Business Research Methods. problem definition literature review and qualitative research tools


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Business Research Methods. problem definition literature review and qualitative research tools

  1. 1. Week 2 A- Problem Definition, Secondary Data/Literature Review B- Qualitative Research Tools and Procedures
  2. 2. Problem <ul><li>A problem does not necessarily means that something is seriously wrong with the current situation. It could be interest in improving the existing situation, so a problem is any situation where a gap exists between actual and the desired ideal state. </li></ul><ul><li>A problem occurs when there is a difference between the current conditions and the more preferable conditions. In other words gap exists between the way things are now and they way things could be better </li></ul><ul><li>In business any issue or opportunity is taken as a problem </li></ul>
  3. 3. Problem Definition <ul><li>The indication of a specific business decision area that will be clarified by answering some research questions. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of defining and developing a decision statement and the steps involved in translating it into more precise research terminology, including a set of research objectives. These are expressed as deliverables in research proposal. </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher further expresses these in clear-cut and scientific research terminology by creating research questions and hypotheses </li></ul>
  4. 4. Defining Problem Results in Clear Cut Research Objectives Exploratory Research (Optional) Symptom Detection Statement of Research Objectives Problem Definition Analysis of the Situation
  5. 5. The Process of Problem Definition Ascertain the decision maker’s objectives Understand background of the problem Isolate/identify the problem, not the symptoms Determine unit of analysis Determine relevant variables State research questions and objectives
  6. 6. <ul><li>Management Decision Problem Research Problem </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Should a new product be To determine consumer preferences </li></ul><ul><li>introduced? and purchase intentions for the </li></ul><ul><li>proposed new product. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Should the advertising To determine the effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>campaign be changed? of the current advertising </li></ul><ul><li>campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Should the price of the To determine the price elasticity </li></ul><ul><li>brand be increased? of demand and the impact on sales </li></ul><ul><li>and profits of various levels of price changes. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Proper Definition of the Research Problem Research Problem Broad Statement Specific Components
  8. 8. Problem Statement <ul><li>The researcher needs to narrow down the problem from original broad base and define the issue/opportunity more clearly </li></ul><ul><li>A problem statement is a clear, precise and succinct (to the point) statement of specific issue that a researcher wishes to investigate. It should be relevant, feasible and interesting (for the researcher) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Development of Research Questions and Hypotheses Components of the Research Questions Hypothese s Objective/ Theoretical Framework Analytical Model Research Problem
  10. 10. Research Questions and Hypotheses <ul><li>Research questions (RQs) are refined statements of the specific components of the problem ending with? </li></ul><ul><li>A hypothesis (H) is an unproven statement or proposition about a factor or phenomenon that is of interest to the researcher. Often, a hypothesis is a possible answer to the research question. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Example <ul><li>RQ: Do the customers of Nirala Sweats exhibit store loyalty? </li></ul><ul><li>H1: Customers who are store loyal are less knowledgeable about the shopping environment. </li></ul><ul><li>H2: Store-loyal customers are more risk-averse than are non-loyal customers. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Problem Definition Process Order </li></ul><ul><li>Assertion decision makers’ objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial goals expressed in measurable terms </li></ul><ul><li>The Iceberg Principle indicating that the dangerous part of many business problems is neither visible to nor understood by managers </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the background of the problem by exercising judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Situation analysis - The informal gathering of background information to familiarize researchers or managers with the decision area. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate and identify the problems, not the symptoms Symptoms can b confusing </li></ul>
  13. 13. Symptoms can be confusing Problem Definition Organization Symptoms Based on Symptom True Problem Twenty-year-old neighborhood swimming association in a major city. Membership has been declining for years. New water park with wave pool and water slides moved into town a few years ago. Neighborhood residents prefer the expensive water park and have negative image of swimming pool . Demographic changes: Children in this 20-year-old neighborhood have grown up. Older residents no longer swim anywhere.
  14. 14. Determine the Unit of Analysis <ul><li>Individuals, households, organizations, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In many studies, the family rather than the individual is the appropriate unit of analysis. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Determine the Relevant Variable <ul><li>Variable: May change from one instance to another and may assume different numerical values </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Variables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Categorical: Indicates membership in one group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous: Can take on a range of values that correspond to some quantitative amount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent: Predicted, explained or influenced by others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent: Expected to influence dependent variable in some way </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Secondary Data Research in a Digital Age
  17. 17. Primary vs. Secondary Data <ul><li>Primary data are originated by a researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the problem at hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary data are data which have already been collected for purposes other than the problem at hand. These data can be located quickly and inexpensively. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Secondary Data <ul><li>Data gathered and recorded by someone else prior to and for a purpose other than the current project </li></ul><ul><li>Is often: </li></ul><ul><li>Historical </li></ul><ul><li>Already assembled </li></ul><ul><li>Needs no access to subjects </li></ul>
  19. 19. Secondary Data <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtained Rapidly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information is not otherwise accessible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertain accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data not consistent with needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate units of measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time period inappropriate (Dated) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Evaluating Secondary Data Does the data help to answer questions set out in the problem definition? Does the data apply to the time period of interest? Does the data apply to the population of interest? Applicability to project objectives
  21. 21. Do the other terms and variable classifications presented apply? Are the units of measurement comparable? If possible, go to the original source of the data? Evaluating Secondary Data (continued) Applicability to project objectives Accuracy of the data
  22. 22. Is the cost of data acquisition worth it? Accuracy of the data Is there a possibility of bias? Can the accuracy of data collection be verified?
  23. 23. Criteria for Evaluating Secondary Data Criteria Issues Remarks Specifications & Methodology Error & Accuracy Currency Objective Nature Dependability Data collection method, response rate, quality & analysis of data, sampling technique & size, questionnaire design, fieldwork. Examine errors in approach, research design, sampling, data collection & analysis, & reporting. Time lag between collection & publication, frequency of updates. Why were the data collected? Definition of key variables, units of measurement, categories used, relationships examined. Expertise, credibility, reputation, & trustworthiness of the source. Data should be reliable, valid, & generalizable to the problem. Assess accuracy by comparing data from different sources. Census data are updated by syndicated firms. The objective determines the relevance of data. Reconfigure the data to increase their usefulness. Data should be obtained from an original source.
  24. 24. A Classification of Secondary Data Secondary Data Ready to Use Requires Further Processing Published Materials Computerized Databases Syndicated Services Internal External
  25. 25. Internal Data <ul><li>Internal and proprietary data is more descriptive </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting information </li></ul><ul><li>Sales information </li></ul><ul><li>Backorders </li></ul><ul><li>Customer complaints </li></ul>
  26. 26. External Data <ul><li>Created, recorded, or generated by an entity other than the researcher’s organization </li></ul><ul><li>Government, Trade associations </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers and journals </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries, The Internet, Vendors, Producers </li></ul><ul><li>Books and periodicals </li></ul><ul><li>Government sources, Media sources </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial sources </li></ul>
  27. 27. Commercial Sources <ul><li>Attitude and public opinion research—syndicated services report the findings of opinion polls </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption and purchase behavior data </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising research—readership and audience data </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic and census updates—many organizations supply census updates, in easy-to-use or custom formats </li></ul><ul><li>Aftab associates, Gallup Pakistan </li></ul>
  28. 28. A Classification of Published Secondary Sources Published Secondary Data General Business Sources Government Sources Statistical Data Guide s Directorie s Indexes Census Data Other Government Publications
  29. 29. A Classification of Computerized Databases Bibliographic Databases Numeric Databases Full-Text Databases Directory Databases Special-Purpose Databases Computerized Databases Online Off-Line Internet
  30. 30. Classification of Computerized Databases <ul><li>Bibliographic databases are composed of citations to articles. </li></ul><ul><li>Numeric databases contain numerical and statistical information. </li></ul><ul><li>Full-text databases contain the complete text of the source documents comprising the database. </li></ul><ul><li>Directory databases provide information on individuals, organizations, and services. </li></ul><ul><li>Special-purpose databases provide specialized information. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Types of Online Databases <ul><li>Indexing Database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ERIC, Agricola, Medline, EconLit, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistical databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stat-USA, UN Common Database, PC-TAS, Infofish, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full text databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science Direct, Emerald, JSTOR, Springer, Wiley Interscience, LexisNexis, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Some online databases <ul><li>( http:// ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informaworld provides access to over 1100 peer-reviewed research journals published by Taylor & Francis, Rutledge, Psychology Press and Informa Healthcare in Sciences, Engineering and Humanities subject areas generally from 1997 to present. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JSTOR ( http:// ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An online archive database with complete backfiles of over 700 core scholarly journals covering Business, Finance, Economics, Mathematics, Statistics, Language, Law, Religion, Philosophy, Anthropology, History, Geography, Biological Sciences, Political Sciences and Education. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ScienceDirect ( http:// ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The world's leading electronic collection of scientific journals and provides access to the fulltext of last 5 years. The subject areas covered in this database are: Business Management and Accounting, Mathematics, Computer Science, and Economics. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Some online databases <ul><li> ( http:// ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informaworld provides access to over 1100 peer-reviewed research journals published by Taylor & Francis, Rutledge, Psychology Press and Informa Healthcare in Sciences, Engineering and Humanities subject areas generally from 1997 to present. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JSTOR ( http:// ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An online archive database with complete backfiles of over 700 core scholarly journals covering Business, Finance, Economics, Mathematics, Statistics, Language, Law, Religion, Philosophy, Anthropology, History, Geography, Biological Sciences, Political Sciences and Education. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ScienceDirect ( http:// ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The world's leading electronic collection of scientific journals and provides access to the fulltext of last 5 years. The subject areas covered in this database are: Business Management and Accounting, Mathematics, Computer Science, and Economics. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>( ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than legal research, the LexisNexis® Total Research System provides you online access to state and federal case law; codes and statutes; court documents and extensive secondary materials such as treatises and law journal articles. It has over 3.5 billion public records; business news, legal news, and regional news; expert commentary on the law; Shepard's® Citations Service; and so much more. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>( http:// ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wiley InterScience offers over 3 million articles from 1400+ journals, the combined output of all Wiley-Blackwell peer-reviewed primary research and survey journals. It covers the full spectrum of science, technology, Engineering, medicine, business, social sciences, and the humanities. Many of these titles are ranked at the forefront of their fields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( http:// /Insight ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides full text of all 150+ Emerald online journals available, with full text back files, many going back to 1990's abstracts going back in some cases to 1980's. </li></ul></ul></ul>Some online databases
  35. 35. <ul><li>( http:// ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the world's leading online information services for scientific, technical, and medical books and journals. Over 1100 fully peer reviewed journals are available with back files starting from different dates. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>( http:// ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cambridge University Press’s collection of nearly 200 leading journals across the sciences, social sciences and humanities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Source Premier ( http:// ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business Source Premier is the industry’s most used business research database, providing full text for more than 2,300 journals, including full text for more than 1,100 peer-reviewed titles. This database provides full text back to 1886, and searchable cited references back to 1998. Business Source Premier is superior to the competition in full text coverage in all disciplines of business, including marketing, management, MIS, POM, accounting, finance and economics. This database is updated daily on EBSCO host. </li></ul></ul></ul>Some online databases
  36. 36. <ul><ul><li>Project Gutenberg ( http:// ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Gutenberg is the first and largest single collection of free eBooks. It provides free online access to more than 30,000 eBooks on number of subject areas. These books are searchable through title, author and keyword. </li></ul><ul><li>Bartleby ( h ttp:// ) </li></ul><ul><li>The E ncyclopedia of W orld H istory and T he H arvard C lassics are among many free texts offered at this award-winning site. Many classic reference works are available there. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Public Library ( http:// /reading/books ) </li></ul><ul><li>The IPL Online Texts Collection contains over 20,000 titles that can be browsed by author, by title, or by Dewey Decimal Classification&quot;. </li></ul>Free Book Resources
  37. 37. Free Book Resources <ul><li>FreeBookSpot ( http:// ) </li></ul><ul><li>This is an online source of free ebooks download with 4485 FREE E-BOOKS in 96 categories which up to 71, 97 GB. You can search and download free books in categories like scientific, engineering, programming, fiction and many other books. No registration is required to download free e-books. </li></ul><ul><li>Free- eBooks ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>This is an online source for free ebook downloads, ebook resources and ebook authors . Besides free ebooks, you also download free magazines or submit your own ebook. You need to become a Free-EBooks.Net member to access their library. Registration is free. </li></ul><ul><li>ManyBooks ( http:// / ) </li></ul><ul><li>provides free ebooks for your PDA, iPod or eBook Reader . You can randomly browse for a ebook through the most popular titles, recommendations or recent reviews for visitors. There are 21,282 eBooks available here and they’re all free. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Free Journals <ul><li>Directory of Open Access Journals ( http:// / ) </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by Lund University Libraries and supported by the Information Program of the Open Society Institute along with SPARC (The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition. The directory contains information about 350 open access journals, i.e. quality controlled scientific and scholarly electronic journals that are freely available on the web. The service will continue to grow as new journals are identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Journals Library ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>The Electronic Journals Library is a service offered by the University Library of Regensburg to facilitate the use of scholarly journals on the Internet. At 1 January 2004 it contained 12,979 titles, among them 1319 online-only journals, covering all subjects, of which 3358 journals can be read full-text free-of-charge. </li></ul><ul><li>HighWire Press ( http:// ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of free On-Line full text articles and journals HighWire Press work with scholarly societies and responsible publishers to host their content online. They do not own the material, nor do they set the journals' policies. HighWire contains over 439,456 free full-text articles as of January 2003. HighWire Press at Stanford University develops and maintains the Web versions of important journals in biomedicine and other disciplines. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Trade & Commerce – Some Useful Online Sources <ul><li>CBI (Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries ) ( Provides up-to-date information on topics like market access requirements, market size, consumer trends, trade structure, packaging, pricing, terms of trade and export guidelines for more than 35 sectors, covering the European Union and its member states. </li></ul><ul><li>ITC (International Trade Centre) ( ITC provides tailored market research and trade analysis, and conducts training programs in market analysis for trade policy makers, trade support institutions and the business community in developing countries. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Trade & Commerce – Some Useful Online Sources <ul><li>IMF (International Monetary Fund) Database ( </li></ul><ul><li>IMF publishes a range of time series data on IMF lending, exchange rates and other economic and financial indicators. </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations ( </li></ul><ul><li>The Statistics Division compiles and disseminates global statistical information, develop standards and norms for statistical activities, and support countries’ efforts to strengthen their national statistical systems. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Trade & Commerce – Some Useful Online Sources <ul><li>World Bank ( </li></ul><ul><li>The World Bank's Open Data initiative is intended to provide all users with access to World Bank data. Many World Bank databases provide updated statistics on various areas of trade, finance and economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Eeuromonitor International ( Euromonitor International is the world's leading independent provider of business intelligence on industries, countries and consumers. Its online information databases on industries, countries and consumers integrate international market statistics with strategic, insightful comment and reports. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Trade & Commerce – Some Useful Online Sources <ul><li>Economist Intelligence Unit ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>The Economist Intelligence Unit is the world's leading resource for economic and business research, forecasting and analysis. It is particularly well known for its monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports and industry reports. </li></ul><ul><li>Data Monitor ( </li></ul><ul><li>Datamonitor is an international company which publishes market research on a number of different industries. It is a division of Informa, a United Kingdom-based publisher and conference company. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Trade & Commerce – Some Useful Online Sources <ul><li>OECD (Organization for Economic Co operation and Development ( </li></ul><ul><li> The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of 34 countries founded to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It defines itself as a forum of countries committed to democracy and the market economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) ( http:// / ) </li></ul><ul><li>ACCA is the global body for professional accountants aims to offer business-relevant, first-choice qualifications to people of application, ability and ambition around the world who seek a rewarding career in accountancy, finance and management.  </li></ul>
  44. 44. Trade & Commerce – Some Useful Online Sources <ul><li>FBR (Federal Board of Revenue) ( The Federal Board of Revenue is the supreme federal agency of Pakistan that is responsible for enforcing and collecting revenue. It publishes reports regarding taxation, custom and excise duties. </li></ul><ul><li>State Bank of Pakistan ( </li></ul><ul><li> The State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) is the central bank of Pakistan. The bank has also been entrusted with the responsibility to carry out monetary and credit policy in accordance with Government targets for growth and inflation with the recommendations of the Monetary and Fiscal Policies Co-ordination Board without trying to effect the macroeconomic policy objectives. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Trade & Commerce – Some Useful Online Sources <ul><li>Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan ( </li></ul><ul><li> The Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP) is a government agency whose purpose is to develop a modern and efficient corporate sector and a capital market based on sound regulatory principles, in order to foster economic growth and prosperity in PAK. </li></ul><ul><li>IAR (Industrial Advisory Reports) ( </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Advisory Reports&quot; are being published by I&A Research Publications from 1st October 2004. Every fortnightly report depicts the Investment Opportunities in Pakistan, in a specific sector that would help the businessman, banker and consultants to make strategies in accordance with the situation. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Trade & Commerce – Some Useful Online Sources <ul><li>Population Census Organization ( ) </li></ul><ul><li> It is responsible for planning and execution of decennial Population and Housing Census and release of its data for public and private use. Population Census Organization process and disseminate data in the form of regular census reports and a number of supplementary reports based on analysis and research of demographic data </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Census Organization ( </li></ul><ul><li> Agricultural Census Organization (ACO) was created in 1958, in the Ministry of Agriculture & Works, with the main objective to collect, process and disseminate agricultural statistics. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Trade & Commerce – Some Useful Online Sources <ul><li>Finance Division Ministry of Finance (Government of Pakistan ) ( http:// ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Finance Division deals with the subjects pertaining to finance of the Federal Government and financial matters affecting the country as a whole, preparation of annual budget statements and supplementary/excess budget statements for the consideration of the parliament accounts and audits of the Federal Government Organization. Publications include annual budget, economic surveys etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FBS (Federal Bureau of Statistics) ( The Federal Bureau of Statistics , also known as FBS is a Government of Pakistan's major department charged with the national statistical services and to provide solid and comprehensive statistical research. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Literature Review <ul><li>A body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic. Its ultimate goal is to bring the reader up to date with current literature on a topic and forms the basis for another goal, such as the justification for future research in the area. </li></ul><ul><li>It seeks to describe, summarize, evaluate, clarify and/or integrate the content of previous researches. </li></ul><ul><li>Literature review help researchers limit the scope of their inquiry and convey the importance of studying a topic to readers. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Purpose of Literature Review <ul><li>Distinguish what has been done from what needs to be done </li></ul><ul><li>Discover important variables relevant to the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesizing and gaining a new perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying relationships between ideas and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing the context of the topic or problem </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalizing the significance of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing and acquiring the subject vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the structure of the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Relating ideas and theory to applications </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the main methodologies and research techniques that have been used </li></ul><ul><li>Placing the research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments </li></ul>
  50. 50. Literature Review Ensures that: <ul><li>Important variables that are likely to influence the problem situation are not left out of the study </li></ul><ul><li>A clear idea emerges as to what variables will be most important to consider and how they should be investigated to solve the problem. Thus literature helps develop theoretical frame work and hypotheses for testing </li></ul><ul><li>The problem statement can be made with precision and clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Testability and replicability of the findings of the current research are enhanced </li></ul><ul><li>One does not run the risk of re-inventing the wheel that is wasting efforts on trying to rediscover something that is already known </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher has gone through relevant literature and problem investigated is perceived by scientific community as relevant and significant </li></ul>
  51. 51. Steps in conducting Literature Review Identify Topic Locate articles/books and other sources on topic Skimming In-depth Assembling and writing Suggesting further research areas on the topic
  52. 52. Analysis Select, differentiate, dissect, and break up. Unpacking a thing into its constituent parts in order to infer or determine the relationship and/or organizing principle between them; thereby isolating the main variables. Synthesis Integrate, combing recast, formulate, reorganize. Rearranging the elements derived from analysis to identity relationship or show main organizing principle or show how these principles can be used to make a different phenomenon. Comprehension Understand, be able to explain, distinguish, and interpret. Interpreting and distinguishing between different types of data, theory and argument; thereby being able to describe, discuss and explain in various ways the substance of an idea or working of a phenomenon. Knowledge Define, classify, describe, name, use, recognize, become aware of, understand, problem solve. Perceiving the principles, use and function of rules, methods and events in different situations; classify, characterize, generalize, analyze the structure of, and learn from experimentation on the meaning of, concepts and their application.
  53. 53. Process of Critical Review <ul><ul><li>Start at a more general level before narrowing down to your specific research questions and objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a brief overview of key ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize, compare and contrast the work of the key writers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow down to highlight the work most relevant to your research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a detailed account of the findings of this work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight those issues where your research will provide fresh insights </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Review Vs Reporting <ul><li>Citation of sources makes your writing authentic </li></ul><ul><li>Report direction and extent of relationships where available </li></ul><ul><li>Your commentary on gaps, weaknesses or strengths is much needed </li></ul><ul><li>Review should be comprehensive, but relevant and of quality data and literature </li></ul><ul><li>Peered review and published literaturehas its value </li></ul>
  55. 55. How to write the literature review <ul><li>The literature review should show that all relevant documents, published and unpublished, have been identified and analyzed. This means that all the main concepts, theories, and methodological approaches relevant to the topic that have been identified understood and critically evaluated. The primary objective of literature review is to demonstrate that you have thought carefully about the knowledge on the topic that is contained in the literature. </li></ul><ul><li>A literature review can be: </li></ul><ul><li>a summary of existing work on the topic </li></ul><ul><li>a critical evaluation of previous work </li></ul><ul><li>it can be some general and specific conclusions about work done to date on the topic </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Think what else do we need to learn and remember? </li></ul><ul><li>What I need? </li></ul><ul><li>How to search? </li></ul><ul><li>Where to find? </li></ul>
  57. 57. Qualitative research <ul><li>An unstructured exploratory research methodology based on small samples that provides insights and understanding of the problem setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows researcher to elaborate interpretations of phenomena without depending on numerical measurement. Its focus is on discovering true inner meanings and new insights. </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher must extract meanings from unstructured responses such as text from a recorded interview or meaning of experiences. The researcher interprets the data to extract its meanings and convert it into information. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Qualitative Vs. Quantitative Research Qualitative Research To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations Small number of non-representative cases Unstructured Non-statistical Develop an initial understanding Objective Sample Data Collection Data Analysis Outcome Quantitative Research To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest Large number of representative cases Structured Statistical Recommend a final course of action
  59. 59. Why qualitative research? <ul><li>It is not always possible/desirable to use fully structured methods to obtain info from respondents </li></ul><ul><li>People may be unwilling to answer certain questions, especially those of more private, embarrass them, sensitivity e. g. Have you recently purchased sanitary napkins? Drugs for nerves tension, inner feelings, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In such questions info can only be obtained through qualitative research. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also useful to discover sensory feelings of customers </li></ul>
  60. 60. Common uses of qualitative research <ul><li>When it is difficult to develop specific and actionable problem statements/research objectives </li></ul><ul><li>When purpose is to develop understanding of some phenomena in great detail and in much depth </li></ul><ul><li>How a phenomena occurs in a natural setting or to learn how to express some concepts colloquial (informal) terms e.g. how do consumers actually use a product? Observing a product, watching an invoice process </li></ul><ul><li>To study a behavior in a particular context </li></ul><ul><li>When a fresh approach to studying some problem is needed </li></ul>
  61. 61. Qualitative Research Procedures Association Techniques Completion Techniques Construction Techniques Expressive Techniques Direct (Non- camouflaged) Indirect (camouflaged) Focus Groups Depth Interviews Projective Techniques Qualitative Research Procedures
  62. 62. Focus group <ul><li>It is an interview conducted by a trained moderator in a non-structured and natural manner with a small group of respondents. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderator leads the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to get insights by listening to a group of people from a target market about issues of researchers’ interest </li></ul><ul><li>Value of focus group lies in un-expected findings often obtained from a free flowing group discussion </li></ul>
  63. 63. Characteristics of Focus Groups Group Size 8-12 Group Composition all the same, respondents, prescreened Physical Setting Relaxed, informal atmosphere Time Duration 1-3 hours Recording Use of audiocassettes and videotapes Moderator Observational, interpersonal, and communication skills of the moderator
  64. 64. Planning and Conducting Focus Groups Determine the Objectives and Define the Problem Specify the Objectives of Qualitative Research Develop a Moderator’s Outline Conduct the Focus Group Interviews Review Tapes and Analyze the Data Summarize the Findings and Plan Follow-Up Research or Action State the Objectives/Questions to be Answered by Focus Groups Write a Screening Questionnaire
  65. 65. Advantages of Focus Groups <ul><li>Synergism (interaction): wide range of info, ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Snowballing (cumulative) One persons comments triggers chain reaction from others </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation: expression of feelings and excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Security: common feeling feel comfortable to express </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneity (natural) provide accurate ideas and views </li></ul><ul><li>Serendipity (chance) Ideas arise out of blue in groups rather than in an individual interview </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization: Highly trained interviewer, moderator </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific scrutiny: observers can witness & record for analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Structure: Allows flexibility in topics of discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Speed: a number of respondents interviewed once </li></ul><ul><li>It is economical </li></ul>
  66. 66. Disadvantages of Focus Groups <ul><li>Misuse: can be misused by considering the results as conclusive rather than exploratory </li></ul><ul><li>Misjudge: Can be easily misjudged than the results of other data collection techniques—client/researcher bias </li></ul><ul><li>Moderation: Difficult to moderate—moderator skills </li></ul><ul><li>Messy: Unstructured responses make coding, analysis and interpretation difficult. Data could be messy </li></ul><ul><li>Misrepresentation: Because of non-representation of general population, so results should not be the sole basis for management decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of facial expression and body language </li></ul>
  67. 67. Applications of focus groups <ul><li>Used for profit, non-profit and all type of organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding consumer perceptions, preferences and behavior concerning a product </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining impressions of new product concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Generating new ideas about old products </li></ul><ul><li>Developing creative concepts and copy material for advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>Securing price impressions </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining preliminary consumer reaction to specific marketing programs </li></ul>
  68. 68. Depth interviews <ul><li>Unstructured and direct way of obtaining info but unlike focus group, depth interviews are conducted on one on one basis </li></ul><ul><li>It is a direct, personal interview in which a single respondent is probed by a highly skilled interviewer to uncover underlying motivation, beliefs, attitudes, and feelings such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do say that? That is interesting can you tell me more, would you like to add anything else—probing questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May take 30 minutes to more than one hour on a topic </li></ul>
  69. 69. Depth Interview Techniques: Laddering (Hierarchy) <ul><li>In laddering , the line of questioning proceeds from product characteristics to user characteristics. This technique allows the researcher to tap into the consumer's network of meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>Wide body aircrafts (product characteristic) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I can get more work done </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I accomplish more </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I feel good about myself (user characteristic) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising theme: You will feel good about yourself when flying </li></ul><ul><li>our airline. “You're The Boss.” </li></ul>
  70. 70. Depth Interview Techniques: Hidden Issue Questioning <ul><li>In hidden issue questioning , the focus is not on socially shared values but rather on personal “sore spots;” not on general lifestyles but on deeply felt personal concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>fantasies, work lives, and social lives </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>historic, elite, “masculine-companionship,” competitive activities </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising theme: communicate aggressiveness, high status, and competitive heritage of the airline . </li></ul>
  71. 71. Depth Interview Techniques: Symbolic Analysis <ul><li>Symbolic analysis attempts to analyze the symbolic meaning of objects by comparing them with their opposites. The logical opposites of a product that are investigated are: non-usage of the product, attributes of an imaginary “non-product,” and opposite types of products. </li></ul><ul><li>“ What would it be like if you could no longer use airplanes?” </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Without planes, I would have to rely on letters and long- distance calls.” </li></ul><ul><li>Airlines sell to the managers face-to-face communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising theme: The airline will do the same thing for a manager as Federal Express does for a package. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Focus Groups Vs Depth Interviews Characteristic Focus Groups Depth Interviews Group synergy and dynamics + - Peer pressure/group influence - + Client involvement + - Generation of innovative ideas + - In-depth probing of individuals - + Uncovering hidden motives - + Discussion of sensitive topics - +
  73. 73. Focus Groups Vs Depth Interviews Note: A + indicates a relative advantage over the other procedure, a - indicates a relative disadvantage. Interviewing competitors Interviewing professional respondents Scheduling of respondents Amount of information Bias in moderation and interpretation Cost per respondent - - - + + + + + + - - - Characteristic Focus Groups Depth Interviews
  74. 74. Definition of Projective Techniques <ul><li>An indirect means of questioning enabling respondents to project beliefs and feelings onto a third party, an inanimate object or a task situation </li></ul><ul><li>An unstructured, indirect form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes or feelings regarding the issues of concern. </li></ul><ul><li>In projective techniques, respondents are asked to interpret the behavior of others. In interpreting the behavior of others, respondents indirectly project their own motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings into the situation. </li></ul>
  75. 75. Word Association <ul><li>In word association , respondents are presented with a list of words, one at a time, and asked to respond to each with the first word that comes to mind. The words of interest, called test words, are interspersed throughout the list which also contains some neutral, or filler words to hide the purpose of the study. Responses are analyzed by calculating: </li></ul><ul><li>(1)  the frequency with which any word is given as a response; </li></ul><ul><li>(2)  the amount of time that elapses before a response is given; and </li></ul><ul><li>(3) the number of respondents who do not respond at all to a test word within a reasonable period of time. </li></ul>
  76. 76. Word Association <ul><li>EXAMPLE </li></ul><ul><li>Incentive MRS. M MRS. C washday everyday ironing fresh and sweet clean pure air soiled scrub don't; husband does clean filth this neighborhood dirt bubbles bath soap and water family squabbles children towels dirty wash </li></ul>
  77. 77. Completion Techniques: complete an incomplete stimulus situation <ul><li>A. In s entence completion , respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete them. Generally, they are asked to use the first word or phrase that comes to mind. </li></ul><ul><li>A person who shops at HKB is ______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>When I think of shopping in a department store, I ________ </li></ul><ul><li>In hot summer I drink _______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>A variation of sentence completion is paragraph completion, in which the respondent completes a paragraph beginning with the stimulus phrase. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Completion Techniques <ul><li>B. In story completion , respondents are given part of a story – enough to direct attention to a particular topic but not to hint at the ending. They are required to give the conclusion in their own words. </li></ul>
  79. 79. Construction Techniques <ul><li>Respondent is required to construct a response in the form of a story, dialogue or description </li></ul><ul><li>A. With a picture response, the respondents are asked to describe a series of pictures of ordinary as well as unusual events. The respondent's interpretation of the pictures gives indications of that individual's personality. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>B. In cartoon tests , cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to the problem. The respondents are asked to indicate what one cartoon character might say in response to the comments of another character. Cartoon tests are simpler to administer and analyze than picture response techniques. </li></ul>
  80. 80. Expressive Techniques <ul><li>Respondents are presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation. Respondents express not their own feelings but those of others </li></ul><ul><li>Role playing Respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of someone else. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Third-person technique The respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and the respondent is asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person rather than directly expressing personal beliefs and attitudes. This third person may be a friend, neighbor, colleague, or a “typical” person. </li></ul>
  81. 81. Advantages of Projective Techniques <ul><li>They may elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling or unable to give if they knew the purpose of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful when the issues to be addressed are personal, sensitive, or subject to strong social norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful when underlying motivations, beliefs, and attitudes are operating at a subconscious level. </li></ul>
  82. 82. Disadvantages of Projective Techniques <ul><li>Suffer from many of the disadvantages of unstructured direct techniques, but to a greater extent. </li></ul><ul><li>Require highly-trained interviewers. </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled interpreters are also required to analyze the responses. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a serious risk of interpretation bias. </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to be expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>May require respondents to engage in unusual behavior. </li></ul>
  83. 83. Guidelines for Using Projective Techniques <ul><li>Projective techniques should be used because the required information cannot be accurately obtained by direct methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Projective techniques should be used for exploratory research to gain initial insights and understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Given their complexity, projective techniques should not be used frankly. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Focus Groups, Depth Interviews, Projective Techniques Comparison 1. Degree of Structure 2. Probing of individual respondents 3. Moderator bias 4. Interpretation bias 5. Uncovering subconscious information 6. Discovering innovative information 7. Obtaining sensitive information 8. Involve unusual behavior or questioning 9. Overall usefulness Relatively high Low Relatively medium Relatively low Low High Low No Highly useful Relatively medium High Relatively high Relatively medium Medium to high Medium Medium To a limited extent Useful Relatively low Medium Low to high Relatively high High Low High Yes Somewhat useful Focus Groups Depth Interviews Projective Techniques Criteria
  85. 85. Observation <ul><li>Observation can be a very important qualitative tool. </li></ul><ul><li>It is systematic process of recording behavioral patterns of people, objects and occurrences as they happen. No questioning or communicating with the people required, just recording they way it happens </li></ul>
  86. 86. What Can Be Observed Phenomena Example Human behavior or physical Shoppers movement action pattern in a store Verbal behavior Statements made by airline travelers who wait in line Expressive behavior Facial expressions, tone of voice, and other form of body language
  87. 87. What Can Be Observed Phenomena Example Spatial relations How close visitors at an and locations art museum stand to paintings Temporal patterns How long fast-food customers wait for their order to be served Physical objects What brand name items are stored in consumers’ pantries Verbal and Pictorial Bar codes on product packages Records
  88. 88. Advantages of Observation <ul><li>Communication with respondent is not necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Data without distortions due to self-report (e.g.: without social desirability) Bias </li></ul><ul><li>No need to rely on respondents memory </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal behavior data may be obtained </li></ul>
  89. 89. Observation of Human Behavior Benefits <ul><li>Certain data may be obtained more quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental conditions may be recorded </li></ul><ul><li>May be combined with survey to provide supplemental evidence </li></ul>
  90. 90. Limitations of Observation Method <ul><li>Cognitive phenomena cannot be observed </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of data may be a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Not all activity can be recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Only short periods can be observed </li></ul><ul><li>Observer bias possible </li></ul><ul><li>Possible invasion of privacy </li></ul>
  91. 91. Analysis of Qualitative Data <ul><li>Data reduction – Select which aspects of the data are to be emphasized, minimized, or set aside for the project at hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Data display – Develop a visual interpretation of the data with the use of such tools as a diagram, chart, or matrix. The display helps to illuminate patterns and interrelationships in the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion drawing and verification – Considers the meaning of analyzed data and assess its implications for the research question at hand. </li></ul>
  92. 92. Effectively communicating campus news: a qualitative analysis <ul><li>Focus group with a sample of graduate college students to get insights on the following research question: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the most effective ways of communicating important campus news (death of a faculty member, payment deadlines, campus power outage) to college students? </li></ul><ul><li>After data collection researcher should chose which data is pertinent to question in hand, in this case researcher may consider </li></ul><ul><li>A. the ways that the respondents recall receiving imp news in the past </li></ul><ul><li>B. what means of communication they feel most effective </li></ul><ul><li>C. why they feel these are most effective means of communication </li></ul><ul><li>After coding the categories of interest the researcher may want to display the data in order to make the findings more clear </li></ul>
  93. 93. Conclusions <ul><li>Problem definition, (concise, compact) problem statement sets the direction and boundaries of research </li></ul><ul><li>Literature review provides foundation for the study, uncover that exists </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative research allows insights to come out, in-depth analysis, new theories, attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Observation direct with the subjects of the study, no questioning, natural setting </li></ul>
  94. 94. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>