Causal comparative research ckv

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Causal comparative research ckv

  1. 1. Causal ComparativeResearch(ex post facto) What is it ?
  2. 2. Causal Comparative Research Determine the cause of existing differences among groups.The AIM
  3. 3. Causal Comparative Research At least two different groups are compared on a dependent variable or measure of performance (called the “effect”) because the independent variable (called the “cause”) has already occurred or cannot be manipulated. Dependent variable-the change or difference occurring as a result of the independent variable. Independent variable- an activity of characteristic believed to make a difference with respect to some behavior.
  4. 4. Causal Comparative Research The researcher attempts to determine the cause, or reason, for pre existing differences in groups of individuals. Attempts to identify cause and effect relationships. Involve two or more group variables. Involve making comparison. Individuals are not randomly selected and assigned to two or more groups. Cannot manipulate the independent variable Less costly and time consuming
  5. 5. Causal Comparative ResearchType 1 Type 2 Type 3• Exploration of • Exploration of • Exploration of the effects (dependent causes consequences variable) causes by (independent (dependent membership in a variable) of a group variable) of an given group. membership. intervention.• Question: What • Question: What • Question: How do differences in causes individuals students taught by abilities are caused to join a gang? the inquiry method by gender? react to propaganda?
  6. 6. Causal Comparative Research 1. Problem 2. SampleSTEPSTaken 3. Design and Procedure 4. Data Analysis
  7. 7. Causal Comparative ResearchExample: The Relationship between Years of Experience and Job SatisfactionCausal Comparative Design Hypotheses• Alternative- Teachers with a high level of experience will be more satisfied with their jobs than teachers with low levels of experience.• Null- Teachers with a high level of experience will be equally satisfied with their jobs when compared to teachers with low levels of experience. Variables• Dependent- Job satisfaction• Independent- Years of experience• Two levels (high & low)• Exists naturally in the population of teachers at the start of study.
  8. 8. Causal Comparative ResearchExample: The Relationship between Years of Experience and Job SatisfactionCausal Comparative Design (cont.) Sample• Two groups sampled, one for each level of the independent variable• High Experience• Low Experience
  9. 9. Causal Comparative ResearchExample: The Relationship between Years of Experience and Job SatisfactionCausal Comparative Design (cont.) Design and Procedure• Select two groups that differ on some independent variable• One group possesses some characteristic that the other does not• Each group possesses the characteristic but in differing amount• The independent variable must be clearly operationally defined* Randomly sample subjects from each of the two groups• Collect background information on subjects to determine the equality of the groups• Compare groups on the dependent variable
  10. 10. Causal Comparative Research Example: The Relationship between Years of Experience and Job SatisfactionCausal Comparative Design (cont.) Design and ProcedureControl of Extraneous variable• What other variable besides years of experience could explain job satisfaction among teachers?• Matching: Each subject in the high experience group is matched with a subject with a low experience group along the variable of class size.• Each high experience teacher who teachers a large class is matched with a low experience teacher who teaches a large class.• Each high experience teacher who teaches a small class is matched with a low experience teacher who teaches a small class.
  11. 11. Causal Comparative ResearchExample: The Relationship between Years of Experience and Job SatisfactionCausal Comparative Design (cont.) Data Analysis• Mean- job satisfaction ratings for High Experience and Low Experience subjects are compared using t-test, ANOVA or other appropriate statistical test.• Rejection of the null hypothesis supports the alternative hypothesis that years of experience result in increased job satisfaction.
  12. 12. Causal Comparative Research Finding: People with lung cancerExample: smoke more Conclusion: Caution: A than people What without lung Smoking is third causes cancer. There a possible factor? are no other cause of lung differences in Proper lung cancer. cancer? lifestyle matching? characteristics between the groups.
  13. 13. Causal Comparative Research More Examples of Causal Comparative Research• A researcher measured the mathematical reasoning ability of young children who had enrolled in Montessori schools and compared the scores with a group of similar children who had not been to Montessori schools.• A researcher measured the frequency of students’ misbehavior at schools which use corporal punishment and compared that to schools which did not use corporal punishment.
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