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Beginning Functional Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans


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Beginning Functional Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans

  1. 1. User Friendly Functional Assessment & Behavioral Intervention Plans Presented by: Steven Vitto Behavioral Consultant MAISD October.2002
  2. 2. <ul><li>User Friendly Functional Assessments & Behavioral Intervention Plans </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTED BY SUSAN MACK & STEVE VITTO </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>TODAYS AGENDA </li></ul><ul><li>  8:30-9:00 INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>IDEA AND DISCIPLINE </li></ul><ul><li>  9:00-9:30 FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>COMPONENTS OF ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>9:30-10:15 ISD FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>PROTOCOL </li></ul><ul><li>BREAK </li></ul><ul><li>10:30-11:30 WRITING BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION </li></ul><ul><li>PLANS </li></ul><ul><li>ISD BIP PRTOCOL </li></ul><ul><li>  11:30-12:00 POSITIVE BEHAVIORAL SUPPORTS </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>IDEA 97 PARAMETERS REGARDING </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENTS (FBA’s) </li></ul><ul><li>& BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION </li></ul><ul><li>PLANS (BIPS) </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to a general change in placement </li></ul><ul><li>Change of placement-Drugs or Weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Change of Placement-Dangerous Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Child is eligible for special education services or is suspected of having a handicap </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to10 days of suspension for related behaviors representing a pattern of exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>BIPs and FBAPs should become part of the student’s IEP records </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is a Functional Assessment? <ul><li>The term functional assessment comes from what is called a “ functional assessment” or “functional analysis” in the field of applied behavioral analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>This investigation has the goal of determining the cause or function of the behavior of concern prior to developing an intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>The determination of the assessment is a hypothesis. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What are the steps in a Functional Assessment? <ul><li>1. Verify the seriousness of the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problem in concrete terms. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Collect Data on possible causes of the </li></ul><ul><li>behavior problem. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Analyze the data. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Formulate a hypothesis. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Assessment Tools <ul><li>The Motivational Assessment Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Assessment Interview (Durand) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Rating Scales (Conner) </li></ul><ul><li>M.A.I.S.D. Functional Assessment Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent Behavior Consequence (ABC) </li></ul><ul><li>Scatterplot Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Self or Team generated questionaires </li></ul><ul><li>Direct and Systematic View of the Person’s Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Analysis- manipulating different environmental events to see how behavior changes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Components of Functional Assessment <ul><li>Descriptive Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological or Environmental Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Life Style Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Parent, Student, and Staff Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>File Reviews </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is a BIP? (Behavioral Intervention Plan) <ul><li>A comprehensive BIP may: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Change variables that proceed the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>2. Teach alternative forms of appropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>3. Provide reinforcement for appropriate behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>BIPs tied to FBA’s are child-, behavior-, and setting specific (Iwata,Volmer, & Zarcone) </li></ul>
  9. 9. A “good” behavior program should: <ul><li>Determine the function of the undesired behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine an Appropriate Replacement Behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine when the replacement behavior should occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Design a teaching sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulate the environment to increase the probability of success. </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulate the environment to decrease the probability of failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine how positive behavior will be reinforced. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine consequences for instances of problem behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a data collection system. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop behavioral goals and objectives. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Formal BIPs Recommended In Following Circumstances : <ul><li>is a danger to self and/or others </li></ul><ul><li>causes significant disruption to their own or other’s learning </li></ul><ul><li>behavior suggests the need for a change in placement </li></ul><ul><li>behavior that results in exclusion before 10 days of suspension </li></ul><ul><li>behavior that necessitates staff putting their hands on the student or mechanical restraints </li></ul><ul><li>there is animosity between school and parents regarding behavior </li></ul><ul><li>team member (teacher, principal or administrator) is not being therapeutic with the student </li></ul>
  11. 11. Functional Assessment <ul><li>Description of Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situational Variables and Environmental Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Needs Met by the Behavior </li></ul>
  12. 12. Student Strengths, Skills and Difficulties <ul><li>Greatest Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful Qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Times When Behavior Does Not Occur or Occurs Less Frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Student’s Preferred Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Appropriate or Inappropriate Behavior? </li></ul>
  13. 13. What is a Behavior Problem? <ul><li>Interferes with learning </li></ul><ul><li>Interferes with teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Has the potential to cause harm to self, others, animals, or property </li></ul><ul><li>Is the most efficient way that the child knows to meet a particular need </li></ul>
  14. 14. Behaviors of Concern <ul><li>Define using Concrete Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Simple to Measure and Record </li></ul><ul><li>Objective Wording </li></ul><ul><li>How Often – ex-20 times a day, 5-6 times a day </li></ul><ul><li>Duration – Momentary, 20-30 Seconds, 5-10 minutes </li></ul>
  15. 15. Duration <ul><li>Mild – not substantially interfering, but socially stigmatizing or irritating. Somewhat typical, but problematic </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate – interfering with own learning or that of others. Unusual behavior for age and disability </li></ul><ul><li>Severe – Totally interfering and/or a danger to self or others, </li></ul>
  16. 16. Environmental Considerations <ul><li>What triggers or causes the behavior? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being ignored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory or Visual overstimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frustration with task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclical </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Settings/Situations <ul><li>Provide information regarding specific people, classes, activities effects on the student and their behavior and look for connections between them </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use specific names </li></ul><ul><li>Describe personality characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Some sections may not need to be addressed </li></ul>
  18. 18. Child’s Exposure to and Understanding of Rules Governing the Behavior <ul><li>Opportunity to insure that student knows what is going to happen when they engage in the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Provide documentation when available </li></ul><ul><li>Check the appropriate boxes </li></ul>
  19. 19. Can the Child Control the Behavior? <ul><li>Does the behavior occur in spite of established consequences? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the behavior occur during cognitive demands? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the behavior occur in a cyclical fashion or follow a predictable pattern? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the behavior occur in the presence of anyone? </li></ul><ul><li>Can potential reinforcers inhibit the behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>Does inhibiting the behavior cause anxiety? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Previous Interventions and Supports <ul><li>Check the various interventions that have been used with the student in the past and indicate the frequency of use as well as when the intervention was used </li></ul>
  21. 21. Previous Consequences and Disciplinary Measures <ul><li>Check the types of consequences the student received when this behavior occurred in the past </li></ul><ul><li>What was effective? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the student have control? </li></ul><ul><li>Students need to know what will happen to them </li></ul>
  22. 22. Needs <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Escape/Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Power Seeking </li></ul><ul><li>Anger/Frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible </li></ul>
  23. 23. Needs Being Met Through this Behavior <ul><li>What do you think s/he gets by behaving this way? </li></ul><ul><li>What actually happens? </li></ul><ul><li>What might s/he avoid by engaging in the behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>Typically the team is making a hypothesis regarding the value of this behavior in the student’s life </li></ul>
  24. 24. What is Positive Behavioral Support ? <ul><li>Supporting students in learning responsible behavior and achieving academic success. </li></ul><ul><li>Broad-based set of proactive approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Views the system, setting, or skill deficiency as the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies and teaches replacement behavior and builds relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily relies on positive approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of sustained results achieved over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on teaching through modeling, caring, and relinquishing control. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>If a student doesn’t know how to read, </li></ul>we teach, If a student doesn’t know how to swim, we teach, If a student doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach, If a student doesn’t know how to behave, WE PUNISH…
  26. 26. Effective Consequences <ul><li>Decrease the efficiency of the target behavior while maintaining dignity and an atmosphere of caring </li></ul><ul><li>Never degrade or humiliate </li></ul><ul><li>Logically relate to the target behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Do not cause more of a problem than the problem they are addressing </li></ul><ul><li>Establish conditions for learning alternative skills </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease the frequency, duration, and/or intensity of the target behavior </li></ul>
  27. 27. Less Helpful Strategies: <ul><li>Have an impeding or negative effect on learning </li></ul><ul><li>Model inappropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to make the brain shift to a survival or threatened mode not conducive to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to bring out judgment and anger from staff </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the needs of the care provider not the child </li></ul><ul><li>The consequence has no relationship to the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Are consistently applied </li></ul><ul><li>Are almost always quicker to apply </li></ul><ul><li>Often lead to resentment, defiance, or violence and consequently result in the need for more intrusive measures by staff </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the staff’s needs, not the child’s </li></ul>
  28. 28. Evaluating Available Treatments <ul><li>Researched Based vs. Pseudo Science </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective vs. Objective Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Speculation vs. Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing Priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Behavioral Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Other Therapies </li></ul>
  29. 29. Proactive Options for Behavioral Difficulties <ul><li>Create a responsive, supportive, educational community </li></ul><ul><li>View behavioral occurrences as an opportunity for teaching prosocial skills </li></ul><ul><li>Use time-out for refocusing, calming, condition assessment, and problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Teach new skills to individuals with challenging behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Teach classmates methods of supporting behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce positive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Be consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Teach by example </li></ul>
  30. 30. Organizational Suggestions <ul><li>Organize and simplify physical environment </li></ul><ul><li>Predictable schedules and routines </li></ul><ul><li>Work stations to facilitate independence and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Use visual cues </li></ul>
  31. 31. Visual Supports <ul><li>Use choice boards </li></ul><ul><li>Visual aids for directions </li></ul><ul><li>Post rules and routines </li></ul><ul><li>Social Stories </li></ul><ul><li>Pictographs to provide cues for expected behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Use concrete examples </li></ul><ul><li>Augmentative communication </li></ul>
  32. 32. Classroom Environment <ul><li>Vary tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Use meaningful reinforcers </li></ul><ul><li>Use modeling, physical prompts, visual cues </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate visual distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate auditory distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Provide quiet area for relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce unfamiliar tasks in a familiar environment </li></ul>
  33. 33. Social Skills <ul><li>Variety of Peer Buddies, Circle of Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Teach appropriate access of preferred items </li></ul><ul><li>Practice social situations </li></ul><ul><li>Social Stories </li></ul><ul><li>Teach self management procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Teach appropriate social exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Teach appropriate social boundaries </li></ul>
  34. 34. Communication <ul><li>Sabotage the environment – encourage appropriate requesting behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Provide appropriate and functional expressive communication strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Provide simple, consistent, concrete,visual input for receptive language </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce direction following </li></ul><ul><li>Provide rich language experiences </li></ul>
  35. 35. Cognitive Skills <ul><li>Use Establishing Stimulus & Establishing Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Teach Discrimination & Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Teach Bipolar & Positional Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Take Advantage of Educational Software </li></ul><ul><li>Consider Discrete Trial Training </li></ul><ul><li>Consider Musical Therapy </li></ul>
  36. 36. Successful Behavioral Management <ul><li>Build rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the positive </li></ul><ul><li>Do not take a child’s behavior personally </li></ul><ul><li>Determine a student’s strengths and build on them </li></ul><ul><li>Never use sarcasm and/or ridicule </li></ul><ul><li>Do not label students </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that behavior change is a process and doesn’t occur immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Inform parents of positives as well as negatives </li></ul><ul><li>Retain a good sense of humor </li></ul><ul><li>Model desired behavior </li></ul>
  37. 37. Goals to Appropriately Address Needs <ul><li>Describe the overall goal of the behavioral intervention plan </li></ul><ul><li>How does this goal contribute to the student’s independence? </li></ul><ul><li>Your plan should have a dual focus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease target behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase alternative or replacement skill </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Preferred Activities and Reinforcers <ul><li>Activities the student has identified, or demonstrated to be highly motivating </li></ul><ul><li>Items the student actively seeks out and/or are known to be reinforcing </li></ul><ul><li>Involve the student in reinforcer identification </li></ul>
  39. 39. Preventative Strategies <ul><li>Accommodations, approach strategies, seating arrangements, skill building activities </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests to the student that they are being cared for and supported </li></ul><ul><li>Outline recommended preventative strategies or accommodations </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid listing strategies with which you cannot insure compliance </li></ul>
  40. 40. Reinforcement Strategies <ul><li>Methods of teaching and reinforcing appropriate/replacement skills </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the student for input </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you list only things you can actually provide </li></ul>
  41. 41. Procedures to Follow When Behavior Occurs <ul><li>List specific sequential steps to take when behavior occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Do not list staff names </li></ul><ul><li>Should be instructional and therapeutic </li></ul><ul><li>May want to address staff demeanor </li></ul><ul><li>If reaction to behavior is a deviation from school policy be sure to have administrative consent </li></ul>
  42. 42. Data Collection <ul><li>Describe how systematic/measurable data will be collected for Behavior Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Data must be taken to assess effectiveness of plan </li></ul><ul><li>Attach a sample of the data sheet to be used </li></ul>
  43. 43. Other <ul><li>Identify who will inform the appropriate staff of the BIP </li></ul><ul><li>Make copies and place signed BIP in CA 60 </li></ul><ul><li>Identify dates to review plan </li></ul><ul><li>Make certain that staff understand the need to reconvene a meeting if the plan requires changing </li></ul>
  44. 44. Thank You For Being Here. <ul><li>THE END </li></ul>STEVE