The Educable Mentally Retarded child has been defined as one has a potentiality for development in• Minimum educability in the academic subjects of the school• Social adjustment• Minimum occupational adequacy
A Case StudyHow many the growth pattern of the educable mentally retarded be described?• The IQ ranges from 50-55 up to 75 or 80.• An educable mentally retarded child of 12 will therefore have a mental age between 6 and 9 years.• In height, weight, and motor coordination some of the retarded children are higher than average children but the majority of them are average and below.
What are the physical Characteristics of the educable mentally retarded?• In height, weight, and motor coordination most of them approximate normal children• More handicaps of vision, hearing, and motor coordination are found among educable mentally retarded• Generally, the educable mentally retarded children come from substandard homes. Most of them are inferior in sanitation and attention to health care.
What are their Intellectual Characteristics?• They show low performance on verbal and non verbal intelligence tests. The rate is approximately one-half to three-fourths that of average child.• They show slowness in maturation of intellectual functions needed for schoolwork such as low memory for auditory and visual materials, generally ability, language ability, conceptual and perceptual abilities, imagination and creative abilities.
What are their academic characteristics?• They are not ready for reading, writing, spelling, and mathematics when they enter school at the age of 6, until they are 8 or even until 11. The delay is related to mental age.• At the end of their formal school career, their academic achievement will probably have reacted grade2 or grade 6 depending upon his mental maturation.
What are their personal and social characteristics?• They have short attention span• They have low frustration tolerance• Social values and attitudes generally correspond to those of the home typical of low socio-economic areas and areas of substandard housing.• Their play interests are similar to children of their own mental age than to children of similar chronological age• There are more behaviour problems among the retarded in proportion to their numbers than among average children in intelligence.
What are their occupational characteristics?• The educable mentally retarded can learn to do skilled and semi-skilled work at the adult level• Their success in unskilled occupational tasks is generally related to personality, social, and interpersonal characteristics rather than to the ability to do the task assigned• Their employment records show that approximately 80 percent can adjust to occupations partially or totally to support themselves.
What are the purposes and objectives of education for the mentally retarded?According to Kirk and Johnson the purposes and objectives are the following:• To get along with their fellowmen; develop social competence through numerous social• experiences.• To participate in the work for the purpose of earning their own living through efficient vocational guidance and training.• To develop security and independence in the school and in the home through a good mental Hygiene Program.
• To learn the minimum competencies of the tool subjects; reading, writing, and mathematics.• To occupy themselves in wholesome leisure time activities• To become adequate members of their family and their community.
What principles of instruction are included in special education?• A special diagnosis for assessment purposes should include medical, social, psychological and educational evaluations before assigning to a special class done at periodic intervals.• Special instructional materials should be given to them.• Special remediation for specific disabilities are also given.• Instruction must utilize the best practices in learning such as using many repetitions in a variety of experiences, using exciting situations, and presenting ideas in sequential steps.
What is the concern of nurses working in schools?The special diagnosis for assessment purposesdemands the service of nurses. They form thepart of team necessary for the requiredevaluation. A positive attitude towards thepurpose is expected from the nurses. Healthrecords should be updated and well kept bythem for immediate reference by the othermembers of team. A special health programshould also be maintained and supported.