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Early Childhood Development Module 3


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This slide show complements our learner guide NCV 2 Eary Childhood Development Hands-On Training by Melanie Vermaak and published by Future Managers Pty Ltd. For more information visit our website

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Early Childhood Development Module 3

  1. 1. Early Childhood Development
  2. 2. Module 3: Inclusion and special needs
  3. 3. Module 3: Inclusions and special needs <ul><li>After completing this module you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define inclusion and discuss special needs as an aspect of inclusion </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 1. DEFINE INCLUSION AND DISCUSS SPECIAL NEEDS AS AN ASPECT OF INCLUSION <ul><li>After completing this outcome you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define inclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss barriers to inclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the term special needs within the context of inclusive practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Briefly discuss five common problems experienced in early childhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of early identification of risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of early identification of children who are gifted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List organisations / places that can assist parent / caregivers with advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the type of advice parents / caregivers might receive from at least three help organisations </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Children with disabilities have the right to the following: <ul><li>The right to be included in mainstream education facilities and services as well as the right to be included in social and community life </li></ul><ul><li>The right to a normal and healthy environment </li></ul><ul><li>The right to all benefits enjoyed by their non-disabled counterparts </li></ul><ul><li>The right to accessible sport activities </li></ul><ul><li>The right to develop independence </li></ul><ul><li>The right to assistive devices </li></ul><ul><li>The right to appropriate active learning that is suitable for their abilities </li></ul>
  6. 6. What does the new Child Act do? <ul><li>Protect and advance the rights of children </li></ul><ul><li>To always place the best interest of the child first </li></ul><ul><li>Where possible, allow children to take decisions that will influence their lives </li></ul><ul><li>To protect and strengthen families </li></ul><ul><li>To recognise the important role that communities and families play in the lives of children </li></ul>
  7. 7. How does the Child Act protect children? <ul><li>A National Child Protection register will contain the information of abuse or alleged abuse of children as well as the names of people who are not suitable to work with children due to a history of child abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Children who need care or protection can be taken to a place of safety or to be placed in foster care </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is child abuse? <ul><li>Physical abuse like hitting a child </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual abuse like rape or indecent assault </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological abuse like humiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Neglect by not providing a child with food, clothing and shelter </li></ul>
  9. 9. What are the responsibilities of parents in terms of the Child Care Act? <ul><li>Children must be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given a suitable place to live </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported financially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected against abuse, neglect and injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assisted with education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assisted with decision making </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 1.1 Define inclusion <ul><li>Inclusion is the trend in South African schools and it means that as many children with impairments or disabilities be included or integrated into one educational system </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1.2 The barriers to inclusion <ul><li>Describe the following barriers to inclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School buildings and classrooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training and teachers </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 1.3 Special needs within the context of inclusive practice <ul><li>The principals to be kept in mind when developing an inclusive curriculum are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set suitable learning challenges for all children regardless of their ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond to the diverse learning needs of children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcome barriers to learning and assessment for individuals and groups by adapting the curriculum to meet the needs of all children (e.g. provide other forms of assessment like oral assessment if a child is not able to provide written evidence of learning) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 1.4.1 Hearing problems <ul><li>Conductive </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is caused by a blockage in the ear like wax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be a result of childhood illnesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is treatable and often hearing can be restored </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensori-neural </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by problems with the nerves that are linked to the ear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often present from birth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are more serious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are often irreversible </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Activity 1: Research <ul><li>Do some research with a partner around SIGN LANGUAGE. Make a poster to teach your class some important phrase or word that you would need to be able to sign to children in your class that use sign language as a means of communication. You will have to teach your word or phrase to the class. </li></ul>
  15. 16. 1.4.2 Visual problems <ul><li>Signs to help identify children with possible visual difficulties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clumsiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor hand-eye coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor or untidy handwriting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frowning or squinting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holding a toy or book very close to their face to see </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. How does the visual system work?
  17. 18. Ideas of activities to develop and stimulate children with visual disabilities <ul><li>Marching, running, hopping and skipping with the child and holding her hand so that she can feel the movement and changes in direction and rhythm. </li></ul><ul><li>Block play, finger painting, play dough and other activities that will develop the child’s tactile skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Talking about what things look like with regards to shape, size, weight, texture and colour to develop language skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Sorting by touch. </li></ul><ul><li>Pointing out particular smells and tastes. </li></ul><ul><li>Sand and water play for messing and pouring. </li></ul>
  18. 19. 1.4.3 Attention disorders <ul><li>Signs to identify children with ADHD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The child will find it easy to concentrate if they are enjoying themselves but have problems getting started or staying on track and become easily distracted with tasks that they do not enjoy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child will find it unable to change from one task to another or tear themselves away from an activity that they are enjoying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child with ADHD will talk incessantly, be restless and fidgety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child with ADHD will find it difficult to wait their turn in games or conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child will often act without considering the consequences (impulsive) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. 1.4.4. Physical disabilities <ul><li>Cerebral palsy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral Palsy (CP) is not a disease or illness. It is a physical impairment that affects movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three main types of CP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spastic CP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Athetoid CP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ataxic CP </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. 1.4.5 Medical fragility due to chronic illness <ul><li>Reasons a child may miss school </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV and AIDS which may also include the child taking ARV treatment. Infections related to the disease may result in the child missing a large amount of school. There may be a stage where the child is too sick to attend school at all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asthma which causes difficulty with breathing. The uncontrolled asthmatic will miss school if they have many attacks. They may even be hospitalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes is a disease which is characterized by an unbalanced blood sugar level. The child may have to have medication given to them before meals and their meals may have to be carefully monitored at school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis (TB) may result in the child missing school. The child must be taking their TB medication or they will be at risk of infecting other children and adults at school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various cancers, including cancer of the blood also know as leukemia. Leukemia is a common childhood cancer </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Activity 2: Outing <ul><li>Ask your facilitator to arrange a visit to a child ward at a local hospital. During your visit observe the ways in which the wards are decorated and what stimulation and activities are provided for the children. Ask the nursing staff about the length of time that each child spends at the hospital and what allowances are made for homework missed. Maybe you can plan an activity or game to play with the children. Write a journal entry about your experiences during this excursion </li></ul><ul><li>  Your facilitator will guide you as to the kinds of questions you can ask </li></ul>
  22. 23. 1.4.6 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome <ul><li>What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is the set of symptoms found in babies born to mothers who drink heavily while they are pregnant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Features of children with FAS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small ears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat cheeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow eyes (slit like eyes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin, flat upper lip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small head and jaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A “flat” face </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Fetal alcohol syndrome
  24. 25. 1.4.7 Fears and phobias <ul><li>Fears that get out of hand are phobias </li></ul><ul><li>Phobias may need medical attention </li></ul><ul><li>Fear is a natural emotion </li></ul><ul><li>As children grow up they will learn to cope with fear </li></ul>
  25. 26. 1.5 The importance of early identification of risk <ul><li>Early identification of a disability is important </li></ul><ul><li>Early detection may allow the child to develop ‘normally’. Why? </li></ul>
  26. 27. 1.6 The importance of early identification of children who are gifted <ul><li>What is meant by gifted children? </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of giftedness </li></ul><ul><li>Early identification of children who are gifted </li></ul>
  27. 28. 1.6.1 What is meant by “gifted children” <ul><li>Intellect that is significantly higher than average </li></ul><ul><li>Child develops asynchronously </li></ul>IQ measurement Classification of intelligence Prevalence 115+ Bright 1 /6 children 130+ Moderately gifted 1 / 50 children 145+ Highly gifted 1 / 1000 children 160+ Exceptionally gifted 1 / 30 000 children 175+ Profoundly gifted 1 / 3 000 000 children
  28. 29. 1.6.2 Characteristics of giftedness <ul><li>Learn quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to read early </li></ul><ul><li>Operate at a cognitive level similar to children that are older </li></ul><ul><li>High reasoning ability </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Large vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent memory </li></ul><ul><li>Can master concepts with few repetitions </li></ul><ul><li>Physically and emotionally sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectionist </li></ul><ul><li>May question authority </li></ul><ul><li>May relate better to adults and older children instead of peers </li></ul>
  29. 30. 1.6.3 Early identification of gifted children <ul><li>Best time to test a child is between 4 – 8 years </li></ul><ul><li>Parents should have a child tested for the following reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide details about learning needs (strengths and weaknesses) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help identify a child for a gifted programme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to decide on appropriate educational options </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. 1.6.3 Early identification of gifted children <ul><li>Tips for parents of gifted children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t put pressure on the child to perform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give the child tasks to do that will develop a sense of responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember that the gifted child still needs security and stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never let the child skip any steps in the learning process rather supplement his activities with extra activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember that the gifted child will need emotional support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t label the child as this may create problems for the child </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. 1.7 Organisations that can assist parents of caregivers with advice <ul><li>See page 84 of “Early Childhood Development” for a list </li></ul>
  32. 33. Activity 3 <ul><li>This is a group activity where your facilitator will divide you into groups. To complete this activity you will have to do the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose one of the organisations listed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do research on the organisation that you have chosen. You may have to phone the organisation or visit their web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a pamphlet outlining all of the services that this organisation will be able to provide for young children. Include pictures and/or diagrams on your pamphlet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your group will have to present the pamphlet to the rest of the class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your facilitator will guide you regarding the criteria that your pamphlet and presentation will be marked according to a rubric </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. 1.8 The type of advice that parents or caregivers may receive from various organisations <ul><li>Multiple births </li></ul><ul><li>Down syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Epilepsy </li></ul>
  34. 35. 1.8.1 Multiple births <ul><li>The South African Multiple Birth Association gives the following advice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have more antenatal check-ups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get emotional support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat a well balanced diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk to other mothers of multiples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Babies can share a cot for the first few months but will need their own space later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine is vital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan ahead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat the babies as individuals </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. 1.8.2 Down syndrome <ul><li>Down syndrome is the result of having an extra gene </li></ul><ul><li>Organisations include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The National Down Syndrome Forum of South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The South African Association of Occupational Therapists </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. 1.8.3 Epilepsy <ul><li>What is epilepsy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The repeated occurrence of seizures or fits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two main types of seizures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grand mal is when a person would fall to the ground, loose consciousness with jerking movements of the body. After the seizure the person would fall into a deep sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petit mal is a momentary loss of consciousness </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. 1.8.3 Epilepsy <ul><li>Do you know what to do when a child has a seizure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move any objects out of the way so that there is an open space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that the rest of the class is removed from the venue as in some cases a child may wet him or herself and you would not want the child to be embarrassed later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn the child onto his or her side (recovery position) and support the chin to assist in breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk to the child to reassure them and keep physical contact with the child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loosen any tight clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NEVER put anything into their mouths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the seizure lasts for more than 10 minutes, get medical help </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Activity 4: Vocabulary list <ul><li>Go through this module and compile a list of all of the important terms and conditions discussed. Provide a brief definition for each of these terms or conditions. Use your own words as far as possible. This will assist you in understanding this module. It is important to understand the “language” of a subject </li></ul><ul><li>  Your facilitator will guide you in the requirements of this activity </li></ul>
  39. 40. Summative assessment <ul><li>Choose one of the following disabilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyslexia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyscalculia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyspraxia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do research on the disability that you have chosen. Present your findings in a project. You must describe the disability and list the conditions or symptoms of the disability. Include suggestions for parents on how to assist a child with this particular disability. Also suggest any organisations or websites that could provide information and assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Your facilitator will guide you on how this activity will be marked </li></ul>