The Problems Of Peace
Major questions facing the country
would the south be rebuilt
How would the liberated Blacks be converted
to free citizens
How would southern states be reintegrated
into the Union
Who would direct reconstruction, the southern
states, the President or Congress
What to do with confederate leaders?
Major Problems InThe South
Social and economic system had collapsed.
Key Southern cities were devastated.
Banking system had collapsed under run-away
Factories were destroyed
Transportation system completely broken down
Agriculture, major economic force of the south,
Southern rich were suddenly much poorer.
Many Southerners were beaten but still defiant
and were not yet emotionally prepared to
reintegrate with the north.
Freedmen Define Freedom
Immediately after war, freedom for Blacks depended on where the
Many in South rejected validity of Emancipation Proclamation
Reaction of Blacks
Blacks hit the road
The Freedmen’s Bureau
Congress creates the Freedmen’s
Bureau March, 1865.
Failed to provide land, as authorized
Blacks and labor contracts
Southern View of Freedmen’s Bur.
the Bureau as
Pres. Johnson didn’t
support it. Why?
It died in 1872.
One of many failures
Plenty to eat and
nothing to do.
Johnson: The Tailor President
He had started from very humble
Never attended school.
Enters politics in Tenn.
Champion of poor whites and
As Tenn. Congressman he
refused to secede with Tenn.
Forced to flee Tenn.
Johnson: The Tailor President
Appointed War Governor after
Tenn. partially redeemed by
Appointed VP when Lincoln
needs to cement the Union Party
and keep the vote of border
states and Union democrats.
Dogmatic believer in State’s Right
and the Constitution.
See John Tyler
Lincoln plan proposed before war over.
What is Lincoln’s basic theory
What is the basic condition for states to be
Who does Lincoln think should be in
charge or reconstruction? Why?
How does Congress feel about his plan?
Lincoln’s 10% Plan. Details
Congress disagreed with Lincoln’s
Congressional Republican theory?
in charge of readmission?.
Radical Republican Goals.
Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill in
does it say?
What happened to this bill?
Johnson’s Pan for Reconstruction
Johnson agreed with Lincoln’s 10% plan.
Recognized several 10% governments.
Introduced his plan 8/1865.
Disenfranchised southerners with property over
They could petition him for a pardon
called for special state conventions
to repeal declarations of secession,
repudiating confederate debts and
ratifying 13th Amendment prohibiting slavery
Who deals with former slaves?
How does Congress React? Why?
New states passed Black
Southern concerns and
1865. States readmitted by Johnson start
sending Congressmen to Washington.
Many are former Confederate politicians
This sets up a monumental show-down
Johnson Clashes With Congress
Johnson reacts strongly to Congress
What is his concern?
Johnson announces that South had
satisfied his conditions and Union was
Vetoed extension of Freedman’s
Civil Rights Act.
What does the Act do?
What does Johnson do to the bill.
What does Congress do in response?
Why does Congress propose?
What does it say?
Conferred Civil Rights except the vote on Freedmen.
Reduced representation in Congress of states that did
not give the freedmen the vote.
Disqualified from federal and state office former
confederates who had previously sworn oath to
Const. of the US and, thus, had violated it.
Repudiated the confederate debt.
Extended Due Process to all citizens.
Ratified in 1868
Johnson’s Back-firing Campaign
1866 Johnson and Congress battle over whether
reconstruction would continue with or without the
The battle-ground became the Congressional
Johnson hoped for a majority in favor of his soft
Republicans sought a congress that was veto-proof.
Johnson goes on a “give-‘em-hell” campaign
swing to try to marshal votes.
Johnson’s efforts backfire. Why?
Republican’s In Charge
Republicans now in the driver’s
seat, but split between the radicals
and the moderates.
Radicals led by Charles Sumner in
the Senate and Thaddeus Stevens
in the house.
Aims of Radicals?
Aims of Moderates?
Moderates had the upper hand
Eventual policies showed influences
Both recognize that federal power
necessary to ensure
enfranchisement of blacks.
Reconstruction Act (March 1867)
What did it do?
Temporarily disenfranchised many southerners—
Stringent conditions for the readmission of the
States required to ratify Fourteenth Amendment to
come back in
State constitutions must guarantee vote for slaves
Stopped short of giving blacks land or requiring
Johnson vehemently opposes. What does he
do in response?
15th Amendment passed 1869 (ratified in
Why necessary after Reconstruction Act?
Military reconstruction questionable
By 1870 all states readmitted under terms
of Reconstruction Act.
Last federal troops leave in 1877.
Radical Reconstruction In The South
Evolution of attitude toward black
Blacks voting, but many whites weren’t.
14 Black Congressmen; 2 Black
Senators. Height of black political
power until mid 20th Century.
Carpetbaggers and Scalawags.
Assessment of reconstruction
governments in the South
Ku Klux Klan
KKK (Invisible Empire of the South)
Used intimidation, fear and force to get
upstart Blacks and carpetbaggers to get
back in their place.
Founded by Nathan Bedford Forrest.
Undermined the civil rights given to
Radical Republicans frustrated with
Johnson and out for his hide.
Tenure in Office Act (1867). Provisions?
How does Johnson violate the act?
Constitutionality of act?
House vote for impeachment
Factors impacting the Senate vote
The Purchase Of Alaska
One of Johnson’s few
successes was the purchase
Why were Russians looking
to unload Alaska?
Sec. of State Seward agrees
to purchase for 7.2 Mil in
1867. Dubbed Seward’s
Why was US willing to