Qualitative research lecture-shortened


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Qualitative research lecture-shortened

  1. 1. Image: http://www.ijea.org/v10r7/v10r7wordle.png Research Writing Aiden Yeh Wenzao Ursuline University
  2. 2. Image: http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/researchcourse/images/research_process.gif
  3. 3. Source: http://bit.ly/1fELvLx
  4. 4. Image: http://bit.ly/199EblW
  5. 5. Image: http://d34wpjv4rf3nwa.cloudfront.net/www1/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Qual_Vs_Quant.png Qualitative research is especially effective in obtaining culturally specific information about the values, opinions, behaviors, and social contexts of particular populations.
  6. 6. • Qualitative research is a generic term for investigative methodologies described as ethnographic, naturalistic, anthropological, field, or participant observer research. • It emphasizes the importance of looking at variables in the natural setting in which they are found. Interaction between variables is important. • Detailed data is gathered through open ended questions that provide direct quotations. The interviewer is an integral part of the investigation (Jacob, 1988). • This differs from quantitative research which attempts to gather data by objective methods to provide information about relations, comparisons, and predictions and attempts to remove the investigator from the investigation (Smith, 1983). Source: http://www.okstate.edu/ag/agedcm4h/academic/aged5980a/5980/newpage21.htm
  7. 7. • Qualitative research is by definition exploratory, and it is used when we don’t know what to expect, to define the problem or develop an approach to the problem. It’s also used to go deeper into issues of interest and explore nuances related to the problem at hand. • Common data collection methods used in qualitative research are focus groups, triads, dyads, in-depth interviews, uninterrupted observation, bulletin boards, and ethnographic participation/observation.
  8. 8. Source: http://bit.ly/174gvSz
  9. 9. Source: http://bit.ly/16PP10O
  10. 10. Source; http://iteach.saintleo.edu/InstructionalDesign/images/QDATraditionsChart.jpg
  11. 11. 3 Most Common Qualitative Methods
  12. 12. 1) Observation • Systematically seeks out and organizes data concerning what is being studied based on a social science theory and methodology rather than focusing on achieving a situationally defined goal. • Keeps detailed records of what occurs, including those things characteristically taken for granted. • Periodically detaches self from the situation to review records from the neutral position of a social scientist. • Constantly monitors observations and records for evidence of personal bias or prejudice
  13. 13. 5 Types of participant observation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. External Participation constitutes the lowest degree of involvement in observation. This type of observation can be done by observing situations on television or videotape. Passive Participation means the researcher is present at the scene of action but does not interact or participate. The researcher finds an observation post and assumes the role of a bystander or spectator. Balanced Participation means that the researcher maintains a balance between being an insider and being an outsider. The researcher observes and participates in some activities, but does not participate fully in all activities. Active Participation means that the researcher generally does what others in the setting do. While beginning with observation to learn the rules, as they are learned the researcher becomes actively engaged in the activities of the setting. Total Participation means the researcher is a natural participant. This is the highest level of involvement and usually comes about when the researcher studies something in which he or she is already a natural participant Source: http://www.okstate.edu/ag/agedcm4h/academic/aged5980a/5980/newpage21.htm
  14. 14. 2) Interviewing • • • • • • The researcher should control his reactions. The purpose of the interview is to find out what views people hold; their views should be unbiased by evaluative responses on the researcher’s part. The researcher should choose an interview environment and conditions in which the participants feel comfortable, secure, and at ease enough to speak openly about their point of view. The researcher should avoid presenting "yes" or "no" questions which tend to stifle detail. The researcher should be flexible in his or her approach to the informants. Group interviews can be useful, particularly in initial interviews. The researcher should consider to what degree the interview questioning is "recursive“ (or repeated). As applied to interviewing, what has been said in an interview is used to determine or define further questioning.
  15. 15. 3) Case Study • Case studies are detailed investigations of individuals, groups, institutions or other social units. The researcher conducting a case study attempts to analyze the variables relevant to the subject under study (Polit and Hungler, 1983). • The principle difference between case studies and other research studies is that the focus of attention is the individual case and not the whole population of cases. Most studies search for what is common and pervasive. However, in the case study, the focus may not be on generalization but on understanding the particulars of that case in its complexity. A case study focuses on a bounded system, usually under natural conditions, so that the system can be understood in its own habitat (Stake, 1988).
  16. 16. http://www.slideshare.net/sladner/sampling-methods-in-qualitative-and-quantitative-researchpresentation
  17. 17. http://www.slideshare.net/sladner/sampling-methods-in-qualitative-and-quantitative-researchpresentation Sampling in Qualitative Study a sample is a subset of a population that is used to represent the entire group as a whole.
  18. 18. http://www.slideshare.net/sladner/sampling-methods-in-qualitative-and-quantitative-researchpresentation
  19. 19. http://www .homepage.villanova.edu/rosemary.schiller/sampling/img 39 .gif 01 5
  20. 20. http://www .homepage.villanova.edu/rosemary.schiller/sampling/img 39 .gif 02 2
  21. 21. http://www .homepage.villanova.edu/rosemary.schiller/sa mpling/img .gif 39 01 9
  22. 22. Snowball Sampling https://emmaburnettx.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/snowball-sampling.jpg
  23. 23. http://www.powerdecisions.com/images/Qualitative-circle-diagram.jpg
  24. 24. • Interviews provide a qualitative method of gathering evidence, data or information. • the first things to consider are 20 12 08 / /Interview.png – who you will interview, – what kind of information you want to obtain, – the type of interview that will help you to do that. http://transcribeme.com/wp-content/uploads/ Interviews as Research Instruments
  25. 25. http://bit.ly/1b8s2Mi
  26. 26. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/research/img/interview_types.gif
  27. 27. http://betterevaluation.org/sites/default/files/Method.interviews.png
  28. 28. Categories/variables/ themes http://www.scielosp.org/img/revistas/rpsp/v33n4/a04anx01.jpg
  29. 29. Questions with prompts http://www.nature.com/jhh/journal/v24/n4/images/jhh200961i2.gif
  30. 30. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/ .png 31 40 08 03 02 00 4
  31. 31. http://www2.open.ac.uk/students/skillsforstudy/conducting-an-interview.php
  32. 32. Source: http://docsdrive.com/images/medwelljournals/rjasci/2011/img5-2k11-1-9.gif Sample Transcript Text
  33. 33. Sample Interview Transcript http://onlineqda.hud.ac.uk/Intro_QDA/images/Example_interview.gif
  34. 34. http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/viewFile/1634/3154/6237
  35. 35. http://www.history.ucsb.edu/projects/holocaust/Images/TranscriptionSymbolsGubHolst _ 64 1 dpi 10 0 pxw.jpg 57 0
  36. 36. http://www.history.ucsb.edu/projects/holocaust/Images/TranscriptionSymbolsGubHolst _ 63 9 dpi 10 0 pxw.jpg 57 0
  37. 37. Different kinds of data recorded in the transcript Cohen, Manion, and Morrison. (2000). Research Methods in Education. 5th Ed. London: UK. RoutledgeFalmer
  38. 38. http://www2.open.ac.uk/students/skillsforstudy/conducting-an-interview.php
  39. 39. Analyzing Cohen, Manion, and Morrison. (2000). Research Methods in Education. 5th Ed. London: UK. RoutledgeFalmer
  40. 40. Stages in Analysis Cohen, Manion, and Morrison. (2000). Research Methods in Education. 5th Ed. London: UK. RoutledgeFalmer
  41. 41. Generating meaning from data Cohen, Manion, and Morrison. (2000). Research Methods in Education. 5th Ed. London: UK. RoutledgeFalmer
  42. 42. Coding Cohen, Manion, and Morrison. (2000). Research Methods in Education. 5th Ed. London: UK. RoutledgeFalmer
  43. 43. Coding Cohen, Manion, and Morrison. (2000). Research Methods in Education. 5th Ed. London: UK. RoutledgeFalmer
  44. 44. Cohen, Manion, and Morrison. ( Pre-coding ). Research Methods in Education. 20 00 th Ed. London: UK. RoutledgeFalmer 5
  45. 45. Postcoding/content analysis Cohen, Manion, and Morrison. (2000). Research Methods in Education. 5th Ed. London: UK. RoutledgeFalmer
  46. 46. Sample coding Source: http://www.atlasti.com/fileadmin/atlasti/images/SEO/Celiacoding2_000.jpg
  47. 47. http://www.iier.org.au/iier22/lim1.gif
  48. 48. Reporting your Analysis
  49. 49. http://cdn.physorg.com/newman/gfx/news/hires/753.jpg
  50. 50. Reporting the Categories derived from the interview data using Tables http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/864/1878
  51. 51. http://socialsciences.scielo.org/img/revistas/s_icse/v5nse/a24tab2.jpg
  52. 52. Image: http://www.northumbria.ac.uk/static/images/schoolimages/ar_images/cetl/gilldavisondiagram1.jpg
  53. 53. Further Readings • Purposive Sampling: http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/research/sampl es/purposivesampling.htm • Interview as research instruments, http://www.culi.chula.ac.th/ejournal/bod/annabel.pdf • Qualitative data: Interviews, http://www.qualitativeresearch.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/864/1878 (Good read)