Middle Childhood (Pt 2)


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Cognitive development in middle childhood.

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Middle Childhood (Pt 2)

  1. 1. Middle Childhood (Part 2)
  2. 2. Piaget & Concrete Operations <ul><li>Ages 7 – 12 Years </li></ul><ul><li>Applies logical operations to concrete problems </li></ul><ul><li>Uses cognitive & logical processes to answer questions; appearance isn’t an influence </li></ul><ul><li>Decentering: the ability to take in many aspects of a situation at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Still remains tied to the concrete & physical, not understanding the abstract or hypothetical or formal logic </li></ul><ul><li>Criticisms of Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>He was successful in describing cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>He underestimated children’s capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>His theories don’t apply cross-culturally </li></ul>
  3. 3. Information Processing <ul><li>Limitations in Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Size of memory is based on experience </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to encode, store, & retrieve information </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding records information into a useable form </li></ul><ul><li>Storing places it into a memory system </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieving brings it into awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Metamemory </li></ul><ul><li>An understanding about the processes that underlie memory that emerges & improves during middle childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Control Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious, intentionally used tactics to improve cognitive processing </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for remembering include rehearsal, organization, linking, etc. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Vygotsky <ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development </li></ul><ul><li>The level at which a child can almost understand or perform unassisted </li></ul><ul><li>The focus of education should be on interaction with others </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Children work together in groups to achieve a common goal </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Technique to teach reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Skim a passage </li></ul><ul><li>Question the central point </li></ul><ul><li>Predict what will happen </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mechanics of Language <ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of how words & phrases can be combined to form sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatics </li></ul><ul><li>Rules governing the use of language to communicate in a social setting </li></ul><ul><li>Metalinguistic Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>The understanding of one’s own use of language </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>Use of more than one language </li></ul>
  6. 6. Language Development <ul><li>Vocabulary Increase </li></ul><ul><li>The average 6-year old has a vocabulary of 8,000 – 14,000 words; the 9 – 11-year old around 5,000 more words </li></ul><ul><li>Language & Self-control </li></ul><ul><li>“ Self-talk” helps regulate personal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Self-control increases with linguistic capability </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual instruction helps students develop a strong foundation in basic subject areas using their native language </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate goal is to shift to English only instruction </li></ul>
  7. 7. Schooling <ul><li>Primary Schools in U.S. are a Right & Requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Around the world 160 million children don’t have access to even a primary education </li></ul><ul><li>Another 100 million don’t progress beyond the elementary level </li></ul><ul><li>Close to 1 billion are illiterate </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness for School </li></ul><ul><li>Delay of entry isn’t necessarily an advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Age may not be the critical factor </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reading Stages <ul><li>Stage 0 (Birth – 1 st Grade </li></ul><ul><li>Learning the essential prerequisites for reading </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 (1 st & 2 nd Grade) </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological recoding skills </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 (2 nd & 3 rd Grade) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading aloud with fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 (4 th – 8 th Grades) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading becomes a way to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Have the ability to read & process information reflecting multiple points of view </li></ul>
  9. 9. Teaching Reading <ul><li>Code-based Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Reading should be taught by presenting the basic skills that underlie reading </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics, & how letters & sounds are combined to make words </li></ul><ul><li>Whole-language Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Reading is a natural process, similar to the acquisition of oral language </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to read is through the exposure to complete writing </li></ul>
  10. 10. Multicultural Education <ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Set of behaviors, beliefs, values, & expectations shared by members of a particular society </li></ul><ul><li>Subculture </li></ul><ul><li>Groups within a larger culture </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural Education </li></ul><ul><li>Form of education with the goal of helping minority students develop competence in the culture of the majority group while maintaining positive group identities built on their original cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Assimilation Model </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of education is to assimilate individual cultural identities into a unique, unified American culture </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralistic Society Model </li></ul><ul><li>American society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual cultural features </li></ul><ul><li>Bicultural Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining of an original cultural identity while integrating into the dominant culture </li></ul>
  11. 11. Diversity <ul><li>Objective of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a formal mechanism to transmit the information a society deems important </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of students from diverse cultures enriches the educational experience of all students </li></ul><ul><li>The public doesn’t always agree with bicultural approaches to education </li></ul>
  12. 12. Educational Affects <ul><li>Emotional Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, & regulation of emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching how to handle emotional situations </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Expectancy Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s expectations about a particular child or class brings about the expected behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Self-fulfilling Prophecy </li></ul><ul><li>A person’s expectations are capable of producing a particular outcome </li></ul>
  13. 13. Home Schooling <ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Some parents feel 1-on-1 attention is better, others are dissatisfied with schools, others it is religious or cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Homeschooled generally do as well on standardized tests </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance into college seems no different than traditional schools </li></ul><ul><li>Most who homeschool are more affluent </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks: no social interaction, no experience with diverse population, most parents are not trained teachers </li></ul>
  14. 14. I.Q. Tests <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>The capacity to understand the world, think rationally, & use resources effectively when challenged </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Age </li></ul><ul><li>The age of children taking the test who, on average, achieved that score </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological Age </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar age </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence Quotient </li></ul><ul><li>Mental age divided by chronological age X 100 </li></ul>
  15. 15. I.Q. Tests <ul><li>Binet’s Test </li></ul><ul><li>Defined intelligence as that which his test measured </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable indicator of school performance </li></ul><ul><li>Stanford-Binet </li></ul><ul><li>Administered orally, taker progresses until unable to go on </li></ul><ul><li>Wechsler </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for identification of specific problems </li></ul><ul><li>Kaufman Assessment Battery </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the administrator to assist in the taker’s performance </li></ul><ul><li>What IQ Tests Tell </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonably good predicting school performance </li></ul><ul><li>Not good at predicting income or future success </li></ul>
  16. 16. Alternative Views of Intelligence <ul><li>Fluid Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to deal with new problems & situations </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallized Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulation of information, skills, reasoning, & memory learned through experience that can be applied to problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Gardner’s 8 Intelligences </li></ul><ul><li>Musical, bodily-kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, & naturalistic </li></ul>
  17. 17. Alternative Views of Intelligence <ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence is assessed by looking at how well an individual performs alone and with help </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence is seen in the way people store information & use it later </li></ul><ul><li>3 aspects of memory: </li></ul><ul><li>Componential element: reflects how efficiently people can process & analyze information </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential element: is the insightful use of component intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual element: concerns ways of dealing with the demands of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Racial differences? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Below the Norm <ul><li>Mental Retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning & adaptive behavior involving conceptual, social, & practical adaptive skills </li></ul><ul><li>1% - 3% of school-age students are considered mentally retarded </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates vary because of the accepted definition of mental retardation </li></ul>
  19. 19. Below the Norm <ul><li>Mild Retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Scores in the range of 50 or 55 to 70 on IQ tests </li></ul><ul><li>Can reach the 3 rd to 6 th grade level </li></ul><ul><li>About 90% of retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate Retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Scores in the range of 35 or 40 to 50 or 55 on IQ tests </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to progress beyond a 2 nd grade level </li></ul><ul><li>5% - 10% of the retarded </li></ul><ul><li>Severe Retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Scores range from around 20 or 25 to 35 or 40 on IQ tests </li></ul><ul><li>A small number of retarded </li></ul><ul><li>Profound Retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Scores are below 20 or 24 on IQ tests </li></ul><ul><li>Usually have little or no speech, poor motor control, but may learn basic self-care skills </li></ul>
  20. 20. Above the Norm <ul><li>Talented or Gifted </li></ul><ul><li>Children who give evidence of high-performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership, or specific academic fields & who require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop such capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>3% - 5% of the population </li></ul>
  21. 21. Educating the Gifted <ul><li>Acceleration Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the gifted student to move ahead at their own pace, even if it means skipping to higher grades </li></ul><ul><li>Acceleration programs are very effective </li></ul><ul><li>Enrichment Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Students are kept at their grade level but enrolled in special programs & given individual activities to allow greater depth of study on a given topic </li></ul>