Research methods


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Research methods

  1. 1. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  2. 2. 1. The importance of research2. Definition and aims of research3. Basic steps in research4. Kinds of research Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  3. 3.  The Importance of Research The purpose of research is to inform action. Thus, your study should seek to contextualize its findings within the larger body of research. Research must always be high quality in order to produce knowledge that is applicable outside of the research setting with implications that go beyond the group that has participated in the research. Furthermore, the results of your study should have implications for policy and project implementation. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  4. 4.  Definition and Aims of Research Research is an established necessity in the business world today, especially in management. The changes are a resulty of scientific procedures in planning, control, systems analysis and adoptations. It also defined as a “critical and exhaustive”. Its aim is to discover a new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  5. 5. Research invlove a number of stepswhich may vary depending on thenature of the problem, as personnel andfinancial resources, time availability, etc.In general, research invloves thefollowing basic steps. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  6. 6. Steps:1. Fomulating the problem Research begins with a problem and the need to solve for it. Once the problem has recognized, the first step is to define it in concrete and explicit terms. The researcher must identify the type of consumer you will investigate since consumers may be classified on the basis of a number of factors like sex, age-grouping, socio- economic level, and the type of goods involved. In many instances a hypothesis is formulated. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  7. 7. Hypothesis – is “a preposition, condition, are principle which is a assumed, perhaps without belief, in order to draw out its logical consequences and by this method to test its accord with facts which are known be determined.” Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  8. 8. 2. Conducting Exploratory Studies A type of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  9. 9. 3. Designing the Research Project The research design generally involves the following steps: Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  10. 10.  Determining the type of data needed Data are classified into primary and secondary. Primary are those facts obtained and recorded for the first time. Secondary data are those which have been compile by an agency or person other than the researcher. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  11. 11.  Identifying the source of data When the researcher has obtained what type of data he needs, he should know where or from whom he will obtain them. For instance, if primary data collection is involve, he identified his subjects or the population to be situated. On the other hand, if secondary data are involve, he would to prepare a list of possible source where he may find the necessary information. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  12. 12.  Selecting the kind of research and methods and instrument of data gathering This step in designing a research project is concerned with selecting one among the four kinds of research and choosing the most appropriate methods for data gathering. The major kinds of research may be used in the behavioral sciences are the analytical, experimental, case, and survey methods. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  13. 13. 4. Collecting the data Direct Observation – this is the simplest and most basic of the methods of data gathering. It involves making direct critical observations of actual behavior patterns and systematically describing in detail how they occur and in what environmental condition they take place. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  14. 14. A researcher can made directobservations of behavior either as aparticipant or as a non-participant. As aparticipant, he becomes a part of theevent he is observing or the communitythat he is studying. As a non-participant, the investigatorcarefully records and describes thebehavioral patterns of his subjects. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  15. 15. While direct observation are useful,they have certain disadvantages. Forone thing, whether the investigation actsas a participant or a non-participant, hispresence tends to lessen the subjectsspontaneity and affect the behaviorbeing observed so that what is observedmay no longer be typical of what thesubject does. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  16. 16. Verbal Reports – Some phenomena,by their very nature, cannot be directlyobserved. These include covert behaviorsuch as attitudes, feeling, beliefs,opinions, and others. In cases like these,the investigator depends on verbalrepots of the respondent. Verbal reportmay be obtained through oral interviewor written questionnaires. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  17. 17. A. Oral Interview A number of techniques are used for obtaining and recording interviews. These may be classified to the following: Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  18. 18.  Free association – techniques that allows the respondent to talk freely about anything the wishes and to express his thoughts spontaneously about any topic. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  19. 19.  Depth interview or unstructured interview - the respondent can talk freely but he is confined to the topic that is of major concern to the investigator. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  20. 20.  Semi-structured interview – this techniques gives the investigator control not only on the major topic to be stressed but also on the questions to be asked and the order in which they are to be asked. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  21. 21.  Structured interview – the questions asked and the sequence with which they are to be asked and the order in which the are to be asked. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  22. 22. B. Questionnaires it may be open minded or structures or a combination of both types. The first makes use of open-ended questions which require the structured questionnaire is similar to the structure interview except that the questions and the respondent answers are in writing. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  23. 23.  Test in Inventories The term “test”, usually refers to the subject performance in a task as scored and evaluated by a investigator. Unlike interviews, tests and inventions are concerned with measuring and evaluating certain characteristics and behavior patterns of the individuals tested. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  24. 24.  Secondary data or records Sometimes the materials of interest to the investigator are no longer available because the event took place years ago. The investigator made use of a mass of secondary data or written records which he himself had no part in collecting but which, nevertheless, may be used in his study. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  25. 25. 5. Processing the data After the required data have been collected, the next step is to group or classify them into meaningful category on the basis of similarity. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  26. 26. The categorization of data is known as coding. It is thetechnical process by which raw data are transformed intosymbols (usually numbers) that may be tabulated andcounted. The preceding steps of editing, classifying, and codingare only preparatory to tabulation. Tabulation is asystematic method of counting, similar replies and addingthem in an accurate and orderly manner. However, machine such as electronics calculatorshave made figure counting easier, faster and simpler –especially when the machine provides for memory banks. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  27. 27. 6. Analysis and Interpretation There are two basic methods of analyzing data: the Statistical and the Inferential. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  28. 28. 1. Statistical analysis – statistics or quantitative procedures are utilized to achieve anyone or more of the following purposes: a. To determined what behavior is typical in a group. b. To find out the extent of diverse behavior in a group. c. To indicate other aspects of how the individuals are distributed with respects to the variable being measured. d. To show the relationship of the different variable with one another. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  29. 29. 2. Inferential analysis – is the process of determining the meaning of evidence b reflective thinking. It is this method of inferential analysis where we make logical interpretations or draw conclusions through inference. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  30. 30. 7. Presentation of the Research A research report generally includes the following: 1. Statement of the problem. 2. The research design. 3. The findings. 4. Analysis and interpretation. 5. Conclusions and recommendations. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  31. 31.  Analytical method. Emphasis is given on the use of analysis to evaluate secondary data. The experimental method. A scientific investigation involving two aspects: (1) the manipulation or control to some variable by the experiment and (2) the systematic observation and measurement of the results. Variables. It may be presence or absence of condition or factor. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  32. 32. KINDS OF VARIABLES USED IN EXPERIMENTIndependent variable. A condition set and selected by the experimenter. It may be a stimulus presented, a factor, or condition whose effects are being examined. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  33. 33. Dependent variable. The factor which the experimenter predicts will change when changes are made to the independent variables.Relevant variables. Factors which are likely to influence the results; hence, they are held constant for all subjects throughout the experiment so that any change in the dependent variable can be attributed to the independent variable. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  34. 34. Advantages and Limitations of an ExperimentAdvantages: It possesses inherent objectivity and precision, as well, as “logical rigor”. The variables and conditions are under the control of investigator. Other investigator can verify the findings by repeating the procedures used. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  35. 35. Limitations: There are certain phenomenons in nature which cannot be studied by using the experimental method. Subjects are not always available. It sometimes interferes with the very thing it is trying to study. The experiment is artificially arranged by the experimenter. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  36. 36. The Case Study Case study examines intensively many characteristics of “one unit” (such as a person, a company, a community, or a culture) usually over a long period of time. The case method is useful in studies involving ethology and development. It will discover the critical incidents that led to an industrial strike, or what various effects the industrialization of a traditional society would have on the family unit. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  37. 37. In spite of its usefulness, the casemethod has certain limitations. The chiefdrawback is that no generalizations canbe made from one sample. Anotherlimitation is that, there is insufficientcontrol to safeguard against biasedresults. Nevertheless, case studies, ingeneral, definitely furnish rich clues andinsights for further investigation. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  38. 38. The Survey This is a research method in which data are obtained from a sample of respondent representatives of a larger group. Data are obtained through interviews or questionnaires. Population is the totality of all possible phenomena that have certain characteristics in common. A population may consists of Filipino housewives residing in Greater Manila, or it may be limited to those residing in the Makati area. A sample is part of a population. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
  39. 39. Sampling. This refers to the selection of a sample from a population for the purpose of establishing the characteristics of a population. This technique eliminated the tedious and unnecessary procedures of interviewing every member of a population. Generally, a random selection of the unit in the sample is preferred. In random sampling, every unit in the population has a mathematically equal chance of being included in the sample. Thus, the sample can be said to be representative of the population. Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences