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Reconstruction: North and South
 
The burning questions... Should the Confederate leaders be tried for treason? How were new governments to be formed? How a...
Lincoln’s Plan Lincoln was interested in providing the easiest method for Rebel states to re-enter the Union. 1863 - the P...
Congress’s Response Refused to recognize loyal governments that appeared in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana under Linco...
President Lincoln’s Plan <ul><li>1864     “Lincoln Governments”  formed in LA, TN, AR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ loyal assem...
Wade-Davis Bill (1864) <ul><li>Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (sweari...
Lincoln’s plans for a quick and undramatic reconstruction were cut short by John Wilkes   Booth.
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) <ul><li>Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Many former northern...
Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through  Southern  Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
Freedmen’s Bureau School
President Andrew Johnson <ul><li>Jacksonian Democrat. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Aristocrat. </li></ul><ul><li>White Supremaci...
Johnson’s Plan May 29, 1865 –  Proclamation of Amnesty  added to the list those Lincoln had excluded from pardon everybody...
Southern Intransigence The new Southern governments were too filled with Rebel leaders for Unionists to tolerate. Passage ...
Slavery is Dead?
Thaddeus Stevens Charles Sumner The Radicals  and Reconstruction
Reconstructing the South The Triumph of Congressional Reconstruction Military Reconstruction Act Command of the Army Act T...
Radical Plan for Readmission <ul><li>Civil authorities in the territories were subject to military supervision. </li></ul>...
Congress Breaks with the President <ul><li>Congress bars Southern Congressional delegates. </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Committ...
Reconstruction Acts of 1867 <ul><li>Military Reconstruction Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Sou...
Reconstruction Acts of 1867 <ul><li>Command of the Army Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The President must issue all Reconstruct...
14 th <ul><li>Reaffirmed state and federal citizenship for all persons, regardless of race </li></ul><ul><li>Gave citizens...
The Impeachment and Trial of Johnson Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase Edwin M. Stanton U.S. Grant
Republican Rule in the South June, 1868 - Congress agreed that 7 states had met the conditions for readmission but then re...
15th Amendment States may not deny any citizen the vote on grounds of: Race Color Previous condition of servitude
&quot;Carpetbaggers&quot; and &quot;Scalawags&quot; Northerners, many of whom were teachers, lawyers, social workers, prea...
The Republican Record <ul><li>Universal manhood suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>Made more state offices elective </li></ul><ul>...
White Terror Ku Klux Klan Founded in 1866 in Pulaski, Tenn. Quickly spread through the South
Conservative Resurgence Distractions elsewhere helped Democrats to regain control.
The Grant Years The “Lion of Vicksburg” had less political experience than any man except Taylor, and less political judge...
Grant was personally honest, however, he was dazzled by men of wealth and uncomfortable around intellectuals. Along with h...
Jay Gould Jim Fisk Attempted to corner the gold market.  Grant’s order of September 24, 1869 to sell gold from the Treasur...
Panic and Redemption The Treasury was granted discretion by Congress to gradually retire the $400 million in greenbacks is...
Compromise of 1877 Rutherford B. Hayes Samuel J. Tilden Republicans promised that if Hayes was elected he would withdraw f...
OF RECONSTRUCTION After Hayes took office, most of the promises were renounced or forgotten. Reconstruction did not provid...
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Reconstruction 1863 77

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Reconstruction 1863 77

  1. 1. Reconstruction: North and South
  2. 3. The burning questions... Should the Confederate leaders be tried for treason? How were new governments to be formed? How and at whose expense was the South’s economy to be rebuilt? What was to be done with the freed slaves? Were they to be given land? Social equality? Voting rights?
  3. 4. Lincoln’s Plan Lincoln was interested in providing the easiest method for Rebel states to re-enter the Union. 1863 - the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction provided any Rebel state could form a Union government whenever 10% of the number who voted in 1860 took an oath of allegiance to the Constitution.
  4. 5. Congress’s Response Refused to recognize loyal governments that appeared in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana under Lincoln’s plan. The Radical Republicans desired a sweeping transformation of the South, maintaining that Congress, not the President, should supervise reconstruction.
  5. 6. President Lincoln’s Plan <ul><li>1864  “Lincoln Governments” formed in LA, TN, AR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ loyal assemblies” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were weak and dependent on the Northern army for their survival. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Wade-Davis Bill (1864) <ul><li>Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ). </li></ul><ul><li>Required a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials. </li></ul><ul><li>Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties. </li></ul>Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH) Congressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD)
  7. 8. Lincoln’s plans for a quick and undramatic reconstruction were cut short by John Wilkes Booth.
  8. 9. Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) <ul><li>Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Many former northern abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen. </li></ul><ul><li>Called “carpetbaggers” by white southern Democrats. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
  10. 11. Freedmen’s Bureau School
  11. 12. President Andrew Johnson <ul><li>Jacksonian Democrat. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Aristocrat. </li></ul><ul><li>White Supremacist. </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed with Lincoln that states had never legally left the Union. </li></ul>Damn the negroes! I am fighting these traitorous aristocrats, their masters!
  12. 13. Johnson’s Plan May 29, 1865 – Proclamation of Amnesty added to the list those Lincoln had excluded from pardon everybody with taxable property worth more than $20,000 on the presumption that wealthy planters and merchants had led the South into secession. But by the end of the year he had issued 13,000 pardons.
  13. 14. Southern Intransigence The new Southern governments were too filled with Rebel leaders for Unionists to tolerate. Passage of repressive Black Codes indicated their intentions of preserving the trappings of slavery as nearly as possible.
  14. 15. Slavery is Dead?
  15. 16. Thaddeus Stevens Charles Sumner The Radicals and Reconstruction
  16. 17. Reconstructing the South The Triumph of Congressional Reconstruction Military Reconstruction Act Command of the Army Act Tenure of Office Act The elections of 1866 gave the Republicans more than the two-thirds majority in both houses needed to override any veto. In 1867 they passed three basic laws of reconstruction:
  17. 18. Radical Plan for Readmission <ul><li>Civil authorities in the territories were subject to military supervision. </li></ul><ul><li>Required new state constitutions, including black suffrage and ratification of the 13 th and 14 th Amendments. </li></ul><ul><li>In March, 1867, Congress passed an act that authorized the military to enroll eligible black voters and begin the process of constitution making. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Congress Breaks with the President <ul><li>Congress bars Southern Congressional delegates. </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Committee on Reconstruction created. </li></ul><ul><li>February, 1866  President vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill. </li></ul><ul><li>March, 1866  Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes  1 st in U. S. history!! </li></ul>
  19. 20. Reconstruction Acts of 1867 <ul><li>Military Reconstruction Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14 th Amendment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Reconstruction Acts of 1867 <ul><li>Command of the Army Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tenure of Office Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to protect radical members of Lincoln’s government. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A question of the constitutionality of this law. </li></ul></ul></ul>Edwin Stanton
  21. 22. 14 th <ul><li>Reaffirmed state and federal citizenship for all persons, regardless of race </li></ul><ul><li>Gave citizens the equal protection of the laws </li></ul><ul><li>States could not deny due process of the laws </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Impeachment and Trial of Johnson Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase Edwin M. Stanton U.S. Grant
  23. 24. Republican Rule in the South June, 1868 - Congress agreed that 7 states had met the conditions for readmission but then rescinded Georgia’s admission when they expelled 28 black legislators and seated former Confederate leaders. Ratification of the 15 th Amendment required for readmission.
  24. 25. 15th Amendment States may not deny any citizen the vote on grounds of: Race Color Previous condition of servitude
  25. 26. &quot;Carpetbaggers&quot; and &quot;Scalawags&quot; Northerners, many of whom were teachers, lawyers, social workers, preachers & businessmen. James Longstreet Some were crass opportunists, but others supported change.
  26. 27. The Republican Record <ul><li>Universal manhood suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>Made more state offices elective </li></ul><ul><li>Established 1st state school systems </li></ul><ul><li>Help for handicapped or disadvantaged </li></ul><ul><li>Built or repaired public roads and buildings </li></ul><ul><li>However, some systemic corruption was practiced </li></ul>
  27. 28. White Terror Ku Klux Klan Founded in 1866 in Pulaski, Tenn. Quickly spread through the South
  28. 29. Conservative Resurgence Distractions elsewhere helped Democrats to regain control.
  29. 30. The Grant Years The “Lion of Vicksburg” had less political experience than any man except Taylor, and less political judgement. Although wooed by both parties, Grant’s falling out with Johnson caused him to go Republican.
  30. 31. Grant was personally honest, however, he was dazzled by men of wealth and uncomfortable around intellectuals. Along with his political inexperience and poor political judgement, Grant’s term was ripe for corruption. He tended to remain loyal to greedy subordinates who betrayed his trust.
  31. 32. Jay Gould Jim Fisk Attempted to corner the gold market. Grant’s order of September 24, 1869 to sell gold from the Treasury burst the speculation bubble on “Black Friday.”
  32. 33. Panic and Redemption The Treasury was granted discretion by Congress to gradually retire the $400 million in greenbacks issued during the Civil War. But contraction of the money supply and reckless over-expansion of the the railroads helped to precipitate a financial crisis in 1873.
  33. 34. Compromise of 1877 Rutherford B. Hayes Samuel J. Tilden Republicans promised that if Hayes was elected he would withdraw federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina; Democrats withdrew opposition to Hayes
  34. 35. OF RECONSTRUCTION After Hayes took office, most of the promises were renounced or forgotten. Reconstruction did not provide social equality or substantial economic gains for blacks, but it set the stage for the future.

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