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Unit 1 cim

Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Systems

1 of 82
ME6703 – COMPUTER
INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING
COMPUTER INTEGRATED
MANUFACTURING
OUTCOMES:
• Can able to understand the use of computers in process
planning and use of FMS and Robotics in CIM
OBJECTIVES:
• To understand the application of computers in various aspects
of Manufacturing viz., Design, Proper planning,
Manufacturing cost, Layout & Material Handling system.
UNIT I
INTRODUCTION
 Brief introduction to CAD and CAM – Manufacturing Planning, Manufacturing
control- Introduction to CAD/CAM – Concurrent Engineering-CIM concepts –
Computerised elements of CIM system –Types of production - Manufacturing
models and Metrics – Mathematical models of Production Performance– Simple
problems – Manufacturing Control – Simple Problems – Basic Elements of an
Automated system – Levels of Automation – Lean Production and Just-In-Time
Production.
CAD
 CAD is the technology concerned with the use of computer systems
to assist the creation, modification, analysis and optimization of a
design.
 CAD Systems are powerful tools and are used in the mechanical
design and geometric modelling of products and components.
Unit 1 cim
Elements of CAD system
Functional areas of a CAD design Process
 Geometric modelling
 Design analysis and optimization
 Design review and evaluation
 Documentation and drafting

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Unit 1 cim

  • 2. COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING OUTCOMES: • Can able to understand the use of computers in process planning and use of FMS and Robotics in CIM OBJECTIVES: • To understand the application of computers in various aspects of Manufacturing viz., Design, Proper planning, Manufacturing cost, Layout & Material Handling system.
  • 3. UNIT I INTRODUCTION  Brief introduction to CAD and CAM – Manufacturing Planning, Manufacturing control- Introduction to CAD/CAM – Concurrent Engineering-CIM concepts – Computerised elements of CIM system –Types of production - Manufacturing models and Metrics – Mathematical models of Production Performance– Simple problems – Manufacturing Control – Simple Problems – Basic Elements of an Automated system – Levels of Automation – Lean Production and Just-In-Time Production.
  • 4. CAD  CAD is the technology concerned with the use of computer systems to assist the creation, modification, analysis and optimization of a design.  CAD Systems are powerful tools and are used in the mechanical design and geometric modelling of products and components.
  • 6. Elements of CAD system Functional areas of a CAD design Process  Geometric modelling  Design analysis and optimization  Design review and evaluation  Documentation and drafting
  • 8. Reasons for implementing CAD  To increase the productivity of the designer  To improve the quality of the design  To improve communications  To create a database for engineering
  • 9. Benefits of CAD  Increased design productivity  Shorter lead time  Flexibility in design  Improved design analysis  Fewer design errors  Greater accuracy in design calculations  Standardization of design, drafting and documentation procedures  Easier creation and correction of engineering drawing  Better visualization of drawings  Faster new products design  Benefits in manufacturing
  • 10. APPLICATIONS OF CAD  Design  Analysis  Documentation  Manufacturing  Management
  • 11. CAM  Computer aided manufacturing may be defined as an effective use of computers and computer technology in the planning management and control of the manufacturing function.  CAM involves the use of computers to assist in all the phases of manufacturing a product, including process and production planning, machining, scheduling, management and quality control.
  • 12. APPLICATIONS OF CAM The applications of CAM can be divided into two broad categories  Manufacturing Planning  Manufacturing Control
  • 13. MANUFACTURING PLANNING APPLICATIONS OF CAM  The manufacturing Planning applications of CAM are those in which computers are used indirectly to support the production function, but there is no direct connection between the computer and the process. The important manufacturing planning applications of CAM includes:  Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP)  Computer assisted NC part programming  Computerised machinability data systems  Development of work standards  Cost estimation  Production and inventory planning  Computer aided line balancing
  • 14. Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP)  Process planning is an act of preparing a detailed work instructions for the manufacture and assembly of components into a finished production in discrete part manufacturing.  Process planning consist of : 1. The selection of manufacturing processes and operations, production equipment, tooling and jigs & fixtures. 2. The determination of manufacturing parameters; and 3. The specification of selection criteria for the quality assurance (QA) methods to ensure product quality.
  • 15. Computer assisted NC part programming  Numerical control part program is the planned and documented procedure by which the sequence of processing steps to be performed on the NC machines  Types of part programming Manual part programming Computer assisted part programming
  • 17. Computerised machinability data systems  Computer programs have been written to recommend the appropriate cutting parameters such as speed, feed and depth of cut to use for different materials.  Advantages  It can store data from different sources  The data base can be kept up to date  Fast retrieval of selected data is possible  Rapid optimization computations are possible  Comparison of alternative cutting conditions is easy
  • 18. Development of work standards  There are several computer packages that can be employed to determine time standards for direct labour jobs in the factory.  They overcome tedious manual time study and motion study used to perform the same task.  The computerized systems are based on the use of standard data of basic work elements stored in computer either in a data file or in the form of a mathematical formula.
  • 19. ADVANTAGES  Reduction in time required to set the standard  Greater accuracy and uniformity in the time standards  Ease of maintaining the methods and standards file  Elimination of the biased performance rating step  Settling the time standards before the job gets into production
  • 20. COST ESTIMATING  Cost estimating is the process of determining the probable cost of the product before the start of its manufacture.  With the use of computers, the several steps of the cost estimating procedure are computerized.  Computerized cost estimating is a program that can estimate the cost of a new product, by computerizing several of the key steps required to prepare the estimate. (such as the application of labour and overhead rates to the sequence of planned operations)  Thus the total cost for a new product can be estimated by the computer program by summing up the individual component costs from the engineering bill of materials
  • 21. Production and inventory planning  Production planning is a pre-production activity. It is the pre- determination of manufacturing requirements such as manpower, materials, machines and manufacturing process. Production planning is concerned with  Deciding which products to make, how many of each, and when they should be completed  Scheduling the production and delivery of the parts and the products;  Planning the manpower and the equipment resources needed to accomplish the production plan
  • 22. Computer aided line balancing  Line balancing problem is concerned with assigning the individual work elements to work stations so that all workers have an equal amount of work.  Computer aided line balancing program helps to find the best allocation of work elements among stations on an assembly line.
  • 23. MANUFACTURING CONTROL APPLICATIONS OF CAM  The manufacturing control applications of CAM are concerned with developing computer systems for implementing the manufacturing control function. The important manufacturing planning applications of CAM includes:  Process monitoring and control  Quality control  Shop floor control  Inventory control  Just in time production systems
  • 24. Process monitoring and control  Computer process monitoring and control is the use of a stored program digital computer to monitor and control an industrial process.  Computer process monitoring vs Computer process control Computer process monitoring  It is a data collection system in which the computer is connected directly to the workstation and associated equipment for the purpose of observing the operation. Computer process control  It is a process of controlling the controllable input variables with the use of computers so as to achieved the desired performance evaluation variables.
  • 26. Quality control  Quality control includes a variety of approaches to maintain the highest possible quality levels in the manufactured product.  Some modern technologies in quality control are 1. Quality engineering 2. Quality function deployment 3. 100% automated inspection 4. On-line inspection 5. Coordinate measurement machines for dimensional measurement 6. Non Contact Inspection Method (Machine Vision)
  • 27. Shop floor control  Shop floor control system is defined as a system for utilizing data from the shop floor as well as data processing files to maintain and communicate status information on shop orders and work centre.  Shop floor control is concerned with 1. The release of production orders to the factory 2. Monitoring and controlling the progress of the orders through the various work centres 3. Acquiring information on the status of the orders
  • 28. Inventory control  Inventory control is the scientific method of determining what to order, when to order and how much to stock so that costs associated with buying and storing are optimal without interrupting production and sales.  The two types of inventory models 1. Fixed order quantity models (Q-models) 2. Fixed –time period models (P-models)
  • 29. Just in time production systems  JIT is management philosophy that strives to eliminate sources of manufacturing waste by producing the right part in the right place at the right time.  JIT is also known as stockless production  The ideal JIT production system produces and delivers only the required items, at the required time, and in the required quantities.
  • 30. Sequential Engineering  Traditionally the product design is carried out by the design department in relative isolation i.e the design department finalizes the design and the engineering drawing without consulting the manufacturing, quality and services departments.  All these phases are sequentially carried out
  • 32. The major weakness of sequential engineering approach are  Insufficient production specification leading to an excessive amount of modifications  Little attention to manufacturability issues of the product at the design stage  Incorrect cost estimation, leading to a lack of confidence in the estimated cost of projects  The likelihood of late changes usually leads to expensive changes to tooling and other equipment.
  • 33. CONCURRENT ENGINEERING  Concurrent engineering is a systematic approach to the integrated concurrent design of products and their related processes, including manufacturing and support. Advantages:  Decreased product development lead time  Improved profitability  Greater competitiveness  Improved product quality
  • 36. CIM  CAD+CAM = CIM  CIM is the total integration of all components involved in converting raw materials into finished products and getting the products to the market.  CIM is the integration of the total manufacturing enterprise through the use of integrated systems and data communications coupled with new managerial philosophies that improve organisational and personnel efficiency.
  • 37. Scope of CAD/CAM and CIM  The scope of CAD/CAM includes design, manufacturing planning and manufacturing control. CIM = CAD/CAM functions + Business functions
  • 39. Reasons for Implementing CIM  To meet competitive pressures  To coordinate and organize data  To eliminate paper and the costs associated with its use  To automate communication with in a factory and increase the speed  To facilitate simultaneous engineering
  • 40. Benefits of CIM  Creation of a truly interactive system that enables manufacturing functions to communicate easily with other relevant functional units  Faster responses to data changes for manufacturing flexibility.  Increased flexibility towards introduction of new products  Improved accuracy and quality in the manufacturing process  Improved quality of the products  Reduction of lead times which generates a competitive advantage
  • 41. Computerized Elements of a CIM System
  • 43. Production system  Production is the sequence of operations which transform the given materials into desired products. This transformation from one from to another is carried out either by one or a combination of different manufacturing processes.  A system is a logical arrangement of components designed to achieve particular objectives according to a plan.
  • 45. Types of production systems  Job shop production  Batch production  Mass production  Process or continuous production
  • 46. Job shop production  Meaning: Job or unit production involves the manufacturing of a single complete unit as per the customer’s order. This is a special order type of production. Each job or product is different from others and no repetition is involved. Three types of job production  A small number of pieces produced once  A small number of pieces produced intermittently when the need arises  A small number of pieces produced periodically at known time intervals
  • 47. Characteristics:  High variety and low volume.  General purpose machines and equipment to perform wider range of operations.  Flow of materials is not continuous i,e., it is intermittent.  Highly skilled operators and supervisors are required.  Variable path material handling equipment's are used.
  • 48. Merits:  It involves comparatively small investment in machinery and equipment.  It is flexible and can be adapted easily to changes in product design. Demerits:  Very large work in process inventory.  Difficult in planning, scheduling and coordinating the productions of numerous components of wide variety.  Highly skilled workforce is required.  Manufacturing cycle time is more. Suitability:  Job shop production is applicable where custom-made products are to be produced on a small scale.
  • 49. Batch production  Meaning: In this type, the products are made in small batches and in large variety. Each batch contains identical items but every batch is different from the others. Three types of batch production are  A batch produced only once.  A batch produced repeatedly at irregular intervals, when the need arises.  A batch produced periodically at known intervals, to satisfy continuous demand.
  • 50. Characteristics:  A large variety of products are manufactured in lots or batches.  Both general purpose machines and special purpose machines are used.  Flow of material is intermittent.  Plant layout is process type.  Flexible material handling system.
  • 51. Merits:  Short production runs.  Plat and machineries are flexible.  Medium variety and medium volume. Demerits:  Large work in process inventory.  More number of set-ups.  Workload on various machines/sections are unbalanced.  Process and product planning is to be done for each batch. Suitability:  Drugs, clothes, paints, parts manufactured on turret lathes, forging machines and sheet metal presses are few examples of batch production.
  • 52. Mass production  Meaning: In this type of production, only one type of product or maximum 2 or 3 types are manufactured in large quantities. Standardisation of products, process, materials, machines and uninterrupted flow of materials are the basic features of this system. Mass production system offers economics of scale as the volume of output is large.
  • 53. Characteristics:  Low variety and high volume.  Flow of materials is continuous.  Special purpose machines are used.  Mechanised material handling systems such as conveyors are used.  The machine capacities are balanced.  Degree of mechanisation or automation is high.
  • 54. Merits:  It offers lowest cost of production.  Shorter cycle time.  Work in process is comparatively low.  Easier production planning and control.  Relatively lower skilled persons can manage work. Demerits:  Higher inventory of raw materials.  Less flexibility of equipment and machines.  Suitability: Electronics, electricals, automobiles, bicycles and container industries are a few examples of mass production industries.
  • 55. Process or continuous production  Meaning: This type of production is used for manufacture of those items whose demand is continuous and high. Here single raw material can be transformed into different kind of products at different stages of production processes. E.g., in processing of crude oil in refinery one gets kerosene, gasoline, etc., at different stage of production.  The characteristics, merits and demerits of continuous production system are the same as that of the mass production system.  Suitability: the industries like paper, textiles, cement, chemicals, automobiles, etc., are a few examples of continuous production industries.
  • 57. Comparison between types of production
  • 58. Manufacturing Models and Metrics  Manufacturing metrics are used to quantitatively measure the performance of the production facility or a manufacturing company.  Manufacturing metrics is a system of related measures that facilitates the quantification of some particular characteristics of production.
  • 59. Why use manufacturing metrics?  To track performance of the production system in successive periods.  To determine the merits, and demerits of the potential new technologies and system.  To compare alternative methods  To make good decisions
  • 60. Categories of manufacturing metrics: Production performance measures The production performance measures are metrics used to quantify the production performance. Manufacturing costs Manufacturing costs include labour and materials costs, the costs of producing its products, and the cost of operating a given piece of equipment.
  • 61. Break Even Point Analysis
  • 62. INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION  Automation is defined as the technology that is applied to accomplish a process or procedure without human assistance.  This technology includes Automated assembly machines Automated machine tools to process parts Industrial robots Automated material handling and storage system Automated inspection system and quality control Feedback control and computer process control
  • 63. Need for automation  To increase production rate and labour productivity  To reduce labour cost  To reduce or eliminate routine manual and clerical tasks  To improve worker safety  To improve product quality  To reduce manufacturing lead time and work in process inventory
  • 64. Basic elements of an automated system  Power Power to achieve the process and operate the system  Program of instructions A program of instructions to direct the process  Control system A control system to actuate the program of instructions and sense feedback from the transformation process.
  • 66. Power  Power is required in an automated system To drive the transformation itself To operate the program of instructions and the control system
  • 67. The role of power in an automated system can be studied under the following two sub headings Power for the transformation process To drive the process itself To load and unload the work unit To transport between operations Power for automation Controller unit Power to actuate the control signals Data acquisition and information processing.
  • 68. Program of instructions  The program of instructions is a series of controlled actions that are carried out in the manufacturing or assembly process.  The program of instructions can also be called software program.  Parts or products are usually processed as part of a work cycle. When the program steps are defined within the work cycle structure, they are known as work cycle programs.  In numerical control (NC) system, work cycle programs are called part programs.
  • 69. Control system  The control system executes the program of instructions  The control system interacts with the process through actuators and sensors.  Input parameters to the controller are converted to signals that release power to the actuators.  The output parameters from the process are converted by the sensors into signals. These signals are feed back to the controller and typically compared with the input parameters.
  • 70. Types of control system  Closed loop control system  Open loop control system
  • 73. Levels of automation  Device level  Machine level  Cell or system level  Plant level  Enterprise level
  • 75. It is also known as Lean manufacturing It aims for continuous elimination of all wastes in the production process It makes more flexible and efficient by adopting methods that reduce waste in all forms This concept was originated by Toyota motors ,Japan Lean Production
  • 76. Reduce Defect & Wastages Reduce cycle times Minimize Inventory levels Improve Labour Productivity Utilization of Equipment and Space Flexibility Increase the Output Objectives of Lean Manufacturing
  • 78. Recognition of waste Standard processes Continuous flow Pull Production Quality at the source Continuous improvement Principles of Lean Manufacturing
  • 79.  This is one of the management philosophy that strives to eliminate sources of manufacturing waste by producing the right part in the right place at the right time.  It is also known as stockless production. JIT Production Systems
  • 80.  Zero defects  Zero setup time  Zero inventories  Zero handling  Zero breakdown  Zero leave time  Lot size of one Objectives of JIT
  • 81.  Reduce or Eliminate setup times  Reduce manufacturing & purchasing lot size  Reduce production & delivery lead time  Preventive maintenance  Stabilize & level the production schedule  Flexible workforce  Require supplier quality assurance & implement a zero defects quality program Elements of JIT
  • 82.  Lower inventory cost  Lower scrap & waste costs  Improved quality & zero defect products  Improved worker involvement  Higher motivation & moral  Increased productivity  Reduced manufacturing lead time  Increased product flexibility Benefits of JIT