Ch. 1.2--Geographer's Tools

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Ch. 1.2--Geographer's Tools

  1. 1. Geographer’s Tools<br />Chapter 1, Section 2<br />
  2. 2. Globe<br />3-dimensional representation of the earth<br />Not practical because it’s not portable<br />
  3. 3. Maps<br />2-dimensional graphic representations of selected parts of the earth’s surface<br />Advantage – easily portable and drawn to scale<br />Disadvantage – distorts earth’s surface<br />
  4. 4. Cartographer – map maker<br />
  5. 5. Types of Maps<br />1. General reference map (or topographic map) – represents natural and man-made features on the earth<br />
  6. 6. Types of Maps<br />2. Thematic maps – emphasizes specific kinds of information<br />
  7. 7. Types of Maps<br />3. Navigational maps – used mostly by sailors and pilots<br />
  8. 8. Satellites<br />Provide the majority of geographic data<br />Landsat – series of satellites that orbit more than 100 miles above the earth<br />Scans the entire earth in 16 days<br />
  9. 9. Satellites<br />Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES) – weather satellite that flies in orbit at the same speed as the earth<br />
  10. 10. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)<br />Combines information from a variety of sources<br />Layers appropriate information<br />Creates a composite map <br />
  11. 11. Global Positioning System (GPS)<br />Originally developed for military<br />Uses a series of 24 satellites (Navstars) which transmits exact location to a hand-held receiver<br />
  12. 12. Map Projections<br />Geography Skills handbook<br />
  13. 13. Planar Projection<br />Projection on a flat surface<br />Distorts size and shape<br />Shows the shortest distance between 2 points<br />
  14. 14. Conical Projection<br />Projection onto a cone<br />Shapes are accurate, but it distorts landmasses at the edge of the picture<br />
  15. 15. Cylindrical Projection<br />Projection onto a cylinder<br />Shows entire earth on one map<br />3 different types<br />
  16. 16. Mercator Map<br />Shapes of continents are distorted at the poles and compressed at the equator<br />
  17. 17. Interrupted Map<br />Oceans are divided<br />Shows accurate shapes and sizes of landmasses <br />Distances are not correct<br />
  18. 18. Robinson Projection<br />Most commonly used<br />Shows entire earth with nearly true sizes and shapes<br />Landforms near poles are flat<br />
  19. 19. Physical Map<br />Shows landforms and bodies of water<br />
  20. 20. Political Map<br />Shows man-made features such as cities and borders<br />
  21. 21. Qualitative Maps<br />Use colors, symbols, dots or lines to help you see patterns related to a specific idea<br />
  22. 22. Cartograms<br />Information is presented based on data instead of land area<br />
  23. 23. Flow-line Maps<br />Illustrate movement of people, goods, ideas, animals or even glaciers<br />

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