This presentation discusses the concept of Feedback in sport. The types of feedback, use for players and coaches, effects on athletic performance, importance and research in the area will all be covered.
FeedbackIn the Sporting Environment Ashlee Turner
dPositive Knowledge of Sport Results Extrinsic Frequency What is Feedback?Coach d Negative Performance Intrinsic Knowledge of Timing performance d
What is Feedback? A process where the effect of an action is ‘fed back’ to enable modifications to be made to the next action (Weeks & Kordus, 1998)
Types of Feedback Positive Negative link Intrinsic Extrinsic link
Types of Feedback Knowledge of Results Knowledge of Performance E.g. Watching a ball go through E.g. Arm not fully extended at the the basket in basketball end of basketball shot link link
Timing of Feedback Concurrent • feedback given during performance Delayed • feedback after the performance • feedback before or after the Terminal performance • feedback is withheld until a certain Summary number of attemps are completed (Weeks & Kordus, 1998)
Frequency of Feedback Bandwidth FeedbackFeedback Acceptable Range Feedback is only given if performance given (no feedback) falls outside an acceptable range high faded Faded Feedback Feedback Feedback is decreased ascompetency in skill is increased low competency high (Badets & Blandin, 2005)
What is the use of feedback? Motivation • Positive feedback is a source of motivation • Provides a sense of capability • Helps achieve goals • Increases enjoyment and willingness to train • Poor feedback can cause demotivation Positive feedback = increased motivation Poor feedback= decreased motivation (Mouratidis et al., 2008)
What is the use of feedback? Reinforcement Feedback reinforces the athlete to perform in a specific way • Positive reinforcement facilitates beneficial changes and consistency • Negative reinforcement removes an aspect but still improves performance (Schmidt & Wrisberg, 2008)
What is the use of feedback? Improved Technique • Feedback enables modifications to be made to technique • Type, timing and frequency of feedback used to improve technique is dependant on the players learning stage • Negative feedback and video feedback can be used for experienced players. • Examples: Improving Technique Skill “Bend your knees further” Increase power in soccer kick “Straighten arm at end of action” Direction and aim in a basketball free throw “put your hand over the ball in the Catching a ball in softball glove” (Sports Books Publisher, 2010)
Feedback in Teaching & Coaching What is good feedback? clear direct limited (Schmidt & Wrisberg, 2008)
Feedback in Teaching & Coaching How much feedback? (Schmidt & Wrisberg, 2008)
Feedback in Teaching & Coaching Using the appropriate feedback Experience Most Suited/Useful Feedback Inexperienced Faded Positive Summary Extrinsic Experienced Negative Terminal Intrinsic Appropriate feedback is relative to the players’ experience
Feedback in Teaching & Coaching Too much feedback?- Dependency Too much feedback + good performance = dependency Reduced feedback + no intrinsic feedback = poor performance (Schmidt & Wrisberg, 2008)
Feedback in Teaching & Coaching When to give feedback (Schmidt & Wrisberg, 2008)
Feedback in Teaching & Coaching What the research says.. (Schmidt, 1992)
Conclusions Why is it important to study feedback? How to effectively use feedback to enhance performance -What types are effective for different learners - When and how to use feedback - Effect for coach and on players Issues with feedback -Degrade learning -Dependency What else could be studied about feedback?
Conclusions Summary Feedback: is information given about a task to aid performance Types: Intrinsic Extrinsic Positive Negative KR KP Concurrent Delayed Terminal Summary Bandwidth Faded •Feedback is used to motivate, reinforce, modify technique •Feedback should be clear, direct and limited to prevent overload and dependency •Use the appropriate feedback for the learners experience • Without research, none of this knowledge would exist
ReferencesCreative Common Images- (In order of slides)http://www.flickr.com/photos/markop/893721540/http://www.flickr.com/photos/nikoosphotos/7058859589/http://www.flickr.com/photos/kysaant/8253209327/http://www.flickr.com/photos/kysaant/8253210919/Information ResourcesBadets, A., & Blandin, Y. (2005). Observational learning: Effects of bandwidth knowledge of results. Journal of Motor Behaviour,37(3), 211-216.Mouratidis, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & Sideridis, G. (2008). The motivating role of positive feedback in sport and physicaleducation: Evidence for a motivational model. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30(2), 240-268.Nicaise, V., Cogerino, G., Bois, J., & Amorose, A. J. (2006). Students perceptions of teacher feedback and physical competence inphysical education classes: Gender effects. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 25(1), 36-57.Schmidt, R.A., (1992). Tutorials in motor neuroscience. In Stelmach & Requin (Ed.), Frequent Augmented Feedback Can DegradeLearning: Evidence and Interpretations (pp. 59-75). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic PublishersSchmidt, R. A., & Wrisberg, C. A. (2008). Providing feedback during the learning experience. In Motor learning and performance:A situation-based learning approach (4th ed., pp. 283-319). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Sports Books Publisher. (2010, October 25). Motor skills: Learning and acquisition processes- Chapter 18. [Video file]. Retrievedfrom http://www.docstoc.com/docs/58352191/Motor-Skills-Learning-and-Acquisition-ProcessesWeeks, D. L., & Kordus, R. N. (1998). Relative frequency of knowledge of performance and motor skill learning. ResearchQuarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69(3), 224-230.