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Dealing with individual differences


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Dealing with individual differences

  1. 1. Unit 3.4 DEALING WITH INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Name of Teacher Trainee: Shantadurga Naik Roll. No: 62 Subject: Psychology I Topic: Dealing with individual differences College: Nirmala Institute of Education, Althino Date:25/10/2013 To be approved by: Ms. Vida Sequiera Batch: 2013-2014
  2. 2. Introduction There are a variety of individual differences that must be of concern to classroom teachers. Some of the most prominent are academic ability (or intelligence), achievement level, gender, learning style, and ethnicity and culture. It is difficult to define the term of individual differences it carries distinct meaning like they deviates, physically, intellectually and socially so marked by from normal growth & developmental that they cannot be benefited from regular classroom programme and needs special treatment at school. They being classified into: 1. Physically Handicapped 2. Mentally Handicapped/challenged 3. Gifted Students/children 4. Socially handicapped 5. Delinquents 6. Emotionally Disturbed 7. Children’s with learning abilities
  3. 3. Children with learning disabilities Definition  “Learning disability is general or partial underachievement or inadequate performance below the individual ability and developmental level.” Important feature Describing  Have powerful imagination and thoughts  Unable to express them or enact them  Do not have coordination between their intellectual abilities and motor activities  Perceptual difficulties  Retentive ability is poor due to poor attention span and quick shifting of attention  Lack of language skills shows behavioural disorders like hyperactivity, possess knowledge of concrete experiences  Lack of systematic way of thinking , dressing, keeping the things in maintenance of the body  inability in social skills such as reading and writing
  4. 4. EDUCATIONAL PROVISION  The fundamental reading abilities and skills are to be developed with care. Such skills are word recognition, obtaining word meanings, comprehension & interpretation, reading silently at suitable speed, oral reading and use of books.  Motivation with exciting action stories of adventure  Individual attention should be given for their esteem & involvement.  The remedial teaching process involves initial survey of difficulties, physical or sensory defects, attitudes, analysis of psychological profile, specific problems such as reversals , word calling, guessing & other.  The after school classes for the disabled in hearing.  Help from pupil provides close & frank way of dealing with incomprehensible material.  Parallel organization of classes of all the sections where advanced learners having merit interact with less performing or learning difficulties of children.
  5. 5. Emotionally disturbed children Definition Emotionally disturbed children can be defined with certain characteristics such as “hyperactivity, withdrawn behaviour, failure to achieve at a level reasonably commensurate with ability, tendency towards fighting and other aggressive behaviour, resentment and antagonism towards authority and rules and regulations, general problems in learning & concentrating, not associated with known organic or sensory defects” (Phillips, 1967). Important feature Describing 1. An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. 2. An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. 3. Inappropriate types of behaviour or feelings under normal circumstances. 4. A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. 5. A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
  6. 6. Educational Provision • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Establish open, accepting environment. Clearly state class rules and consequences. Emphasize positive behaviours and program for success. Reinforce positive behaviour. Supply extra opportunities for success. Be tolerant. Use good judgment. Teach social skills. Teach self-control, self-monitoring, and conflict resolution. Teach academic survival skills. Teach positive attributions. Carefully select partners. Have alternative activities available. Design activity checklists. Use carefully selected peers as assistants. Have groups of “one.” Use behavioural contracts.
  7. 7. Gifted students Definition According to W. B. Kolesnik “the term gifted has been applied to every child who, in his group, is superior in some ability which may make him an outstanding contribution to the welfare and quality living in our society”. Important feature Describing  Physically better than the average children  Have mental superiority  Entertain many sided interests.  They are more trustworthy and sincere and less inclined to boast of their knowledge.  They receive high grades.  Have more positive attitudes  They participate in more curricular activities.
  8. 8.  They are more mature in their reaction to external world.  Exercise greater independence.  Express greater ego-strength.  Well adjusted.  More confident.  More successful.  More concerned with abstract ideas. Educational Provision There are three main approaches used for gifted children: 1. Acceleration Approach: Its an old approach for gifted children where school process of educational programmes like early entrance to school, skipping entire grades, doing more work per year being preferred.
  9. 9. 2. Enrichment Approach: In this approach the enrichment of curriculum must be both qualitative and quantitative. • It should represent an extension of general educational objectives and generate stimulating learning environment both in school and outside the school • It should place a special emphasis on creative ability, insight and social responsibilities • It should promote basic fundamental skills knowledge, appreciation and creativity and so on. 3. Special Group Approach: Any of the following could be provided: • Placing the gifted child in special school • Self-contained special classes within the regular schools • Offering advanced courses for superior students • Offering honours courses
  10. 10. Mentally challenged students Definition Mentally challenged students or Mental retardation is a developmental disability that first appears in children under the age of 18. It is defined as an intellectual functioning level (as measured by standard tests for intelligence quotient) that is well below average and significant limitations in daily living skills (adaptive functioning). According to American Association n Mental Deficiency (1983) defines mental retardation as “significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behaviour & manifested during the developmental period”. A classification of the mentally subnormal levels by American Association On Mental Deficiency CLASS I.Q. LEVELS 70 - 84 Borderline cases Mild cases(educable) Moderate cases(trainable) Severely deficient Highly severe 55 - 69 40 - 54 25 - 39 below 25
  11. 11. Important features describing They can be identified by the way they conduct at home or school. • They do not have clear speech ability and communication • They are inattentive & poor in comprehension • They are poor in memory • Their language development is low • They cant carry on abstract thinking & reasoning • They cannot solve their social problems and their problem solving ability is poor • They are not good at imagination & creativity and have low learning abilities. • They are not good at social skills and they respond quickly to the praises and rewards • They don’t have emotional balance • They are not symmetrical in their body parts and their developmental is not proportionate. • They have complexity in doing their work.
  12. 12. Educational Provision • Their learning should be facilitated by their first-hand experiences, experimentation or learning by doing rather than mere verbal abstract learning opportunities. • Visual aids and visual cues in teaching help in clearer and faster learning & long term memory. • Repetition of the lesson in strengthening of the impression and in recall for further stabilization. • They should be thought to develop self-help skills like independent eating, dressing ,washing, etc. • Late teaching of academic skills by delaying up to 10-11 years. • They should be trained in unskilled jobs to take up any future vocation. • Training to be given to acquire social skills like greeting people, following of road rules, etc. • They must be given rewards for being involved in training programmes. They should be given encouragement in communicating & responding questions and involvement in work and activities.
  13. 13. Conclusion Every human being is being different in physically as well as mentally. So when we consider students they also have individual differences. Some are normal and some are exceptional. Thus when it comes to dealing this individual differences of such exceptional children one should know their description. So some of the exceptional students/ children are being described They are Children with Learning disabilities, Gifted students, emotionally disturbed children and mentally challenged students where some of the educational provision can be given in order to improve their life.
  14. 14. References Books: 1. Sharma R. A. Psychology of Teaching-Learning Process. 2006-07 Edition; R. Lall Book Depot. Meerut. Pg. No.-434-444,502-514 2. Aggarwal J.C. Essentials of Educational Psychology. First Edition;1994. Vikas Publishing House ; New Delhi. Websites 1. EmotionalDisturbances. disturbance/?page=2 2. GiftedKids. 3. MentalRetardation. tardation.htm 4. MentalRetardation. tardation.htm
  15. 15. THANK YOU