Behaviorism

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Slide show to go along with my lecture on behaviorism as part of a graduate course.

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Behaviorism

  1. 1. Behaviorism INTC 5110 Theoretical Foundations Fall 2010
  2. 2. Basis for the Theories <ul><li>Watson (1913) – concerned with objective data of behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic idea is that you can only measure what you can directly observe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make no inferences to the mind or feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Underlying process is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus >>> Response>>>Reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Basis for the Theories <ul><li>B.F. Skinner and the “Black Box” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior related to environmental cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t know what occurs in the individual (“black box” – can only see the behavior exhibited in presence of the cue </li></ul></ul>Environment Individual Behavior Consequence cues react with that has +/- effect
  4. 4. Impact of the Theory <ul><li>Learning = Change in Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Reinforcements </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What can someone “Do”? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Analyzing Behaviors <ul><li>Two types of behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondent (involuntary reaction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant (emitted by individual) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S-R-S </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus >>>Response>>>Stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>(Discriminative) (Operant) (Contingent) </li></ul><ul><li>Whether an operant behavior continues depends upon reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingent stimulus determines if response occurs again in presence of discriminative stimulus </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Principles of Behavior Management <ul><li>Strengthen/Weaken Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe learner and change response frequencies through reinforcements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen = Occurs more frequently </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weaken = Occurs less frequently </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Two types of reinforcers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aversive </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Principles of Reinforcement Satisfying Aversive Present Stimulus Remove Stimulus Positive Reinforcement (Strengthen) Punishment (Weaken) Remove Reinforcement (Weaken) Negative Reinforcement (Strengthen)
  8. 8. Positive Reinforcement <ul><li>Providing something that learner values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money, food, reward, gold stars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Reinforcers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a biological value (i.e. – food) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Reinforcer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value created by association with primary reinforcer (i.e. – money to buy food) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Premack Principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a high-frequency behavior to reinforce desired low-frequency behaviors (i.e. – play video games if you finish chores) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Negative Reinforcement <ul><li>Remove something the learner to which the learner is averse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nagging, extra work, noise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strengthens behavior by stimulating learner to exhibit behavior to keep stimulus from being introduced </li></ul>
  10. 10. Punishment <ul><li>Introduce something to which the learner is averse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embarrassment, fear, discomfort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance/escape behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned helplessness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different rules for different contexts </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Remove Reinforcement <ul><li>Take away what the learner desires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction – abrupt removal of reinforcer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attention, payment, gold stars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response cost – learner gives back reinforcer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Money, candy, time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timeout – remove learner from reinforcing circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation, change in location </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Instructional Methods <ul><li>Shaping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce successive approximations of goal behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce each step in a procedure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Chaining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>String together discrete behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Put the steps together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use cues to elicit desired behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradually remove cues as behavior gains becomes automatic </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Maintaining Behaviors <ul><li>Reinforcement Schedules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed ratio – after each desired response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed interval – after certain amount of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable ratio - vary which responses are rewarded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable interval – vary amount of time between reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Maintaining Behaviors <ul><li>Impact of Reinforcement Schedules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed ratio – pause after reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed interval – increase as interval ends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable ratio - highest performance since any instance could be rewarded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable interval – consistent since reward could come at any point </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Applying Behaviorist Principles <ul><li>Set behavioral goals </li></ul><ul><li>Determine reinforcers </li></ul><ul><li>Select procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Implement and record </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate and revise </li></ul>
  16. 16. Contributions <ul><li>Behavior modification plans </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom management techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Performance (instructional) objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner “teaching machines” </li></ul><ul><li>Keller PSI program </li></ul><ul><li>Performance improvement plans </li></ul>
  17. 17. Problems of Behaviorism <ul><li>Does not adequately explain verbal behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires thought and mind to ask a question </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not adequately explain how reinforcement operates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is something reinforcing to one person and not another? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation not explained </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People perform without introducing stimulus or being reinforced externally </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Redesign Info <ul><li>Need to confirm your web site with me. </li></ul><ul><li>Redesign the site for the behaviorist theories of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Bring to class next week the redesign and share. </li></ul>
  19. 19. For next week <ul><li>Redesign web site for behaviorism. </li></ul><ul><li>Post blog entry and comment. </li></ul>

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