Professional Development Final Presentation2


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  • Positive- how to use appropriate behaviors and skills instead of what we don’t want them to do. Think positively about behavior and discipline Unified behavior system—whole school on same page Same language Every adult Students come to school from different backgrounds with different consequences in different places. All adults on same page and all students know what is expected of them in every situation. Behavior- so when you say be respectful. We are specific and expect that students are respectful by raising their hand before talking Support- teach students rules and routines to be successful
  • 3 tiers, response to intervention model. Green is school-wide Today we are talking about class-wide (green level still). Also going to talk about strategies you can use for non-responders (yellow and red)
  • You give the attention that you would typically give to students with problem behaviors and you focus that attention on the students who exhibit positive behaviors. First , we need to find out why the behavior is occurring We need to review principles of behavior to show why punishment is not your most effective option
  • (Lewis, 2007) OTR = opportunities to respond
  • CHAMPS classroom management book
  • Pos. reinforcement: praise statement for raising hand or pushing in chair is positively reinforcing, student more likely to exhibit behavior in future Neg. reinforcement: shutting off your alarm clock Positive punishment: hit a child for eating a cookie before dinner; child less likely t eat a cookie again before dinner Negative Punishment: do not respond to child talking to you; child is less likely to talk to you in the future
  • ( Renee's student being mean ). Reinforcement and punishment are relative terms used to describe what happens to the behavior in the presence of certain stimuli Students being sent to the principal’s office—attention for one and they like it or very aversive to another student (so punishment).
  • The rate of the behavior that you are punishing quickly returns to the previous rate once you remove the contingency (the punishing event). Find yourself in the nagging trap
  • Apply abstract behavior principles to find the function of the behavior
  • Behavior occurs in reaction to complex interacting variables. The key is to identify those relationships (enviromental, biological, instructional) Wherever you see the behavior most means that is what is maintaining it. (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, Richman, 1994). There is not a special strategy that will work for every student Treatment fidelity and social validity are important for success (Gresham, 1991).
  • Witt, VanDerHeyden, Gilbertson (2004) Those rules/behavior plan won’t mean anything if the academic work (base) is not a match for the students in your classroom. 80% of behavior problems stem from academic problems.
  • Problem behaviors will occur if they successfully lead to escape from aversive academic tasks (Weeks & Gaylord-Ross, 1981). Office Discipline Referrals are not the solution represent a method for the school to document that more behavior support is needed for a student Segregation- Problem You might think it is punishing for them, but it might actually be negatively reinforcing FACT: Students with behavior problems tend to have academic problems Missing instructional time puts the child farther behind Failure makes academic task aversive If misbehaving let’s student get out of something they don’t like or can’t do- then they will continue to misbehave That’s why data collection is so important! Students are more likely to be on-task if they can complete their work with accuracy and fluency (Gilbertson, Witt, Defrene, and Duhon, find year/citation). Alter amount of effort needed Change reinforcing value (Choice, HighP  LowP, modify preference) Matching Law Behavior prinicple for doing work—more likely to do it if more reinforcing than other choices (Hernstein, 1970). Dunlap et al. 1994 Horner, Day, Sprague, O’Brien, Heathfield, 1991
  • Differential reinforcement of other behavior. Give attention for any other behaviors than talking out.
  • Is it specific? (and not focused on the person's character but rather his or her actions) Immediate? Sincere? Frequent? (4:1) Casino slot machines—v variable schedule of reinforcement Many research studies have been done on the power of praise. It is an evidence- based practice for both general education and special education students. For example, when teachers praised appropriate behavior, the incidence of disruptive behavior decreased (Madsen, Becker, and Thomas, 1968). Interestingly, when teachers withheld their praise or when reprimands were used, the incidence of disruptive behavior increased (Thomas, Becker, and Armstrong, 1968; O'Leary and Becker, 1969). Further, research has also shown that use of praise helped to increase the on-task behavior of students (Ferguson and Houghton, 1992) and increase the appropriate behavior of disruptive students (Hall, Lund, and Jackson, 1968). Students with emotional and behavioral disorders increased their time on-task when teachers gave behavior-specific praise statements (Sutherland, Wehby, and Copeland, 2000). Finally, Cameron and Pierce (1994) found that praise helped to increase the intrinsic motivation of students. It is important to praise both academic work and behavior . When you use behavior specific praise, you are telling students exactly what you like about their behavior and essentially teaching them how to act in certain situations. Sometimes we think that we shouldn't have to praise students or acknowledge them for doing things that we expect them to do (i.e. raising their hand, staying in their seat, etc.) but if we assume that students don't know what to do or how to act then we need to teach them these things, and teaching behavior expectations is a cornerstone of positive behavior support.
  • (the type on which you twist the dial to a certain time interval and a bell sounds when it finishes the timing). They are never sure when the "ding" will occur, and must stay on task and behave well at all times for fear that they might be off task or misbehaving when the bell sounds. You want the sounding of the bell to be a surprise. 
  • Depends on teacher being accurate (consistent with ratings) Hinges on fair and consistent use of consequences at home Convenient- Often used as one of the 1st interventions to try Great strategy for students with ADHD. Children benefit from the more frequent feedback than just at school Involves Parents (more informed).
  • (Levendoski & Cartledge, 2000; Mooney, Uhing, Reid, & Epstein, 2005)
  • Professional Development Final Presentation2

    1. 1. Positive Behavior Strategies and Classroom Management Current Research and Evidence Based Practices Renee DiGiorgio, Ed.S. Mia Coffing, M.Ed. BCBA Behavior Coaches West Bloomfield School District
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Renee DiGiorgio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School Psychologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midland Public Schools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mia Coffing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Education Teacher (EBD/LD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Analyst </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Goals of the Presentation <ul><li>Understand basic tenets of Positive Behavior Support (PBS) </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and identify ways to improve classroom structure to better support all students </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and use knowledge of behavior principles when interacting with students </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the function of the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Become aware of tools to use to improve classroom management </li></ul><ul><li>Learn strategies for handling different types of challenging behaviors </li></ul>
    4. 4. If a student doesn’t know how to read, we teach. If a student doesn’t know how to swim, we teach. If a student doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach. If a student doesn’t know how to behave, we punish? — John Herner
    5. 5. Positive Behavior Support <ul><li>POSITIVE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What we want students TO DO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increasing behaviors instead of decreasing behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>BEHAVIOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific behavior expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>what being responsible looks like in lunchroom, recess, etc . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SUPPORT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching expectations and rewarding students for desired behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 7. PBS and Discipline <ul><li>Respond to student’s misbehavior not as the student’s intention to be bad- and instead look at it as an error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You correct and re-teach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive approach to discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PREVENTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewarding and teaching behavior we want instead of punishing behavior we don’t want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention through rules , routines , and arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We respond to all behavior (good and bad) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catch kids being GOOD </li></ul></ul>How?? Are you thinking . . . . But what about that kid that is just bad! I have tried everything and they are still bad! I’m as positive as I can be! Don’t they need some punishment to fix their behavior???
    7. 8. PBS in the Classroom <ul><li>This is your first line of defense for behavior problems! </li></ul><ul><li>Even if your school does not have a school-wide PBS plan in place, you can still run your classroom with PBS principles to maximize your classroom management. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to a PBS or RTI philosophy for academic work, your classroom management plan is the critical piece in preventing behavior problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>helping the majority of students (80-90%) stay focused and display good behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is important to regularly self-evaluate your plan to ensure that all of the components are in place . </li></ul>
    8. 9. In general, what should a PBS classroom have?? <ul><li>Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced organizer for each subject </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity control </li></ul><ul><li>Explicitly taught procedures at the beginning of the school year </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Filler activities </li></ul><ul><li>Goals/objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Praise/Reinforcement for academics AND behavior (4:1) </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences (consistent, effective, brief) </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of OTRs (multiple ways) </li></ul><ul><li>Check for understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Specific, frequent feedback on performance </li></ul>
    9. 10. Behavior Expectations To Teach <ul><li>Classroom rules </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>we’ll talk more about these in the next slide) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sharpening pencils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>getting a drink, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>going to the bathroom, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>what to do when there is an interruption, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fire drill, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>how to line up, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>how to walk in the hallway </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>how to transition from whole-class to small group instruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>what to do if you finish early </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Rules about The Rules <ul><li>3-5 rules posted where all students can see </li></ul><ul><li>Rules should be positively stated and specific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They should be behaviors that are observable and measurable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Related to school expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Be Responsible, Be Respectful, Be Safe </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Principles of Behavior <ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>How they work </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul>
    12. 13. Reinforcement and Punishment Positive Reinforcement (candy, praise, smile) Negative Reinforcement (pick up crying baby, give candy to kid tantruming in store) Positive Punishment (verbal reprimand, extra assignment) Negative Punishment (ignore, put in time out) Stimulus presented after behavior occurs Stimulus removed after behavior occurs Increases probability of behavior occurring in future Decreases probability of behavior occurring in future
    13. 14. Different strokes for different folks <ul><li>What may be positively reinforcing for one student might be positively punishing for another (example: peer attention) </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement usually falls into these categories </li></ul><ul><li>1. sensory </li></ul><ul><li>2. tangible </li></ul><ul><li>3. attention </li></ul>
    14. 15. Punishment Why it works in the short-term… <ul><ul><li>Punishment is negatively reinforcing for the punisher (you!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are removing the aversive stimulus and it usually happens immediately (improving the reinforcement for you) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement: why I pick up my crying baby at night and feed him instead of letting him “cry it out” and learn to not wake up in the middle of the night </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement: why the mom gives into her tantruming child in the grocery store </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 16. But NOT in the long-term <ul><ul><li>When you punish you are not teaching the student what you want them to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are not re-teaching the behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment does not decrease the occurrence of the behavior in the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is an increase in other behaviors that serve the same function (i.e. attention seeking behaviors) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Classroom Managed Behaviors WHY does this kid keep doing that??!!!
    17. 18. What is the FUNCTION of the behavior? <ul><li>Behavior does not occur in a vacuum </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: identifying the variables that control behavior and using that knowledge to design individualized interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Interventions need to be based on the function rather than the form of the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Behavioral Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IDEA requires it (1997) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Example <ul><li>Form: Inappropriate Vocal Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christine: shouts and throws her materials on the floor especially when asked to complete writing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arlene: engages in calling out behaviors when its someone else’s turn to talk or when the teacher is working with individual students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sara: diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder exhibits inappropriate verbalizations in a variety of settings, times of day and with various peers and staff members. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior form is the same- Function is different </li></ul>Motivated by negative reinforcement (escape or avoidance of difficult tasks) Motivated by positive reinforcement (access to staff attention) Motivated by automatic reinforcement (sensory consequences)
    19. 20. I need help determining the reason (function) for the interfering behaviors <ul><li>A-B-C form (see handout) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational Assessment Scale (see handout) </li></ul>
    20. 21. ABC (Antecedent- Behavior- Consequence) 3/31 9:56 am Math lesson- small group I offered to assist George with instructional support George refused, stood up, and shouted at me Redirected George back to his desk to finish his work George swore at me and shouted Date/Time Setting Antecedent Behavior Consequence Effect When did the interfering behavior occur? Where did the interfering behavior occur? What happened immediately prior (i.e. triggered) to the interfering behavior Describe the interfering behavior. What did you do or what happened after the interfering behavior occurred? What effect did the consequence have on the frequency, duration, and/or intensity of the interfering behavior?
    21. 22. Strategies
    22. 23. <ul><li>Is the academic work at an instructional level for the student? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What percentage of behavior problems stem from academic difficulties? A) 40% B) 60% C) 80% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is your behavior management plan solid? </li></ul><ul><li>Are your responses consistent and clear? </li></ul><ul><li>If you can answer yes to the above questions and the student is still having behavior problems, then it is time to look at the function of the behavior. </li></ul>Ask yourself . . .
    23. 24. What if I think the function is to Escape or Avoid Tasks?? <ul><li>Is it a “can’t do” problem or a “won’t do problem”?? </li></ul><ul><li>Task Difficulty Antecedent Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give student work he/she can complete with 90% accuracy (easy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe behaviors during this time </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. What if I think the function is Positive Reinforcement for Attention?? <ul><li>IGNORE (extinction) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you want to reduce the occurrence of a specific behavior (talking) do not give it any attention—ignore the behavior, every occurrence of it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used in conjunction with reinforcement, this can be a powerful tool in reducing unwanted behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful . . . There will most likely be an extinction burst! </li></ul>
    25. 26. The Power of Praise <ul><ul><li>The best intervention! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catch students “being good” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching Law—rate of particular response (behavior) is relative to the rate of reinforcement for that behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the ratio 4:1 </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Strategies to increase compliance <ul><li>Pre-correction: state expectation and give reminder before student can “mess up” </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Momentum (High P  Low P) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If any compliance- Reinforce/PRAISE!!!!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember to Give an Effective Request: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do Not use a question format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get up close (Proximity Control) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a quiet voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look them in the eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give them time (5-10 seconds- don’t interrupt the compliance-time window!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask only twice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t give multiple requests (remember short-term memory) </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. Examples of Interventions
    28. 29. Positive Peer Pressure: The Behavior Bell <ul><li>Summary: Use a kitchen timer & tell the students that you will be evaluating their behavior at the very moment that the bell sounds.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set the timer for any time between one minute and twenty minutes. (Do not let the students see the timer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon hearing the bell, assess the behavior at that moment.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can give each student, teams or give the whole group zero to 3 points depending on the percentage of students who were on-task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A predetermined privilege is earned when the group attains a certain preset number of points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence Based: (Charles, 2002; McIntyre, 2009) </li></ul>
    29. 30. Positive Peer Pressure: The Good Behavior Game <ul><li>Summary: Rewards children for displaying appropriate on-task behaviors during instruction time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class divided into 2 or more teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point is given to a team for any inappropriate behavior displayed by one of its members (points=bad) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The team with the fewest number of points at the game's conclusion wins a group reward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence-Based: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first tested in 1969; confirmed it is an effective means of increasing the rate of on-task behaviors while reducing disruptions in the classroom (Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969; Harris & Sherman, 1973; Medland & Stachnik, 1972). </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    30. 31. Great strategy for those “impulsive behaviors” Great to re-teach expectations. Involve Parents Not appropriate for students who would rather complete the journal than do an aversive academic task (negative reinforcement- escape) + - Behavior Journal/ Think Sheet
    31. 32. <ul><li>Summary : clear, consistent method for translating the teacher’s report into consequences at home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically sent home on a daily basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target behaviors are rated by teacher (4 to 5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can rate social conduct and/or academic performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staying in the assigned seat, calling out, following teacher direction, completing work </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students monitored throughout the day (broken up by class periods) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence Based </li></ul>Positive Behavior Report Cards
    32. 33. 5 5 5 6 4 2 13 At lunch recess, Kevin had difficulties listening to the para when asked to stop playing so rough with a classmate. He needed to be asked 3 times. Afternoon and Morning was great! He earned his rewards. Great day Kevin!
    33. 35. Behavior Report Card Gives you DATA!
    34. 36. The Tower! <ul><li>Summary : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student earns one block (an ‘X’ on a square drawn with a dry-erase marker) for positive behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A predetermined number of blocks are needed in order to be traded in for a predetermined reward. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whenever student engages in a problem behavior one block is erased from her tower. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence Based: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on response cost system of behavior management (Rhode, Jenson, & Reavis, 1998) </li></ul></ul>
    35. 38. Self-Monitoring <ul><ul><li>Summary: Self-monitoring (self-recording) is defined as “a means of actively involving students in the learning process by having them monitor their own behavior”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence Based: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces more maintenance and generalization behaviors than other procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As an intervention it has been shown to improve on-task behavior, academic behavior, and social skills. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 39. Example of Self-Monitoring Chart
    37. 40. Race Against The Clock! <ul><li>Summary: Student (s) compete to try to “beat the clock” when completing a task </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure the student CAN DO the task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great for ADHD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence Based: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DuPaul & Stoner, 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 41. Take-Home Message <ul><li>Behavior problems are often tied to academic difficulties—assess difficulty of work </li></ul><ul><li>Be Proactive and Preventative </li></ul><ul><li>Self-assess classroom management plan </li></ul><ul><li>Catch kids being good—praise! </li></ul><ul><li>Look at function of behavior for those students who are “non-responders” </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement and punishment are relative concepts </li></ul>
    39. 42. Thank You! <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Comments? </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>