The geographer’s tools


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  • This was very helpful and goes with the first two chapters in my Introduction to Geography class and textbook my McGraw-Hill.
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The geographer’s tools

  1. 1.  Geographers use 2- and 3- dimensional tools to learn about the earth. Geographers use computer assisted technology to study the earth.
  2. 2. Globes Help Geographers study the world.What are some advantages/disadvantages of using globes?
  3. 3.  Globes provide a proportional view of the earth as it travels through space. They are not easily portable. You can only see half of it at a time.
  4. 4.  Cartographers make maps, which are two- dimensional representations of earth. What are some advantages and disadvantages of maps?
  5. 5.  Easily portable Can be drawn to any scale needed Distortion occurs as maps are flattened A map projection is a way of drawing the earth’s surface that reduces distortion caused by presenting a round earth on flat paper.
  6. 6.  Size of scale is determined by detail. Large scale maps are needed to show many details. LARGE SCALE = LARGE DETAIL Small scale maps are needed when fewer details are shown. SMALL SCALE = SMALL DETAIL!!!!! What are some examples of places that would need a large scale? What are some examples of places that would need a small scale?
  7. 7.  1. General Reference - (Political, Physical, Topographic) 2. Thematic 3. Navigational
  8. 8.  General Reference maps are used for people to acquire information. Physical maps help you see the types of landforms and bodies of water in a specific area. P. 20 in book
  9. 9.  Political maps show features on the earth’s surface that humans created. Cities, states, provinces, territories, or countries may be on a political map. P. 21
  10. 10. Topographic maps are types of generalreference maps. They show natural and man-made features on earth.
  11. 11.  Thematic maps focus on specific types of information. (ex: population density, vegetation, weather maps, resources, qualitative)
  12. 12.  Use colors, symbols, dots, or lines to help you see a pattern.
  13. 13.  Surveying• Surveyors observe, measure, record what they see in a specific area.They use remote sensing (gathering data from a distance) to do this.• Remote sensing includes: - aerial photography - satellite imaging
  14. 14.  Geographers use Landsat and Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES) to gather geographic data. Landsat is a series of satellites that can scan the entire planet in 16 days. GOES orbits the earth and gathers atmospheric information used for forecasting weather.
  15. 15.  GIS stores geographic info in a database. Geographers use GIS to solve problems. GIS provides maps, aerial photographs, satellite images, and other data. Can you think of an example of a GIS?
  16. 16.  Originally developed for military reasons. Uses 24 satellites to show exact location on earth. Who might use GPS?