Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

types of qualitative research

types of qualitative research

  • Login to see the comments

types of qualitative research

  1. 1. Instructor: Dr. Ghazanfari Presented by: Hamid Gittan Chapter 16
  2. 2. 8 Types of Qualitative Research to be Discussed  Basic qualitative studies/interpretive research  Case study research  Content Analysis  Ethnographic studies  Grounded Theory research  Historical studies  Narrative Research  Phenomenological resae
  3. 3. Basic Qualitative Studies  Also called basic interpretative studies. provide rich descriptive accounts targeted to understanding a phenomenon, a process, or a particular point of view from the perspective of those involved.  They describe and attempt to interpret experience the researcher is interested in understanding the meaning a phenomenon has for those involved.  The central purpose of these studies is to understand the world or the experience of another.
  4. 4. Basic Qualitative Studies The underlying question the researcher asks is “How are events, processes, and activities are perceived by participants.  Basic interpretive studies are somewhat simplistic compared to other qualitative approaches .  They are not restricted to a particular phenomenon as in the case studies.  They don’t seek to explain sociocultural aspects as in ethnography.  They don’t seek to enter the subject’s conceptual world to explain the “essence” as in phenomenological .
  5. 5.  They don’t seek to define theory as in the grounded theory research .  They don’t convey life stories through narrative analysis, delve into history, or focus analyzing content. These studies are, as the name implies, basic. They describe and attempt to interpret experience.  They are the most common qualitative studies, used in a variety f disciplines including education.
  6. 6.  Has its roots in the social sciences  Describes and interprets a phenomenon or process  Seeks to understand participants’ point of view  Identifies recurrent patterns or themes  Can be based on a variety of disciplinary lenses  May use a variety of data collection techniques  Basic qualitative research can be found throughout the other types of qualitative research  The focus of all qualitative research is on how meaning is constructed, how people make sense of their lives and their worlds  The goal of Basic Qualitative research is to uncover and interpret the meanings Summary of Basic Qualitative Research
  7. 7.  Interview  Observation  Review documents  May draw from diverse theoretical orientation Many beginning qualitative researchers conduct basic interpretive studies. Such questions as “How did teachers feel about the new curriculum?” or “What instructional strategies do students think are engaging and why?” might be answered in a basic qualitative study using interviewing or focus group techniques. For example, a researcher might interview students at various high school grade levels about their experiences in the classroom to try and understand their perceptions on instructional techniques. By searching for themes and patterns in the data, the researcher could attempt to answer the question about which strategies appear to engage the students. Or the researcher could videotape or conduct in-person observations of high school classrooms to answer this question. Data –collection techniques
  8. 8. Emerging from approaches in business, law, and medicine. The case study provides an in-depth description of a single unit. The “unit” can be an individual, a group, a site, a class, a policy, a program, a process, an institution, or a community. It is a single occurrence of something that the researcher is interested in examining. The question is “what are the characteristics of this particular entity, phenomenon, person, or setting”  Has multidisciplinary roots (business, law, medicine)  Focuses on a single unit  Produces an in-depth description  Is anchored in real life  Uses multiple data collection techniques  Provides a rich, holistic description of context, issue  Time spent examining the “unit” is important Case Study
  9. 9.  The greatest advantage of a case study is the possibility of depth; it seeks to understand the whole case in the totality of the environment. Not only the present actions of an individual but also his or her past, environment, emotions, and thoughts can be probed. The researcher tries to determine why an individual behaves as he or she does and not merely to record behavior.  Case studies often provide an opportunity for an investigator to develop insight into basic aspects of human behavior.  However, case studies need not be limited to the study of individuals. Case studies are made of communities, institutions, and groups of individuals. A classic case study of a community was Lynd and Lynd’s Middletown (1929), which described life in Muncie, Indiana, a typical average-size Midwestern city. This first study was followed by Middletown in Transition in 1937. Another classic was Hollingshead’s Elmtown’s Youth (1949), which studied the life of adolescents in a small Illinois community.  Institutions such as schools, churches, colleges, fraternal organization, and businesses have been the focus of case studies. Case studies have been made of groups of individuals such as gays, drug addicts, delinquents, street gangs, migratory workers, CEOs, medical students, teachers, and many others.
  10. 10.  The intrinsic case study is conducted to understand a particular case that may be unusual, unique, or different in some way. It does not necessarily represent other cases or a broader trait or problem for investigation.  An instrumental case study, the researcher selects the case because it represents some other issue under investigation and the researcher believes this particular case can help provide insights or help to understand that issue.  The multiple or collective case study uses several cases selected to further understand and investigate a phenomenon, population, or general condition. The researcher believes that the phenomenon is not idiosyncratic to a single unit and studying multiple units can provide better illumination Three types of case studies
  11. 11. Case study may employ multiple methods of data collection and don’t rely on a single technique. Testing Interviewing Observation Review of documents Artifacts Other methods may be used Data Collection
  12. 12. Types of designs 1) Single case- holistic (extreme or unique case) 2) Single case-embedded 3) Multiple – holistic (literal or theoretical replication) 4) Multiple –embedded
  13. 13. Content analysis focuses on the characteristics of materials and ask “What meaning is reflected in these materials?  Has its roots in communication studies  Uses analysis of written or visual materials  Describes the characteristics of the materials  Can be quantitative and qualitative  The materials analyzed can be textbooks, newspapers, web pages, social network sites twitter feeds, blogs, virtual worlds, speeches, television programs, advertisements, musical compositions, or any of a host of other types of documents.  Widely used in education . Content Analysis
  14. 14. Content analysis applied to written or visual materials for the purpose of identifying specified characteristics of materials. The materials such as (textbooks, newspapers, web pages, social network sites, twitter feeds, blogs, virtual worlds, speeches, television programs, advertisement, musical compositions.etc..) Some purposes of content analysis: 1.To identify bias, prejudice, or propaganda in textbooks. 2. To analyze types of errors in students’ writings. 3. To describe prevailing practices. 4. To discover the level of difficulty of material in textbooks or other publications. 5. To discover the relative importance of, or interest in, certain topics. Purposes of Content Analysis in Educational Research
  15. 15. Advantages  looks directly at communication via texts or transcripts, and hence gets at the central aspect of social interaction.  can allow for both quantitative and qualitative operations  can provides valuable historical/cultural insights over time through analysis of texts
  16. 16. •allows a closeness to text which can alternate between specific categories and relationships and also statistically analyzes the coded form of the text •can be used to interpret texts for purposes such as the development of expert •is an unobtrusive means of analyzing interactions( the presence of the obsever does not influence what I being obseved
  17. 17. Types of Content Analysis Conceptual Analysis Relational Analysis
  18. 18.  An emergent design framework  A quantitative research framework Content analysis can be done in
  19. 19.  is its unobtrusiveness. The presence of the observer does not influence what is being observed. You do not need to enlist the cooperation of subjects or get permission to do the study.  Another advantage of content analyses is that they are easily replicated. Readers interested in further information on content analysis should read Krippendorf’s (2012)and Schreier (2012). An advantage of content analysis
  20. 20.  It is very time consuming and is subject to error  It is dependent on interpretation of the text  There is also no theoretical base in order to create meaningful inferences and relationships between the text.  This methodology can be extremely difficult to automate or computerize.  Content analysis can be slow and time- consuming. Fortunately, computers can now carry out a content analysis quickly and accurately. Disadvantages of content analysis
  21. 21. “What are the cultural patterns and perspectives of this group in its natural setting?” is the underlying question addressed in ethnography. Ethnographic studies  Has its roots in anthropology  Studies the naturally occurring behavior of a group  Focuses on culture and social behavior  Describes beliefs, values, and attitudes of a group  Observation is the primary data collection tool  Immersion in the site is important  Provides a holistic description of context and cultural themes Ethnographic Studies
  22. 22. The Ethnographic Researcher…  Must understand the culture (in order to do that one must spend time in the group being studied)  Must immerse one’s self the group/culture being studied  Interviews, analysis of documents, records, and artifacts, fieldwork diary entries, ideas, impressions, and insights in regard to those events
  23. 23. Ethnography is the in-depth study of naturally occurring behavior within a culture or entire social group. It seeks to understand the relationship between culture and behavior, with culture referring to the shared beliefs, values, concepts, practices, and attitudes of a specific group of people. It examines  what people do and interprets why they do it.  What are the meanings of these human actions and interactions within this context?  Ethnographers’Data collection techniques:  Observations  fieldwork as data collecting strategies.  sometime used in-depth interviewing The ethnographic research method was developed by anthropologists such as Margaret Mead as a way of studying and describing human cultures.
  24. 24. The ethnographer undertakes the study without any a priori hypotheses to avoid predetermining what is observed or what information is elicited from informants. The ethnographer explores and tests hypotheses, but the hypotheses evolve out of the fieldwork itself. Ethnographer refers to the people from whom they gather information as informants rather than participants, and they study sites rather than individuals. The term ethnography is used to refer to both the work of studying a culture and also the end product of the research.
  25. 25. Spindler and Hammond (2000) describe some of the characteristics of good ethnography: (1) extended participant observation; (2) long time at the site; (3) collection of large volumes of materials such as notes, artifacts, audio, and videotapes; and (4) openness, which means having no specific hypotheses or even highly specific categories of observation at the start of the study
  26. 26. As in any studies, a variety of data collection techniques may be used as part of the ethnographic study. Common means of collecting data include interviewing, document analysis, participant observations, research diaries, and life stories. It is not the data collection techniques that determine whether the study is ethnography but rather the “socio-cultural interpretation that sets apart from other forms of qualitative inquiry. Ethnography is not defined by how data are collected, but by the lens through which the data are interpreted (Merriam & Associated, 2002) Data collection
  27. 27. Ethnographic Designs are qualitative research procedures for describing, analyzing, and interpreting a culture-sharing group’s shared patterns of behavior, beliefs, and language that develop over time. To understand the patterns of a culture-sharing group, the ethnographer typically spends considerable time in the field interviewing, observing, and gathering documents about the group in order to understand their culture-sharing behaviors, beliefs, and language.
  28. 28. Cresswell (2007) describes two approaches to ethnography: 1-Realist Ethnography 2-Critical Ethnography Realist ethnography is a popular approach used by cultural anthropologists. It is an objective account of the situation, typically written in the third person point of view, reporting objectively on the information learned from participants at a field site. The researcher’s interpretation occurs at the end. TYPES OF ETHNOGRAPHIC DESIGNS
  29. 29.  The realist ethnographer narrates the study in a third-person dispassionate voice and reports on observations of participants and their views. The ethnographer does not offer personal reflections in the research report and remains in the background as an omniscient reporter of the facts.  The researcher reports objective data in a measured style uncontained by personal bias, political goals, and judgment. The researcher may provide mundane details of everyday life among the people studied. The ethnographer also uses standard categories for cultural description (family, work life, social networks, and status systems). • The ethnographer produces the participants’ view through closely edited quotations and has the final word on the interpretation and presentation of the culture. (Van Maanen, 1988)
  30. 30. 2-Critical Ethnography the researcher takes an advocacy perspective and has a value-laden orientation. The researcher is advocating for a marginalized group, challenging the status quo, or attempting to empower the group by giving it voice.
  31. 31.  The main advantage is its observation of behavior in a real-life setting, the assumption being than human behavior can fully understand only by knowing the setting in which it occurs.  The main limitation is that the findings depend heavily on the particular researcher’s observations and interpretations of the data  Ethnographer typically spend a long time observing participants and collect a large volumes of material(notes, artifacts, audio and video, etc.). Advantages and Disadvantages of ethnographic research
  32. 32. Types of Ethnographic studies  Autoethnography ( a self–examination within a cultural context).  Ethnographic case studies( a case study within a cultural perspective).  Critical Ethnography ( a study of marginalized group).  Feminist ethnography( the study of women and cultural practice).  Postmodern ethnography( a study of particular challenges or problems of society).  Confessional ethnography.  Visual ethnography.  Online ethnography
  33. 33.  Has its roots in sociology  Its goal is to inductively build a theory about a practice or phenomenon  Is “grounded” in the real world  Is a cyclical process of building a tentative theory and testing it against the data  Interviews and observation are the primary data collection tools  Typically involves observations and interviews with multiple participants or settings  Uses a coding process that ends in description and presentation of theory and propositions  Documentary materials (letters, speeches, etc.) and literature can also be potential data sources. Grounded Theory Studies
  34. 34. Glaser and Strauss (1967) developed grounded theory as a way of formalizing the operations needed to develop theory from empirical data. This research approach focuses on gathering data about peoples’ experiences in a particular context and then inductively building a theory “from the bottom up.  Grounded theory moves beyond description to generate or discover a theory that emerges from the data and that provides an explanation of a process, action, or interaction.  Grounded theory studies of sociological nature have focused on victims of Alzheimer’s disease and how families accommodate to the different stages, drug addiction in women, chronic illness, alcoholism, etc.
  35. 35. Data Collection Procedures Data may be collected by interview and observation( as the primary data collection tools) , records, or a combinationof this. In the role of as the primary data-gathering instrument , the researcher asks questions about some event, experience, or social phenomenon .the personal open-ended interview is the primary methodof datacollection Data collection usually results in large amounts of hand-written notes, typed interview transcripts, or video/audio taped conversations that contain multiple pieces of data to be sorted and analyzed. This process is initiated by coding and categorizing
  36. 36. Open coding It deals with labeling and categorizing phenomenon in the data. It uses the comparative method. Data are broken down by asking what, where, how, when, how much, etc. Similar incidents are grouped together and given the same conceptual label. Concepts are grouped together into categories. The purpose is to develop core concepts, categories, and properties. Axial coding It is designed to put data back together that were broken apart in open coding. It develops connections between a category and its subcategories (not between discrete categories). It’s purpose is to develop main categories and subcategories. Selective coding It shows the connections between the discrete categories. Categories that have been developed to build the theoretical framework are integrated. It’s purpose is to bring the categories together into an overall theory. Description of Coding Types Used in Grounded Theory Studies
  37. 37. Historical studies are oriented to the past rather than to the present and thus use different data collection methods from those used in other qualitative approaches.  included in qualitative research because of its emphasis on interpretation and its use of nonnumeric data.  Attempt to establish facts and arrive at conclusions concerning the past.  The historian systematically locates, evaluates, and interprets evidence from which people can learn about the past. Based on the evidence gathered, conclusions are drawn regarding the past so as to increase knowledge of how and why past events occurred and the process by which the past became the present. The desired result is increased understanding of the present and a more rational basis for making choices. Historical studies
  38. 38. Although historians have no choice concerning what documents, relics, records, and artifacts survive the passage of time, they do have some limited control over what questions they will ask of these sources and what measures they will apply to them. When interviewing witnesses of past events and when searching the historical record, researchers can decide what questions to ask and what is to be measured. They can measure only those things that witnesses remember or the record contains. In descriptive and experimental research, investigators can attempt to control sampling; that is, they can decide for themselves whom they are going to study. Historians can study only those people for whom records and artifacts survive. If newspapers ignore a particular segment of a community and no other sources for that community exist, then historians cannot directly assess the contributions that a particular segment of a population made to that community. Another limitation impinging on historical researchers is that no assumption about the past can be made merely because no record can be found, nor can it be assumed, on the contrary, that a conspiracy of silence has distorted the historical record.
  39. 39. The historians classifies materials as:  Primary Sources: first-hand or eyewitness observations of phenomenon Source material closest to the person/information/period/idea being studied . Primary sources are original documents (correspondence, diaries, reports, etc.), relics, remains, or artifacts. These are the direct outcomes of events or the records of participants.  Secondary Sources: second-hand observation, i.e. the author collected the data from eyewitnesses Document relating to information presented elsewhere Data Sources
  40. 40. Two ideas that have proved useful in evaluating historical sources are the concepts of external (or lower) criticism and internal (or higher) criticism.  External Criticism asks if the evidence under consideration is authentic and, depending on the nature of the study, may involve such techniques as authentication of signatures, chemical analysis of paint, or carbon dating of artifacts.  The Historical investigator proceeds to internal criticism, which requires evaluating the worth of the evidence, for instance, whether a document provides a true report of an event.. EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL CRITICISM
  41. 41. Narrative research has its roots in different humanities disciplines and focuses on stories (spoken or written) told by individuals about their lives. The researcher emphasizes sequence and chronology and a collaborative re-storying process. The key question is, “What is the story and its meaning as told through this person’s experience?” The researcher seeks to understand the lived experience of an individual or small group. A narrative can be any text or discourse. Narrative research provides accounts of human experiences by collecting and analyzing stories about lives. The stories are accounts of events and actions chronologically connected. Narrative research Narrative Research
  42. 42.  Use of stories as data, and more specifically first-person accounts of experience told in story form having a beginning, middle and end  Other terms for these “stories”= biographies, life history, oral history, autoethnography, and autobiography  First-person accounts of experiences constitute the narrative “text” which is then analyzed for the meaning by the author Narrative Analysis
  43. 43.  Hermeneutic philosophy (the study of written texts) is often cited as informing narrative analysis.  Focuses on the interpretation/meaning in stories, and other texts. In order to make sense and interpret the text. ○ Important in gathering the meaning intended to be communicated by the author (allows the text/document to be placed in an accurate historical/cultural reference) Narrative Analysis
  44. 44. Narrative analysis may be approached through a biographical lens, a psychological lens, or a linguistic lens. The narrative typically tells the story of an individual in the chronology of experience; is set within a personal, social, and historical context; and includes important themes in the lived experience (Creswell, 2007,p. 57). The Narrative Analysis
  45. 45. Data in narrative research come from  primary sources (direct participant recollection)  secondary sources (documents written by the participant).  Data may be gathered via such methods as interviews with the individual or family members of close friends.  Data may be gathered from written records such as diaries, journals, letters, blogs, created artifacts, e- mail exchanges, memos, photographs, memory boxes, audio recordings, story writing, or other personal, family, or social artifacts. Data collection
  46. 46. Phenomenological Studies Thursday, February 16, 2017 46
  47. 47. Phenomenology Studies Definition  Phenomenological study is designed to describe and interpret an experience by determining the meaning of the experience as perceived by the people who have participated in it.  The key question is “What is the experience of an activity or concept from the perspective of particular participants?”  The key question Rooted in philosophy and psychology, the assumption is that there are many ways of interpreting the same experience and that the meaning of the experience to each person is what constitutes reality. This belief is characteristic of all qualitative studies, but the element that distinguishes phenomenology from  Qualitative phenomenological research is to describe a "lived experience" of a phenomenon.  The central research question aims to determine the essence of the experience as “perceived by the participant”. 47
  48. 48.  Interviewing multiple individuals is the typical data collection approach.  Interview data are typically from those who have experienced the phenomena.  Other data sources may be used , including observations, art, poetry, music, journals, drama, films, social network sites, blogs ,and novels . Data collection
  49. 49. Phenomenology is based on… The assumption that there is an essence or essences to shared experience. These essences are the core meanings mutually understood through a phenomenon commonly experienced. The experiences of different people are bracketed, analyzed, and compared to identify the essences of the phenomenon, for example, the essence of loneliness, the essence of being a mother, or the essence of being a participant in a particular program. The assumption of essence, like the ethnographer’s that culture exists and is important, becomes the defining characteristic of a purely phenomenological study. (Patton. 2002.pg 106)
  50. 50.  The phenomenologists are “interested in showing how complex meanings are built out of simple units of direct experience”(Merriam and associates 2002,p,7).  Depict the essence or basic structure of experience - including experiences such as love, anger, betrayal, etc.  Prior to interviewing, those who have had experience with the phenomenon usually explores his/her own experiences in order to examine the dimensions of the phenomenon and to be aware of one’s own personal prejudices, viewpoints and assumptions (in order to set them aside) The Phenomenological Researcher’s Task …
  51. 51. Phenomenology Results…  A composite description that presents the essence of the phenomenon (essential, invariant structure)  The researcher should come away from the experience thinking ‘I understand better what it is like for someone to experience that’
  52. 52. Data Analysis  The first principle of analysis of phenomenological data is to use an emergent strategy, to allow the method of analysis to follow the nature of the data itself. Steps,  Explore your own experiences & set aside your opinions/judgments  Bracket judgments and everyday understandings in order to examine consciousness itself  Phenomenological reduction: revisiting the experience to derive the inner structure/meaning in and of itself  Horizonalization analysis is conducted by identifying significant statements or quote and from those quote developing clusters of meaning and themes. Thursday, February 16, 2017 52
  53. 53. Cont…  Textural description is used to illuminate what was experienced.  Structural description illuminates the context that influenced the experience, how it was experienced, and in what conditions and situations.  Composition description is written that conveys the overall essence of the phenomenon. Also called the essential or invariant structure.  ” Thursday, February 16, 2017 53
  54. 54.  Portraiture is a form of qualitative research that seeks to join science and art in an attempt to describe complex human experiences within an organizational culture.The goal of a portraiture is a vivid portrayal that reflects meaning from the perspectives of both the participants and the researchers. Data can be collected using in-depth interviews and observations  Critical research seeks to empower change through examining and critiquing assumptions. Questions focus on power relationships and the influence of race, class, and gender. The purpose of critical research is to critique and challenge the status quo. Critical research may analyze texts or artifacts (such as films) or other communication forms (such as drama or dance).  Semiotics and discourse analysis study linguistic units to examine the relationship between words and their meanings. Other types of qualitative Research
  55. 55. Data-collection of strategies of semiotics focus on recorded dialogue-in text form, or , audio /video.  Arts-based research has recently emerged as a qualitative method.Leavy in her 2009 work describes various approaches to arts-based research and explain how it differs from other quantitative and qualitative methods. leavy discusses several arts-based methods including fiction-based approaches, poetry, performance research including ethnodrama and ethnotheater, musical portraiture ,dance narratives, and visual arts including technology-based visual arts. Rather than numbers or words, art-based researchers use stories, image, sounds, senses, and other sensory approaches to present the research data.
  56. 56.  The indigenous research methods are also

×