Understanding the Motivation of Behavior Presented by: Emma Ruiz & Amy Ingersoll, PBIS CoachesAcknowledgements:Chris Borgmeier, PhD, Portland State Universitycborgmei@pdx.edu
Training Objectivesn Participants will be able to: ¨ IdentifyABC’s of behavior ¨ Classify a student’s motivation for misbehavior ¨ Review indicated interventions that address the student’s motivation
Quote about behavior “If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we ... teach? … punish? Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others?” - Herner, 1998
CONTINUUM OF Tertiary Prevention: SCHOOL-WIDE FBAàBSP for StudentsPOSITIVE BEHAVIOR with High-Risk Behavior ~5% SUPPORT ff a Secondary Prevention: ll St ~15% Specialized Group for A Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ing rain Primary Prevention: ed T School / -Bas Classroom-Wide Systems tion for All Students, ivaStaff, & Settings Mot ~80% of Students
Reasons Students Commonly Misbehaven Students don’t know expectationsn Students don’t know how to exhibit expected behavior GREEN ZONEn Student is unaware he/she is engaged in the misbehaviorn Misbehavior is providing student with desired outcome: ü Obtaining adult/peer attention or an item or YELLOW activity & RED ZONE ü Avoiding adult/peer attention or a difficult task or a non-desired activity
Understanding Chronic Misbehaviorn If a student repeatedly engages in a problem behavior, he/she is most likely doing it for a reason, because it is paying off for the student. The behavior serves a purpose.n Behavior is a form of communication. Unfortunately some students learn that problem behavior is the best way for them to get their needs met.
ABC’s of Understanding ChronicBehavior Patterns What happens before the behaviorAntecedent occurs? What is the trigger? What behavior do you observe?Behavior Behavior is specific and measurable. What happens after the behavioroutCome occurs? What is the outcome? A è B è C
Learning and AèBèC:What did the student learn? Antecedent Behavior OutComeJimi is asked to do amath problem infront of the class
Learning & AèBèCWhat did the student learn? Antecedent Behavior OutComeJimi is asked to do Jimi tries to doa math problem in the problem atfront of the class the board, but struggles.
Learning & AèBèC What did the student learn? Antecedent Behavior OutComeJimi is asked to Jimi tries to do Peers laugh at studentdo a math the problem at and one says aloud,problem in front the board, but “That one is so easy”of the class by struggles NegativeMr. Brown OutCome
Learning & AèBèC Antecedent Behavior OutComeJimi is asked to Jimi tries to do Peers laugh at studentdo a math the problem at and one says aloud,problem in front the board, but “that one is so easy”of the class struggles Negative OutComeNEXT DAYJimi is asked todo a math What Jimi: Teacher calls on • Hits a peer someone else andproblem in front happens a Faithe e lurof the class • Calls teacher TASK & !!! sends Jimi to today??? name office IDED AVO • Disrupts
Identifying the ABC’s of BehaviorDuring reading, the teachers says, “Please putaway your notebooks and take out your readingbook.”Nancy glances up at the teacher and startsdoodling on her notebook. The teacher repeatsthe directions.Nancy takes out her reading book and throws it.The teacher send her to the office.
Learning & AèBèC What did the student learn?Antecedent Behavior OutComeWhen: student does: because:
Video Samplen DVD - Defusing Anger & Aggression (4:53-5:27, Jason scenario, first of two clips)
Learning & AèBèCWhat did the student learn?Antecedent Behavior OutCome
Learning & AèBèC What did the student learn? Antecedent Behavior OutComeTeacher asksstudents to writedown theirhomeworkassignment.
Learning & AèBèC What did the student learn? Antecedent Behavior OutComeTeacher asks One studentstudents to write distracts peersdown their and disrupts byhomework throwing paper.assignment.
Learning & AèBèC What did the student learn? Antecedent Behavior OutComeTeacher asks Student distracts The other studentsstudents to write peers and laugh which reinforcesdown their disrupts by the misbehavior andhomework throwing paper. the teacher placesassignment. undivided attention on the negative behavior. Motivation: obtaining attention from peers and adult
Behavior is Motivational… not GOOD or BADn Motivational = it pays off for the student in some way… so he does it again ¨ We may see the behavior as being “good” or “bad”, but the student does it because it is effective. It pays off for him. ¨ What is most important to remember is that the student is obtaining or avoiding something by using this behavior.
So the question is… what is theeffect of our response to studentproblem behavior?n Is our response increasing the chances of the problem behavior occurring again in the future? ORn Will our response decrease the likelihood of the problematic behavior occurring in the future?
Will this responseIncrease or Decreasethe Problematic Behavior?n Suspensionn Verbal Reprimandn Reflection activityn Responsibility Centern Detentionn IT DEPENDS ON THE STUDENT MOTIVATION!!n We often assign value to consequences, based on what we think…. BUT… ¨ What we need to do is look thru the student’s eyes (Motivation of Behavior) ¨ What is the impact of our response on the student’s behavior?
Proactive Interventions Antecedent Behavior OutCome Prevention Teach Response to BehaviorInterventions Replacement Intervention occursoccurring before the behaviors instead of after (in response to)behavior occurs the problem behavior positive or negative behaviorPBIS (Positive Behavior Intervention & Support)Emphasis on Emphasis on explicitly Emphasis on positiveinterventions to prevent teaching alternate, reinforcement ofproblem behavior desired behavior desired behavior
Proactive Interventions ~ AVOID TASK Antecedent: Prevention Interventions occurring before the behavior occursModify the task or provide support:• Modify assignments to meet student instructional/skill level (adjust timelines, provide graphic organizers, break in to smaller chunks, etc.)• Assign student to work with a peer• Provide additional instruction/support• Provide visual prompt to cue steps for completing tasks student struggles with• Provide additional support focused on instructional skills (Homework Club, study hall, etc.)• Pre-teaching content• Pre-correct - frequently & deliberately remind student to ask for help
Proactive Interventions ~ AVOID TASK Behavior: Teach Behaviors to use instead of the problem behavior• Teach student more appropriate ways to ask for help from teacher or peers• Provide additional instruction on skill deficits• Role play (use students for examples; adults non- examples)• Identify and teach specific examples of ways to ask for help • Raise hand and wait patiently for teacher to call on you • Likely need to differentiate (large group, small group, work time, etc.)
Proactive Interventions ~ AVOID TASK OutCome: Response to BehaviorIntervention occurs after (in response to) positive or negativebehavior§ Respond quickly if student asks for help or for a break§ Reward students for being on task, trying hard, work completion, and for asking for a break or help appropriately§ Eliminate/minimize the amount of missed instructional time or work provided to a student for engaging in problem behavior § However, need to make sure student is capable of doing work… or provide support/instruction so student can complete the work
Proactive Interventions ~ ATTENTION SEEKING Antecedent: Prevention Interventions occurring before the behavior occursPrevention (give attention early for positive):• Check-in – provide adult attention immediately upon student arrival• Give student leadership responsibility or a class ‘job’ that requires thestudent to interact with staff• Place student in desk where they are easily accessible for frequent staffattention• Give student frequent intermittent attention for positive or neutral behavior• Pre-correct - frequently & deliberately remind student to raise their handand wait patiently if they want your attention
Proactive Interventions ~ ATTENTION SEEKING Behavior - Teach Behaviors to use instead of the problem behavior• Teach student more appropriate ways to ask for adult attention• Explicitly teaching desired behavior• Identify and teach specific examples of ways to ask for attention • Raise hand and wait patiently for teacher to call on you • Likely need to differentiate (large group, small group, work time, etc.)
Proactive Interventions ~ ATTENTION SEEKING OutCome: Response to BehaviorIntervention occurs after (in response to) positive ornegative behavior• Respond quickly if student asks appropriate for adult attention• Give the student frequent adult attention for positive behavior• Student earns ‘lunch with teacher’ when student earns points for paying attn in class & asking appropriately for attention• Eliminate/minimize the amount of attention provided to a student for engaging in problem behavior • Limit verbal interaction – create a signal to prompt the student to stop the problem behavior • Avoid power struggles
Proactive Interventions ~ Attention Seeking OutCome: Response to BehaviorIntervention occurs after (in response to) positive ornegative behavior• Sometimes students need additional encouragement to engage in the desired behavior• When using additional incentives to encourage student positive behavior• If students desire adult attention, use it as an incentive: • Lunch with teacher • 1:1 game with favorite staff, etc. • Be a special teacher assistant • Behavior chart
Video Sample #2DVD - Defusing Anger & Aggression(6:16-7:12, Jason scenario, second oftwo clips)
ScenarioWhat is the behavior? What does it looklike?What happens after the behavior?What happens before the behavior?
ABC’s, Motivation, and Proactive Interventions Antecedent Behavior OutComePossible Motivation:Interventions: Prevention Teach Response to Behavior