C LASHES ON THE P LAINS Treaty of Fort Laramie Beginning of reservations for Plains Indians
T HE H ORSE AND THE B ISONHorses brought by the Spanish allowed the Plains Indians increased mobility in war and hunting.
1834 U.S. Government considered the entire Great Plains an Indian reservation 1850s U.S. Government began to make treaties specific boundaries
C AUSES OF M IGRATION TO A MERICAN I NDIAN L ANDS Discovery of Gold European migration to U.S. Cheap / free land Overcrowding A new life after the Civil War
Massacre at Sand Creek (1864) Cheyenne/Arapaho – 150 mostly women and children were killed Second Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) Bozeman Trail closed Agree to settlement on reservation 2 of 3 Sioux tribes signed - Sitting Bull refuses
C USTER ’ S L AST S TAND (1876) Gold is found in S. Dakota on Sioux Land Whites flood land Sioux Attack 7th Cavalry was wiped out at the Little Big Horn River Gen. George Armstron g Custer Chief Sitting Bull
D AWES A CT OF 1887 “Americanization” of American Indians Broke up reservations, no more communal land 160 Acres – head of household 80 acres – unmarried adult All other land was sold to settlers – no $ from the sale was given to the Native Americans 1932 – 2/3 of Indian lands were gone
The Ghost Dance was created by a group of Native Americans to restore the old way of life. Army feared it.
Wounded Knee (1890) 300 starving Sioux were massacred by the military in response to the Ghost Dance
FACTORS L EADING TO THE S ETTLEMENT OF W EST 1. Railroads Transcontinental Railroad – connected East with West Union Pacific was built from the West Central Pacific was built from the East Meet – Promontory, Utah Built by immigrants – Chinese & Irish
2. Land Grants Homestead Act of 1862 160 Acres – not all good land – most failed “Exodusters” – African Americans who moved west after the Civil War Oklahoma Land Rush 1889 Massive land giveaway in Indian Territory (2M acres) … the Sooners West goes from 1% to 30% of nation’s population.
“E ND OF THE F RONTIER ” F REDERICK J ACKSON T URNER – H ISTORIAN “American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. This perennial rebirth, this fluidity of American life, this expansion westward with its new opportunities, its continuous touch with the simplicity of primitive society, furnish the forces dominating American character.”What will be the next frontier, the next challenge?
T ECHNOLOGY & FARMING IN THE 1800 S John Deere - steel bladed plow 1837 http://www.museum.state.il.us/exhibits/agriculture/htmls/technology/horse-drawn/tech_horse-drawn_deere_plow.html
Before the reaper there was the scythe – Hand-held, slow Clip 522
T ECHNOLOGY & FARMING IN THE 1800 S Cyrus McCormick – reaper 1847 – Cuts grain Pulled by horse or other draft animal
T ECHNOLOGY & FARMING IN THE 1800 S Different Reaper – Same effect - Clip 536
T ECHNOLOGY & FARMING IN THE 1800 S Reaper and Binder Clip 541 & 542
T ECHNOLOGY & FARMING IN THE 1800 S Harrow (smoothes soil)– 1869
T HRESHER Clip 57 Clip 62 http://www.tillersinternational.org/farmi ng/images/slideshow_threshing/Threshi ng%202009/img_3417.jpg
T ECHNOLOGY & FARMING IN THE 1800 S The end of the open range brought an end to the cattle drives as well Joseph F. Glidden’s invention… Barbed Wire 1874
FARMERS U NITE TO A DDRESS P ROBLEMSLate 1800 Economic Problems Falling prices Mortgaged farms / equipment buying on credit Increase in bank foreclosures Increase in railroad shipping charges
E FFECTS OF R ETIRING THE G REENBACKS Greenbacks retired - $ left in circulation worth more Farmers had to pay back loans w/ crop prices down less profit Farmers wanted more $ (silver) in circulation – didn’t solve problems
T HE G RANGE 1867 (T HE PATRONS OF H USBANDRY ) Oliver Hudson Kelly Social outlet for farmers Educational forum Fight Railroads (high pricing / legislation) Established coops (cooperatives)
FARMERS A LLIANCE Education of farmers (business & agriculture) Spellbinding speakers – Mary Lease “Raise more hell and less corn” Southern Alliance – white farmers Colored Farmers’ National Alliance – African American farmers
P EOPLE ’ S PARTY (1892) - P OPULISM Increase in $ supply increasing prices Graduated income tax Federal loan program Popular vote of U.S. Senators Term limits – President / Vice President Secret Ballot 8 hour work day Restrictions on immigration
Appealed to farmers & laborers 10% vote in elections for Governors, Senators, Congressmen, Legislators Adopted by Democratic Party – strong in South