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Motivation

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Motivation

  1. 1. Motivation INTC 5110 Fall 2010
  2. 2. Paradigms and Motivation <ul><li>Behaviorist view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards, reinforcements and punishments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal cognition due to extrinsic rewards and consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also be intrinsic – cognition based on internal drives </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Paradigms and Motivation <ul><li>Objectivist view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find the motivation and provide it to the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructivist view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each person has their own motivations based on meaning they associate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual and cultural influences on what is valued and strength of motivation </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Sources of Motivation <ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Variance of instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Imagination/Fantasy </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul>
  5. 5. Goal Setting <ul><li>Set by Individual and/or Instructor? </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit Better than General </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in Difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal (close & quick) over Distal (distant) </li></ul><ul><li>Performance vs. Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Motive Matching - aligned with learner motives </li></ul>
  6. 6. Self-Efficacy (Bandura) <ul><li>Learner Beliefs about themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty of Task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance accomplishments (past success) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vicarious experience (successful model) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal persuasion (convinced of capability) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological states (gut feeling) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcome of Task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal value of achieving goal/task </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Consequences <ul><li>Natural consequences (learning more=doing more) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive consequences (rewards) </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation vs. extrinsic </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We have a need to attribute cause to successes and failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for understanding of success/failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal vs. External </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stable vs. Unstable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controllable vs. Uncontrollable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Keller ARCS Model <ul><li>Here is one of the original publications of the model </li></ul><ul><li>A resource is at http://ide.ed.psu.edu/idde/ARCS.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Another resource: http://www.ericdigests.org/1998-1/motivation.htm </li></ul>
  9. 9. Keller ARCS Model <ul><li>A ttention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arousing and sustaining curiosity and interest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>R elevance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link to learners' needs, interests, and motives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C onfidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive expectation for successful achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S atisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcement for effort </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. ARCS Strategies <ul><li>Use unexpected and novel approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Use engaging problems </li></ul><ul><li>Vary presentation styles </li></ul><ul><li>Relate to personal goals </li></ul><ul><li>Build on previous positive experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Build expectation via goals/objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for immediate use of learning </li></ul>
  11. 11. ARCS Design Process <ul><li>Analyze audience and create a profile </li></ul><ul><li>Define motivational objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Design motivational strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Try and revise </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conclusion <ul><li>Many takes on motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Very difficult to quantify and measure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important as a first step in almost all learning </li></ul>

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