Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Adler clark 4e ppt 11


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Adler clark 4e ppt 11

  1. 1. Observational Techniques Chapter 11
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Observational techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods of collecting data by observing people, most typically in their natural settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The researcher conducting the observations may use either participant observation or nonparticipant observation . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Participant Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation performed by observers who take part in the activities they observe </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Nonparticipant Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation made by an observer who remain as aloof as possible from those observed </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Focal Research <ul><li>Unmasking Racism: Halloween Costuming and Engagement of the Racial Other By Jennifer C. Mueller, Danielle Dirks, and Leslie Houts Picca </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They observed what they themselves and other students did when they dressed as people of different races for Halloween </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Focal Research <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IRB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informed consent forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Observational Techniques Defined <ul><li>Observational techniques are sometimes called qualitative methods and field research </li></ul><ul><li>Both qualitative methods and field research require more steps than simple observation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Observational Techniques Defined <ul><li>Controlled (or systematic) observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation that involve clear decisions about what is to be observed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observing whether or not a person will do a particular action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whether people would or wouldn’t contribute coins to a Salvation Army kettle after they had seen, or not seen, another person do so </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Reasons for Doing Observations <ul><li>When are observational techniques desirable? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful when you don’t know much about the subject under investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common in anthropology & ethnography – a study of culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When one wants to understand experience from the point of view of those who are living it or from the context in which it is lived. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Reasons for Doing Observations <ul><li>Observational techniques may help the researcher move from thin to thick description. </li></ul><ul><li>Thin Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bare-bone description of acts </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Reasons for Doing Observations <ul><li>Thick Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports about behavior that provide a sense of things like the intentions, motives, and meanings behind the behavior </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Reasons for Doing Observations <ul><li>Observational techniques are useful when you want to study quickly changing social situations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hurricane Katrina </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Observational techniques offer a relatively unfiltered view of human behavior. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Observer Roles <ul><li>Observational techniques are relatively unobtrusive – but the level varies based on the role played by the observers </li></ul>
  14. 14. Observer Roles <ul><ul><li>Complete participant role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being, or pretending to be, a genuine participant in a situation one observes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Observer Roles <ul><ul><li>Participant-as-observer role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being primarily a participant, while admitting an observer status </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Observer Roles <ul><ul><li>Observer-as-participant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being primarily a self-professed observer, while occasionally participating in the situation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Observer Roles <ul><ul><li>Complete observer role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being an observer of a situation without becoming part of it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Observer Roles <ul><li>Concern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The participant-as-observer and observer-as-participant roles are more obtrusive compared to the pure participant or pure observer </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Observer Roles <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are ethical issues to consider in the observer playing multiple roles, including issues of power, issues of guilty knowledge, and issues of responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Getting Ready for Observations <ul><li>Observational techniques typically do not require as much preparation as other methods we have discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>Design elements are typically worked out as you go. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Except during controlled, or systematic, observations, which are defined by their use of explicit plans for selecting, recording, and coding data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observers typically begin their studies with less clearly defined research questions and considerably more flexible research plans. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Getting Ready for Observations <ul><li>Selecting a location is typically the first step in observations </li></ul>
  22. 22. Getting Ready for Observations <ul><li>Next the observer seeks out interviews to get a range of different types of people, the researcher wants to reach theoretical saturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical saturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The point where new interviewees or settings look a lot like interviewees or settings one has observed before </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Getting Ready for Observations <ul><li>Observations are most often done in a nonrandom format </li></ul><ul><li>Purposive sampling is most common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A nonprobability sampling procedure that involves selecting elements based on the researcher's judgment about which elements will facilitate his or her investigation </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Getting Ready for Observations <ul><li>The researcher needs to decide how much information one will tell about yourself and your research. </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosure of your interests (personal and research) can help develop truth in others, but it can also be a distraction from, even a hindrance to the unfolding of, events in the field. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Getting Ready for Observations <ul><li>Two general recommendations about preparing yourself for the field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential observers should review as much literature in advance of their observations as possible – literature can sensitize the researchers to the kinds of things they might want to look for in the field and suggest new settings for the study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend time reviewing earlier examples of participant or nonparticipant observation, to see what others have done. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Getting Ready for Observations <ul><li>Gaining Access and Ethical Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaining access to a site is a social task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A researcher must use all the social skills or resources and ethical sensibilities she has available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the observer plans not to reveal the intention to observe, the major issues in gaining access are ethical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The decision to engage in covert research and thereafter to establish access, is ethically acceptable, if other concerns, such as ensuring lack of harm to those observed and pursuing worthwhile topics in settings that cannot be studied openly, neutralize or overwhelm concern about deception. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Getting Ready for Observations <ul><li>Gaining Access and Ethical Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Account </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A plausible and appealing explanation of the research that the researcher gives to prospective participants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Getting Ready for Observations <ul><li>Gaining Access and Ethical Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gatekeeper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who can get a researcher into a setting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Getting Ready for Observations <ul><li>Gathering the Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional techniques for recording observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>writing them down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recording them mechanically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recording them in one’s memory to be written down later </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory is the most common but least trustworthy </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Getting Ready for Observations <ul><li>Gathering the Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual sociology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An approach to studying society and culture that employs images as a data source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Techniques used by visual sociologists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>analyzing visual documents </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>subject-image making </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photo and video ethnography </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Getting Ready for Observations <ul><li>Gathering the Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual ethnography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The video recording of participants and the reviewing of the resulting footage for insights into social life </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Getting Ready for Observations <ul><li>Gathering the Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants and nonparticpant observers commonly supplement their observations with interviews and available data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview other participants who are known as informants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informants typically provide the in-depth understanding of a situation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Analyzing the Data <ul><li>Studies based on observational techniques are concerned with theory generation or discovery opposed to theory verification </li></ul><ul><li>Theory building begins soon after your first observation </li></ul><ul><li>Once the researcher articulates notions they become concepts or hypothesis, the building block of theory. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Analyzing the Data <ul><li>The researcher begins to look for similarities and differences in behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Similarities can lead to the generalizations on which grounded theory is based. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grounded Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theory derived from data in the course of a particular study. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Advantages and Disadvantages of Observational Techniques <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting a handle on the relatively unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining an understanding of how others experience life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studying behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Advantages and Disadvantages of Observational Techniques <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalizability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A bias caused by the distortion that can occur when people know (or think) they are being observed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely time-consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demanding and frustrating </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Summary <ul><li>Purposes of observational techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To gain relatively unfiltered views of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To get a handle on relatively unknown social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To obtain a relatively deep understanding of others’ experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To study quickly changing situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To study behavior, and to save money </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Quiz – Question 1 <ul><li>Most participant observers practice which </li></ul><ul><li>type of sampling? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple random </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quota sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposive sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Quiz – Question 2 <ul><li>Most qualitative researchers are interested </li></ul><ul><li>in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>theory verification. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>causality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spuriousness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>theory generation or discovery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Quiz – Question 3 <ul><li>When the observed take on different attributes simply as a result of being observed, this is called </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observational methods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>demand characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performance anxiety. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presentation of self. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both a and c. </li></ul></ul>