Determine the eight-digit grid coordinate of your location within 10 meters of the actual grid.
  67. 67. Resection Resection is the method of locating one’s position on a map by determining the GRID AZIMUTH to at least two well-defined locations that can be pinpointed on the map. 84
  68. 68. 330 degrees Mag - 180 degrees = 150 degrees BAM Convert to Grid Azimuth 150 + 21 = 171 Degrees BAG 330 150 60 60 degrees Mag + 180 degrees 240 = 240 degrees BAM Convert to Grid Azimuth 240 + 21 = 261 Degrees BAG
  69. 69. 171 Degrees Back Azimuth GRID 171 261 Degrees Back 261 Azimuth GRID
  70. 70. 320 degrees 25 degrees magnetic magnetic azimuth to azimuth to Crawford a water tower in Mountain Lookout EG1185 Tower in EG1887
  71. 71. Enabling Learning Objective H ACTION: Locate an unknown point on a map by modified resection. CONDITIONS: Given an unknown location, a standard 1:50,000 scale military map, a straightedge, a coordinate scale and protractor, a pencil and a linear feature that is identifiable on the map. STANDARDS: Determine the eight-digit grid coordinate of your location within 10 meters of the actual grid.
  72. 72. Modified Resection Modified resection is the method of locating one’s position on the map when the person is located on a linear feature on the ground, such as a road, canal, or stream. 89
  73. 73. 302 degrees Mag - 180 degrees = 122 degrees BAM Convert to Grid Azimuth 122 + 21 = 143 Degrees BAG 122 302
  74. 74. 143 143 Degrees Back Azimuth GRID Determine the Grid Coordinate EG177832
  75. 75. You have learned how to… • Identify Topographic Symbols on a Military Map • Identify Terrain Features on a Map • Determine the Grid Coordinates of a Point on a Military Map • Measure Distance on a Map • Convert Azimuths • Determine Azimuths Using a Protractor • Locate an Unknown Point on a Map and on the Ground by Resection • Locate one’s position on a Map and on the Ground by Modified Resection
  76. 76. Next: Land Navigation Field Lensatic Compass Orienting a Map • Parts Determine an Azimuth • Using during day Follow an Azimuth • Using at night Pace Count Terminal Learning Objective Action: Navigate from one point on the ground to another while dismounted. Conditions: During day and night, given a classroom and training area, 1:50,000 map (Tenino) for the classroom, 1:50,000 map (Local) for the local training area, protractor, pencil, compass and or PLGR and FM 3-25.26. Standards: Plot, navigate and find a minimum 3 out of 5 points within 3 hours during daylight and/or night.

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