 Learning with Exceptionalities Are students who need special help? This  category includes students with disabilities  ...
Who require support beyond regular classroom instruction. Special education refers to instruction designed to meet the n...
 Students with learning problems: Disorder ,disability and handicap are  common terms used to describe physical  or beha...
 Types of disabilities : Mental retardation 10% Behavior disorder 8% Physical disabilities ( Hearing, visual ,  Orthop...
 Mental retardation : Mental retardation is a disability shown  both in intellectual functioning and in  adaptive behavi...
   Students with mental retardation are likely to    display some or all of the following    characteristics :   1-Lack ...
   Level of mental retardation:   Educators describe mental retardation as    existing at four levels that relate to the...
 - Pervasive : (profound) High intensity,  potentially life-sustaining support required Many mental retardation is cause...
 Programs for Students with Mental  Retardation Programs for students who have intermittent  (mild) retardation focus on...
 Causes : Down syndrome : which is genetically  transmitted with47 chromosomes . They have a  round face , a flattened s...
Fragile X syndrome . There is an abnormality   on the X chromosome resulting in mild to   severe mental retardationBrain d...
 Learning disabilities: Some students have average or above –  average intelligence but , despite their  teachers best e...
   acquiring and using reading, writing ,    reasoning, listening , or mathematical    abilities. Problems with reading ,...
   disabilities, such as sensory impairments    or attention problems. Experts stress that    the term Learning disabilit...
 making up 48 percent of the disabled  student, and 4.4 percent of the total school –age  population,.
   Characteristics of students with learning    Disabilities:   Students with learning disabilities often share a    num...
 Uneven performance ( e.g. capable in one  area , extremely weak in others) Lack of coordination and balance          A...
 Writing :-Makes jerky and poorly formed letters -Has difficulty staying on line- Is slow in completing work-Has difficul...
 Math- Has difficulty remembering math facts-Mixes columns (e.g. tens and ones) in  computing- Has trouble with story pro...
  The use of Classroom-based   information for identification:. Information from teacher-made   assessments as well as te...
 Often , a discrepancy model is then used  to diagnose the problem .The model looks for differences between 1-Intelligen...
.   Learning disability is a catchall term for    students who have learning problems. Part    of this criticism results ...
   Before using the learning disability    label, teachers should examine their own    instruction to ensure it meets the...
 Adaptive Instruction: Students with learning disabilities require  modified instruction and teacher support.  Because l...
   These students managed their time    carefully, used other students as    resources, and sought feedback from    instr...
   In writing, they used a dictionary,    frequently substituted an easier word if    they had trouble spelling one, and ...
 Attention – Deficit/ Hyperactivity  Disorder: ( Attention – Deficit/ Hyperactivity  Disorder ( ADHD Is a learning probl...
 Attention – Deficit/ Hyperactivity  Disorder: ( Attention – Deficit/ Hyperactivity  Disorder ( ADHD Is a learning probl...
 ADHD has long been associated with  learning disabilities; Characteristics of ADHD include -hyperactivity -inattentio...
 -impulsiveness (e.g. acting before  thinking, frequent calling out in class, and  difficulty awaiting turns. -Forgetful...
   ADHD usually appears early ( at age 2 or    3) and , in at least 50 to 70 percent of the    cases , persists into adol...
 The American Psychological association  estimates that three to four times as many  boys as girls are identified, althou...
 . Diagnosing and treatment of ADHD are  usually done in consultation with medical  and psychological experts. To treat ...
   They may find a good idea to move a    student to a quieter part of the room in    order to eliminate distractions and...
   break assignments into smaller    components, and using flash cards and    other drills to develop automatically and  ...
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Learnin disabilityttre

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Learnin disabilityttre

  1. 1.  Learning with Exceptionalities Are students who need special help? This category includes students with disabilities or an inability to perform a certain act., such as to hear or walk –as well as students with gifts and talents – abilities
  2. 2. Who require support beyond regular classroom instruction. Special education refers to instruction designed to meet the needs of these students
  3. 3.  Students with learning problems: Disorder ,disability and handicap are common terms used to describe physical or behavioral differencesEducators prefer using the term children with disabilities than disabled children . Why
  4. 4.  Types of disabilities : Mental retardation 10% Behavior disorder 8% Physical disabilities ( Hearing, visual , Orthopedic disabilities ) 14% Multiple Disabilities: 2% Communication Disorders 19% Learning disabilities 47%
  5. 5.  Mental retardation : Mental retardation is a disability shown both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual , social , and practical adaptive skills .( such as communication, self care, and social skills) This disability originates before the age of 18
  6. 6.  Students with mental retardation are likely to display some or all of the following characteristics : 1-Lack of general knowledge about the world 2-Difficulty with abstract ideas 3-Poor reading and language skills 4-Poorly developed learning and memory strategies 5-Difficulty transferring ideas to new situations 6-underdeveloped motor skills 7-immature interpersonal skills
  7. 7.  Level of mental retardation: Educators describe mental retardation as existing at four levels that relate to the amount of support needed - Intermittent: ( mild )Support on an as- needed basis -Limited: ( moderate )Support are intense and relatively consistent over time -Extensive ( severe :)support regular (e.g.daily ) support required
  8. 8.  - Pervasive : (profound) High intensity, potentially life-sustaining support required Many mental retardation is caused either by genetic factors or brain damage to the fetus during pregnancy.
  9. 9.  Programs for Students with Mental Retardation Programs for students who have intermittent (mild) retardation focus on creating support systems to modify existing instruction. These students are often placed in regular classrooms where teaching is adapted to meet their special needs , and attempts are made to help them develop socially and academically
  10. 10.  Causes : Down syndrome : which is genetically transmitted with47 chromosomes . They have a round face , a flattened skull and an extra fold of skin over the eyelid and retardation of motor and mental abilities. They are likely to be mildly retarded With early intervention and extensive support these children can grow into independent adults.
  11. 11. Fragile X syndrome . There is an abnormality on the X chromosome resulting in mild to severe mental retardationBrain damage : This can result from many different infections and environmental hazards . Infections in the pregnant mother –to-be , such as rubella , syphills ,herpes and AIDs can cause retardation in the child.
  12. 12.  Learning disabilities: Some students have average or above – average intelligence but , despite their teachers best efforts, struggle with learning. Students with learning disabilities (also called specific learning disabilities) encounter in
  13. 13.  acquiring and using reading, writing , reasoning, listening , or mathematical abilities. Problems with reading , writing, and listening are most common , but math-related difficulties are also receiving attention. Learning disabilities are believed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction and may exist along with, but are not caused by, other
  14. 14.  disabilities, such as sensory impairments or attention problems. Experts stress that the term Learning disability is broad and encompasses a range of learning problems Students with learning disabilities are the largest group of learners with exceptionalities ,
  15. 15.  making up 48 percent of the disabled student, and 4.4 percent of the total school –age population,.
  16. 16.  Characteristics of students with learning Disabilities: Students with learning disabilities often share a number of problems, which are outlined blow General patterns Attention deficits Disorganization and tendency toward distraction Lack of follow –through and completion of assignments
  17. 17.  Uneven performance ( e.g. capable in one area , extremely weak in others) Lack of coordination and balance Academic Performance Reading : lacks reading fluency Reverses words ( e.g. saw for was) Frequency loses place
  18. 18.  Writing :-Makes jerky and poorly formed letters -Has difficulty staying on line- Is slow in completing work-Has difficulty in copying from chalkboard
  19. 19.  Math- Has difficulty remembering math facts-Mixes columns (e.g. tens and ones) in computing- Has trouble with story problems
  20. 20.  The use of Classroom-based information for identification:. Information from teacher-made assessments as well as teachers direct observations are combined with standardized test scores
  21. 21.  Often , a discrepancy model is then used to diagnose the problem .The model looks for differences between 1-Intelligence and achievement test performance 2-intelligence test scores and classroom achievement 3-subtests on either intelligence or achievement tests
  22. 22. . Learning disability is a catchall term for students who have learning problems. Part of this criticism results from the rapid growth of the category to the largest category of exceptionality at present
  23. 23.  Before using the learning disability label, teachers should examine their own instruction to ensure it meets the needs of different students. In addition, teachers should be cautious in their work with English language learners to avoid confusing difficulties in students learning a second language with a learning disability.
  24. 24.  Adaptive Instruction: Students with learning disabilities require modified instruction and teacher support. Because learning disabilities have different causes, teachers must tailor strategies to meet each students needs.
  25. 25.  These students managed their time carefully, used other students as resources, and sought feedback from instructors to modify their study strategies., they read in quiet environments, read aloud to themselves, and purchased previously highlighted books
  26. 26.  In writing, they used a dictionary, frequently substituted an easier word if they had trouble spelling one, and asked other people to proofread their papers. They Tape-recorded lectures to compensate for poor note taking and asked for extra time on tests. Students with leaning disabilities can succeed if they acquire and use effective study strategies.
  27. 27.  Attention – Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: ( Attention – Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD Is a learning problem characterized by difficulties in maintaining attention. Hyperactivity and impulsive behaviors are often connected with ADHD
  28. 28.  Attention – Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: ( Attention – Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD Is a learning problem characterized by difficulties in maintaining attention. Hyperactivity and impulsive behaviors are often connected with ADHD
  29. 29.  ADHD has long been associated with learning disabilities; Characteristics of ADHD include -hyperactivity -inattention, distractibility, difficulty in concentrating , and failure to finish tasks
  30. 30.  -impulsiveness (e.g. acting before thinking, frequent calling out in class, and difficulty awaiting turns. -Forgetfulness and inordinate need for supervision. Students with ADHD have difficulty controlling , monitoring and regulating their behavior
  31. 31.  ADHD usually appears early ( at age 2 or 3) and , in at least 50 to 70 percent of the cases , persists into adolescence
  32. 32.  The American Psychological association estimates that three to four times as many boys as girls are identified, although other experts estimate this ratio higher. Treatments range from medication ( e.g. the controversial medication , Riatlin) to reinforcement programs and structured teaching environments
  33. 33.  . Diagnosing and treatment of ADHD are usually done in consultation with medical and psychological experts. To treat ADHD children teachers should examine their classroom environment to see if it meets their needs
  34. 34.  They may find a good idea to move a student to a quieter part of the room in order to eliminate distractions and help him focus on learning task. Teachers also can use behavioral techniques such as reinforcement and punishment for students with ADHD . In addition , experts recommend teaching students how to
  35. 35.  break assignments into smaller components, and using flash cards and other drills to develop automatically and confidence.

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