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Unit 2

Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Systems

1 of 84
Process planning – Computer Aided Process Planning
(CAPP) – Logical steps in Computer Aided Process
Planning – Aggregate Production Planning and the Master
Production Schedule
Material Requirement planning – Capacity Planning-
Control Systems-Shop Floor Control-Inventory Control
Brief on Manufacturing Resource Planning-II (MRP-II) &
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

 The design is developed and done by design
department
 To convert the product design into a product, a
manufacturing plan is required
 The activity of developing a such plan is called
process planning
 It consists of set of instructions that describes how to
manufacture the product and its parts
Process Planning

Role of Process Planning in
CAD/CAM Integration

 Interpreting part print analysis & symbols
 Gathering the fundamental details of product design
 Selecting the machining process
 Selecting proper machining with allied tooling
 Sequencing the operations
 Inspecting equipment in order to meet quality
 Determining the tolerance, cutting tool, cutting
conditions
 Time study & work study
Responsibility of Process
Planning Engineer

 Drawing interpretation
 Material Evaluation & Process Selection
 Selection of Machine, Tooling & Work holding
devices
 Setting process parameters
 Selection of Quality Assurance Methods
 Cost Estimating
 Preparing the Process Planning Documentation
 Communicating the Knowledge in shop floor
Process Planning
Activities


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Unit 2

  • 1. Process planning – Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) – Logical steps in Computer Aided Process Planning – Aggregate Production Planning and the Master Production Schedule Material Requirement planning – Capacity Planning- Control Systems-Shop Floor Control-Inventory Control Brief on Manufacturing Resource Planning-II (MRP-II) & Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
  • 2.   The design is developed and done by design department  To convert the product design into a product, a manufacturing plan is required  The activity of developing a such plan is called process planning  It consists of set of instructions that describes how to manufacture the product and its parts Process Planning
  • 3.  Role of Process Planning in CAD/CAM Integration
  • 4.   Interpreting part print analysis & symbols  Gathering the fundamental details of product design  Selecting the machining process  Selecting proper machining with allied tooling  Sequencing the operations  Inspecting equipment in order to meet quality  Determining the tolerance, cutting tool, cutting conditions  Time study & work study Responsibility of Process Planning Engineer
  • 5.   Drawing interpretation  Material Evaluation & Process Selection  Selection of Machine, Tooling & Work holding devices  Setting process parameters  Selection of Quality Assurance Methods  Cost Estimating  Preparing the Process Planning Documentation  Communicating the Knowledge in shop floor Process Planning Activities
  • 6.
  • 7.  Here the component drawings should be analyzed in detail to identify its features, dimensions, geometric tolerances, surface finish specifications, the material specification and the number of parts required Drawing interpretation
  • 8.   This step is to determine the type of processing operation that has the capability to generate the various type of features, given the tolerance requirements.  The sequence of operations required to transform the features , dimensions and tolerances on the part from a rough(initial) to a finished state is determined. Material Evaluation & Process Selection
  • 9.   When type of manufacturing has been determined , the next step in process planning is to select appropriate Machine, Tooling & Work holding devices  Machine selection requires how the part would be processed on each of the alternative so that the best machine can be selected Selection of Machine, Tooling & Work holding devices
  • 10.   The next step in process planning is to calculate the specific operation setup time and the cycle times on each machine.  Determination of setup time requires knowledge of available tooling and the sequence of steps necessary to prepare the machine for processing the given work piece Setting process parameters
  • 11.   Here the tools and techniques to be used for Quality Assurance inspection are specified clearly.  Inspection criteria has to be specified by the process planner for the critical processing factors (such a s dimensional and geometric tolerances and surface finish specifications) Selection of Quality Assurance Methods
  • 12.   The probable cost of the product before the start of its manufacture  With the available cost and time data, the material cost, labour cost and overheads are estimated. Cost Estimating
  • 13.   The next step in process planning is to document clearly all the information in detail  It is generally documented as a job routing or operation sheet.  Operation sheet is also called route sheet or instruction sheet or traveller or planner Process Planning Documentation
  • 14.   The Major and Final step in process planning is to communicate the manufacturing knowledge to the shop floor  Communication is essential to ensure that the part will be processed accordingly to the most economically possible way through process planning. Communicate Process Knowledge
  • 15.   In order to overcome the drawbacks of manual process planning, the computer aided process planning is used.  With the use of computers in the process planning, one can reduce the routine clerical work of manufacturing engineers.  Also it provides the opportunity to generate rational, consistent and optimal plans. COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANNING (CAPP)
  • 16.   Process rationalization and standardization.  Productivity improvement  Product cost reduction  Elimination of human error  Reduction in time  Reduced clerical effort and paper work  Improved legibility  Faster response to engineering changes  Incorporation of other application programs Befits Of CAPP
  • 17.   The two basic approaches of CAPP system are  Retrieval CAPP system  Generative CAPP system Approaches of CAPP
  • 18.   The basic idea behind the retrieval CAPP is that similar parts will have similar process plans.  In this system, a process plan for a new part is created by recalling, identifying and retrieving an existing plan for a similar part, and making the necessary modifications for the new part. Retrieval CAPP system
  • 19.   In the generative approach, an automatic computerised system is used to synthesize or generate each individual process plan automatically and without reference to any prior plan.  A generative CAPP system generates the process plan based on decision logics and pre-coded algorithms. Generative CAPP system
  • 20.   Classification and coding capabilities  Graphics capabilities  Work instruction creation and maintenance  Process planning capabilities  Time standard capabilities  Machining parameters  Total system considerations  Vendor qualifications Criteria for selecting a CAPP system
  • 21.   Production planning and control (PPC) is aimed at achieving the efficient utilisation of resources (material, men, facility, etc) in the manufacturing organisation through planning, coordinating and control of production activities that transform the raw material into finished products in a most optimal manner.  Production planning and control = Production planning + production control Production planning and control systems
  • 22.   Production planning is a pre production activity. It is the pre-determination of manufacturing requirements such as manpower, materials, machines and manufacturing process.  It is concerned with  Deciding which products to make, how many of each, and when they should be completed  Scheduling the production and delivery of the parts and products  Planning the manpower and equipment resources needed to accomplish the production plan Production planning
  • 23.   Aggregate production planning  Master production planning  Material requirements planning (MRP)  Capacity planning Activities of production planning
  • 24.   Production control is concerned with determining whether the necessary resources to implement the production plan have been provided or not.  Production control tries to take corrective action to match the planned and actual production. Production control
  • 25.   Shop floor control  Inventory control  Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II)  Just in time production systems Activities of production control
  • 27.
  • 28.   Aggregate planning is the process of planning the quantity and timing of output over the intermediate time horizon (3 months to 1 year).  The aggregate production plan is based upon the demand forecasts provided by the marketing department. Aggregate Production Planning
  • 29.   The main purpose of the aggregate plan is to specify the optimal combination of production rate, workforce level and inventory on hand.  To maximize profits/minimize costs  To maximize customer service  To minimize inventory investment  To minimize changes in workforce levels  To maximize utilization of plant and equipment. Objectives of Aggregate planning
  • 30.  Flow chart of aggregate plan and master schedule
  • 31.  The operations planning and scheduling system
  • 32.  Inputs to and outputs from aggregate production planning
  • 33.   The aggregate plan is an intermediate planning stage, and in the next stage the aggregate plan is to be disaggregated (broken down into parts) to include information about the different models of the product to be produced.  This disaggregated plan is known as master production schedule (MPS).  MPS is the result of the disaggregation of an aggregate plan. Master Production Schedule
  • 34.
  • 35.   To schedule end items to be completed promptly and when promised to customers.  To avoid overloading or under loading the production facility so that production capacity is efficiently utilized and low production costs result. Objectives of MPS
  • 36.   To translate aggregate plans into specific end items.  To evaluate alternative schedules.  To generate material requirement.  To generate capacity requirement  To facilitate information processing  To maintain valid priorities  To effectively utilize capacity Functions of MPS
  • 37.
  • 38.   Material requirement planning is a computational technique that converts the master schedule for final products into a detailed schedule for the raw materials and parts used in the final products. Material Requirement Planning (MRP)
  • 39.   MRP drives demand for components, subassemblies, materials, etc., from demand and production schedules of parent items.  MRP offsets replenishment orders (purchase orders or production schedules) relative to the date when replenishment is needed. Basic characteristics of MRP
  • 40.   Master production schedule  Bill of materials file  Inventory record file Inputs to MRP
  • 41.
  • 42.   Reduced inventory levels  Better production scheduling  Reduced production lead time  Reduced setup cost  Reduced product changeover cost  Better machine utilisation  Improved product quality Benefits of MRP
  • 43.   Capacity planning is concerned with defining the long-term and short term capacity needs of a firm and determining how these needs will be met. Capacity planning
  • 44.   Assessing existing capacity  Forecasting future capacity needs  Identifying alternative ways to modify capacity  Evaluating financial, economical and technological capacity alternatives  Selecting a capacity alternative most suited to achieve the strategic mission of the firm. Activities involved in capacity planning
  • 45.   Rough cut capacity planning  Capacity requirements planning Stages of capacity planning
  • 46.   RCCP is done in conjunction with the tentative master production schedule to test its feasibility in terms of capacity before the master production schedule is finalized. Rough Cut Capacity Planning (RCCP)
  • 47.
  • 48.   Capacity requirement planning is a technique for determining what labour/personnel and equipment capacities are needed to meet the production objectives symbolised in the master production schedule (MPS) and the material requirements planning (MRP). Capacity Requirement Planning
  • 49.
  • 50.   A shop floor control system is defined as a system for utilizing data from the shop floor as well as data processing files to maintain and communicate status information on shop orders and work centre.  SFC is concerned with  The release of production orders to the factory  Monitoring and controlling the progress of orders through the various work centres.  Acquiring information on the status of the orders. Shop floor control
  • 51.
  • 52.   Assigning priority of each shop order (Scheduling)  Maintaining work in process quantity information (Dispatching)  Conveying shop order status information to the office (Follow up)  Providing actual output data for capacity control purposes  Providing quantity by location by shop order for work in process inventory and accounting purposes  Providing measurement of efficiency, utilisation and productivity of manpower and machines. Function of shop floor
  • 53.   Order release  Order scheduling  Order progress Phases of SFC
  • 54.
  • 55.   This order release phase provides the documentation needed to process a production order through the factory.  Route sheet  Material requisitions  Job cards  Move tickets  Part lists Order release
  • 56.   In this phase, the order scheduling module assigns the production orders to the various work centres in that plant.  In other words, order scheduling executes the dispatching function in production planning and control.  Two elements of order scheduling  Machine loading  Job sequencing Order scheduling
  • 57.   The order progress phase monitors the status of the various orders in the plant, work in progress and other characteristics that indicate the progress and performance of production. Order progress
  • 58.   The factory data collection (FDC) system consists of various paper documents, terminals and automated devices through out the plant for collecting data on shop floor operations. Factory data collection
  • 59.   Number of pieces completed at a certain work centres,  Direct labour time spent on each order,  List and number of parts that are scrapped,  List and number of parts requiring rework,  Equipment downtime, and  Time clocks used by employees to punch in and out of work. Types of data collected by FDC
  • 60.   To supply status and performance data to the shop floor control system.  To provide up-to-date information to the production supervisors and production control personnel.  To enable the management to monitor implementation of master schedule. Objectives of FDC system
  • 61.   Online data collection systems  Offline data collection systems Types of data collection systems
  • 62.   In an on-line system, the data are entered directly into the plant computer system and are immediately available to the order progress module.  Advantage: The data file representing the status of the shop is always kept at the current state. Online data collection systems
  • 63.   In an off-line data collection system, the data are collected temporarily in a storage device or in a stand alone computer to be entered and processed by plant computer in a batch mode.  Advantage: The offline data collection system is easier to install and implement when compared to online data system. Offline data collection systems
  • 64.   Inventory control may be defined as the scientific method of determining what to order, when to order and how much to order and how much to stock so that costs associated with buying and storing are optimal without interrupting production and sales. Inventory management
  • 65.   To ensure continuous supply of materials so that production should not suffer at any time.  To maintain the overall investment in inventory at the lowest level, consistent with operating requirements.  To avoid both overstocking and under stocking of inventory.  To keep inactive, waste, surplus, scrap and obsolete items at the minimum level. Objectives of inventory control
  • 66.   Ordering costs  Carrying costs  Shortage costs  Purchase costs Costs associated with inventory
  • 67.   Ordering costs are the costs associated with the placement of an order for the acquisition of inventories. Ordering cost
  • 68.   Inventory carrying costs are the costs associated with holding a given level of inventory on hand. Holding (or inventory carrying costs)
  • 69.   When the stock of an item is depleted and there is a demand for it, then the shortage cost will occur. In simple terms, shortage cost is the cost associated with stock-out. Shortage (or stock-out) costs
  • 70.   Purchase costs are the costs incurred to purchase / produce the item. Purchase (or production)cost
  • 71.   The amount of material procured or quantity produced during one production cycle is known as order quantity or lot size.  EOQ is that size of order which minimises the total costs of carrying inventory and ordering. Economic order quantity
  • 72.
  • 73.
  • 74.
  • 75.
  • 76.   Fixed order quantity models (Q-models)  Fixed time period models (P-models) Types of inventory systems
  • 77.
  • 78.
  • 79.   MRP – II is defined as a computer based system for planning, scheduling and controlling the materials, resources and supporting activities needed to meet the master production schedule (MPS) Manufacturing resource planning (MRP - II)
  • 80.   Management Planning  Business strategy, aggregate production planning, master production scheduling and budget planning  Customer services  Sales forecasting, order entry, sales analysis and finished goods inventory  Operations planning  Purchase order and work order release  Operations execution  Purchasing, product scheduling and control, shop floor control and work in process inventory control  Financial functions  Cost accounting, accounts receivable, accounts payable Functions of MRP-II
  • 81.
  • 82.   ERP is a new system concept in which every enterprise function is integrated in a seamless flow of information.  This system integrates all facts of business including sales and order entry, engineering, manufacturing, finance and accounting, distribution, order planning and execution and the supply chain flows. Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
  • 83.   ERP is a software architecture that integrates all the functions of the enterprise.  ERP system requires a seamless flow of information  ERP is an extremely powerful, user friendly technology  ERP is supported by client server architecture for communication at different levels of system. Features of ERP system
  • 84.  1. Identify the needs of ERP implementation package 2. Evaluate the existing business situation 3. Make decision regarding desired situation through benchmarking 4. Reengineer business process to achieve the desired results 5. Evaluate various available ERP packages 6. Choose the suitable best ERP package 7. Install necessary hardware and networks 8. Finalise the ERP consultant 9. Implement ERP in phased manner Implementation of ERP