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WOOD

TYPES OF WOOD...

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INTERIOR MATERIAL & TECHNOLOGY- 1
S E M 01
AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
S.E.M.- 01
Wood
Task – name 10 objects made of wood that is in close proximity to you.
AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
Wood
Can you name any types of wood?
pine, oak, ash, teak, mahogany, maple, rose wood, beech, Babul,
Bamboo, walnut, cherry, zebrawood, balsa, Deodar, Sal…….
pine oak beech walnut maple zebrawood mahogany ash
Can you think of words that describe wood?
warm, smooth, strong, flexible, strong, hard, soft, rough, ….
AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
warm, smooth, strong, flexible, strong, hard, soft, rough, ….
Introduction
• Derived from the word timberian , that means to build
• Denotes wood which is suitable for building or carpentry.
• Three terms to be known in connection to the timber.
– Converted timber: sawn and cut into suitable commercial sizes.Converted timber: sawn and cut into suitable commercial sizes.
– Rough Timber: obtained after felling a tree
– Standing Timber: Timber contained in living tree
V l bl ti• Valuable properties:
» Low heat conductivity
» Ability to mechanical working
» Small bulk density
» High Strength
• Drawbacks• Drawbacks
» Decay
» Inflammability
AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
» Fluctuation in properties due to changes in moisture
Classification
Trees
Exogenous
They increase in bulk by growing outward
and distinct consecutive rings are formed
every year in the horizontal section of the
Endogenous
They grow inwards and fibrous mass
is seen in their longitudinal section
e.g. bamboo, cane , palmy y
tree
g , , p
Conifers DeciduousConifers
-Also Known as ever green trees.
-Leaves do not fall till new one are
grown.
Deciduous
They increase in bulk by growing outward
and distinct consecutive rings are formed
every year in the horizontal section of the
treetree
Soft Wood
-Light colored
Resinous
Hard Wood
• Close grained
•Strong-Resinous
-Light in weight and weak
-Poor fire resistant
-Strong in direct pull and week for resisting
thrust or shear
Strong
•Heavy
•Dark colored
•Durable
•Non resinous
AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
thrust or shear
-Eg. chir, devdar, fir, kail, pine spruce etc
Non resinous
•Do not show distinct annual rings
•Eg. Babul, mahogany, oak, sal , teak rose wood etc
Xylem
Th d ti
Sapwood
•The younger •The woody tissue
of a tree that
provides support
and conducts water
d i l
•The younger,
softer living portion
of wood between
the cambium and
heartwood and mineral
nutrients upward
from the roots
heartwood.
•Usually lighter in
color, more
permeable and less
durabledurable.
Annual Ring
Inner Bark
•A Layer of tissue
that carries food
g
•A Concentric layer
of wood produced
during a single
year’s growth of
that carries food
from the leaves to
the growing parts of
the tree.
•Also called year s growth of
temperate tree
•It is also known as
Growth ring.
•Also called
Phloem
AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN

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WOOD

  • 1. INTERIOR MATERIAL & TECHNOLOGY- 1 S E M 01 AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN S.E.M.- 01
  • 2. Wood Task – name 10 objects made of wood that is in close proximity to you. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 3. Wood Can you name any types of wood? pine, oak, ash, teak, mahogany, maple, rose wood, beech, Babul, Bamboo, walnut, cherry, zebrawood, balsa, Deodar, Sal……. pine oak beech walnut maple zebrawood mahogany ash Can you think of words that describe wood? warm, smooth, strong, flexible, strong, hard, soft, rough, …. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN warm, smooth, strong, flexible, strong, hard, soft, rough, ….
  • 4. Introduction • Derived from the word timberian , that means to build • Denotes wood which is suitable for building or carpentry. • Three terms to be known in connection to the timber. – Converted timber: sawn and cut into suitable commercial sizes.Converted timber: sawn and cut into suitable commercial sizes. – Rough Timber: obtained after felling a tree – Standing Timber: Timber contained in living tree V l bl ti• Valuable properties: » Low heat conductivity » Ability to mechanical working » Small bulk density » High Strength • Drawbacks• Drawbacks » Decay » Inflammability AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN » Fluctuation in properties due to changes in moisture
  • 5. Classification Trees Exogenous They increase in bulk by growing outward and distinct consecutive rings are formed every year in the horizontal section of the Endogenous They grow inwards and fibrous mass is seen in their longitudinal section e.g. bamboo, cane , palmy y tree g , , p Conifers DeciduousConifers -Also Known as ever green trees. -Leaves do not fall till new one are grown. Deciduous They increase in bulk by growing outward and distinct consecutive rings are formed every year in the horizontal section of the treetree Soft Wood -Light colored Resinous Hard Wood • Close grained •Strong-Resinous -Light in weight and weak -Poor fire resistant -Strong in direct pull and week for resisting thrust or shear Strong •Heavy •Dark colored •Durable •Non resinous AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN thrust or shear -Eg. chir, devdar, fir, kail, pine spruce etc Non resinous •Do not show distinct annual rings •Eg. Babul, mahogany, oak, sal , teak rose wood etc
  • 6. Xylem Th d ti Sapwood •The younger •The woody tissue of a tree that provides support and conducts water d i l •The younger, softer living portion of wood between the cambium and heartwood and mineral nutrients upward from the roots heartwood. •Usually lighter in color, more permeable and less durabledurable. Annual Ring Inner Bark •A Layer of tissue that carries food g •A Concentric layer of wood produced during a single year’s growth of that carries food from the leaves to the growing parts of the tree. •Also called year s growth of temperate tree •It is also known as Growth ring. •Also called Phloem AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 7. Pith Th i t Bark •The Tough •The innermost central portion of a tree is called pith or medulla. V i i i d •The Tough external covering of a woody stem, branch or root, composed of a •Varies in size and shape from tree to tree. •It is a soft part b t hi h fi t composed of a living inner layer called phloem and an outer bark of corky dead tissue about which first growth takes place in a newly formed stem corky, dead tissue. Heartwood •The older harder•The older harder , inactive core of a tree, usually darker denser and more durable than thedurable than the surrounding sap wood •They are the inner annual rings AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN annual rings •Imparts rigidity.
  • 8. Elements of tree AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 9. Elements of tree PITHPITH CAMBIUM INNER BARK OUTER BARK INNER BARK AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 10. Identifications of Timber • General Properties Color a darker color in wood indicates greater durabilityColor – a darker color in wood indicates greater durability. Odor – it is present only on freshly cut trees. Hardness – is the ability of wood to withstand indentations causedy by harder bodies. Density – densest woods are generally the strongest. G i D di th t l li t th i bGrain - Depending on the actual alignment, the grain may be straight, spiral, interlocked, wavy or irregular. Spiral Grainp Interlocked Grain Wavy Grain Texture - In hardwoods, the texture depends upon the size and distribution vessels and rays. In softwoods, it is determined by the size and distribution of tracheid. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 11. Identifications of Timber • Workability- the relative case in which wood is shaped cut andWorkability the relative case in which wood is shaped cut and fastened together than the others. • Warping- is the general term used to describe any variation from a true surfacesurface. • Moisture content- is a percentage of the mass of water over the mass of wood fiber in a piece of timber. • Specific Gravity- is the ratio found by dividing the weight of a substance by the weight of an equal volume of pure water AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 12. Mechanical Properties • Tensile Strength – Timber is stronger in tension along the rain but it’s quite difficult to determine this because of the difficulties in conducting test. • Compressive Strength – The strength along the grain is important for columns, props, and post.columns, props, and post. • Shear Strength – Shear strength is important in the case of the beam and slabs. B di S h Thi f h h f h i b b• Bending Strength– This refers as the strength of the timber as a beam. • Cleavability – High resistance for cleavage is important for nailing and screwing while low splitting strength is important for used as firewood.g p g g p • Torsion Strength – is used to determine the torsion strength of the timber and the specimen is loaded up to failure. H d i i t t i f ti b f i bl k fl i• Hardness – is important in case of timber for paving blocks flooring bearings and other similar purposes. • Stiffness - This property is important to determine the deflection of a AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN p p y p timber under a load.
  • 13. DEFECTS AND DECAY IN TIMBER • CENTRE HEART/HEART SHAKES • BOW • KNOTS • CUPPING AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 14. Defects in timber Timber is a natural material that is prone to defects. One of these is the tendency to split if it is put under stress from rapid drying or de-lamination of the growth ringsthe growth rings. These defects are all known as ‘Shakes’ Upsets- are clipping or buckling of fibers caused by crushing of fibers when the trunk is felled violently over a rocky surface. Wind Cracks- are shakes on the outside of a logWind Cracks are shakes on the outside of a log due to the shrinkage of the exterior surface caused by the atmospheric influences. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 15. KNOTS Knots - are dark, hard pieces occurring as signs of branches broken or cut offcut off. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 16. Shakes •Shakes- or cracks are caused by the rupture of tissues resulting in partial or complete separation of the fibers along the grain. Star ShakesStar Shakes Heart Shakes Cups Shakesp Ring Shakes Radial Shakes AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 17. BOW • Bow- a curvature of the timber in the direction of its length. This defects are Due to Seasoning.g AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 18. CUPPING DEFECTS • Cup- a curvature in the transverse direction of the timber. This defects also are Due to Seasoning.g AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 19. Wood TIMBER is the general name for wood materialsTIMBER is the general name for wood materials. There are 3 main types of timber: HARDWOOD• HARDWOOD • SOFTWOOD • MANUFACTURED BOARD AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 20. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 21. Hardwood This type of timber is produced from broad leafThis type of timber is produced from broad leaf trees that lose their leaves in winter – a deciduous tree. The photograph opposite is of an oak tree which grows in this countryan oak tree which grows in this country. U O k i h d d d i d t kUses - Oak is a hardwood and is used to make expensive furniture/flooring and strong framed structures. The term hardwood does not mean that the timber is hard. For example balsa is used for modelling, it is a hard wood but it is one of the softest timbers to work with. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN Model aircraft made from balsa
  • 22. Hardwood Mahogany – reddish in colour alwaysMahogany – reddish in colour, always looks good when varnished or waxed. Beech – creamy pinkish colour, its close grain makes it very suitable forg y kitchen utensils, as water does not have too great an effect on it. Task – Can you think of othery uses of wood products in the kitchen. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 23. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 24. Softwood This type of timber is produced from trees that Softwood yp p do not lose their leaves (coniferous). Leaves are easily identified as being thin and narrow. Softwood trees grow much quicker than the hardwood ones, they are therefore cheaper to buy and far more available Softwood is usedbuy and far more available. Softwood is used for construction of houses and furniture, and outdoor uses such as fencing. The term softwood does not mean that the timber is soft as pitch pine is one of the mosttimber is soft , as pitch pine is one of the most difficult timbers to work with, yet is a member of this group AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 25. Uses of soft woods Furniture Building Construction Packaging AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 26. Manufactured Products Of Timber These are manmade boards, which are made by gluing wood layers or wood fibers together. Examples of manufactured boards are: Plywood is a widely used manufactured timberPlywood is a widely used manufactured timber. Can you think of advantages and disadvantages of using plywood?using plywood? The photograph opposite shows MDF sheets. What does MDF t d f ? A th ht di it ?MDF stand for ? Any thoughts regarding its use ? Manufactured board is mainly used for kitchen and bedroom furniture and shelving. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 27. Manufactured Products Of Timber • VENEERS • LAMINATES • PLYWOOD • PARTICLE BOARD • FIBER BOARDS• FIBER BOARDS • BATTEN BOARDS : BLOCK BOARDS AND LAMINATED BOARDS • VENEERS - Thin sheet of wood, 0.4 mm to 0.6 mm in thickness obtained by different knife cutting process. • PLYWOOD - is made by gluing together veneers. • It has a good strength both across as well as• It has a good strength both across as well as along the grain. • Plywood has better splitting resistance due to grains in adjacent layers AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN y p g g j y running at the right angle and nailing and screwing even closed to the edges in safe.
  • 28. Manufactured Products Of Timber • PLYWOOD • Can easily be bending to a curvature limited by h il d h i h f hthe tensile and the compressive strength of the other plies. • The face piles made at different heartwoodsp show great aesthetic variety in grain pattern and color. • PARTICLE BOARDS is a board manufactured• PARTICLE BOARDS - is a board manufactured from particles of wood or other cellulose materials. • BATTEN BOARD – it is a board having a core made up of strips of wood usually 8 cm wide each laid separately or glued or otherwise joinedp y g j to form a slab. • BLOCK BOARD – these are boards having a core made up strips of wood each not exceeding AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN core made up strips of wood each not exceeding 25 mm.
  • 29. carve it… you can …… layer it … y Bend it ….. slot it together it ….. turn it ….. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 30. Things that attack timber AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 31. Decay of Timber • Termites • Beetles AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGNFlour like powder
  • 32. Timber Seasoning • Removal of moisture from timber so as to be in equilibrium with moisture in surrounding atmospheric conditions where timber ismoisture in surrounding atmospheric conditions, where timber is likely to be used, is called as seasoning. • When timber is first felled it is known as green timber and has a very high moisture content – approx 50% • Before it can be used it must be dried• Before it can be used it must be dried • If this process is not controlled properly defects can occur that can ruin good timber • Aim of seasoning is to dry out the wood to a suitable moisture content of 22% or less AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 33. OBJECTIVES OF SEASONING • Seasoning improves following properties: – Strengthg – Durability – Working qualities including polishing, painting, and gluing – Resistance to attack of insects, fungusResistance to attack of insects, fungus • Proper seasoning reduces tendency to split, shrink and warp. • Seasoning reduces weight of timber and is easy to handle. • Timber becomes fit to receive preservative & to finish like• Timber becomes fit to receive preservative & to finish like preservatives, paints, and varnish treatment. • To reduce weight and minimize cost of transportation. • To make the timber burn readily if used as a fuel• To make the timber burn readily, if used as a fuel. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 34. TYPES OF SEASONING • Natural Seasoning - is a slow process and the reduction in moisture content to the desired level may not be attainable by air seasoningy y g alone. • Artificial or Kiln Seasoning - is a quicker method of seasoning timber t the desired moisture content under highly controlled conditionsthe desired moisture content under highly controlled conditions. • Electrical Seasoning - in this method high frequency alternate electric current is passed through timber. • Chemical Seasoning - If the outer layers of timbers are treated with such solutions, the vapor pressure of the outer layers is reduced and a vapor pressure gradient is set up.vapor pressure gradient is set up. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 35. ADVANTAGES OF TIMBER • In terms of specific strength Timber can be used for both load bearing structures and non-load bearing instruments. • It can be easily converted to any shape and size. • With the advent of superior adhesives and other forms of timber connectorsconnectors. • The wastage in timber construction is less because all wastes can be put one use or the other. • It has high resale and salvage value. • Timber has better insulating properties than any other materials. • Durability of timber can be very high if properly seasoned and• Durability of timber can be very high, if properly seasoned and preserved. • Timber constructions are light in weight. • For aesthetic and decorative appearance. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 36. USES OF TIMBER AS A BUILDING MATERIAL BEAMS• BEAMS • TRUSSES RAFTERS• RAFTERS • JOISTS IN FLOORS DOORS FRAME AND SHUTTERS• DOORS FRAME AND SHUTTERS • WINDOWS FRAME AND SHUTTERS STAIR CASES• STAIR CASES • POLES PILES• PILES • COLUMNS AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 37. Before we use wood, what should we think about ? Wood - sustainability considerations. A tree absorbs CO2 as it grows and stores the carbon as wood. When it reaches maturity it stops absorbing extra carbon. Eventually, if not cutdown, it will die and gradually give off CO2cutdown, it will die and gradually give off CO2 as it rots. If it is cut down and the wood is used for products such as furniture or buildings this locks up the carbon in the timber for the lifetime of the productthe product. If the tree is replaced the new tree will start absorbing more CO2.absorbing more CO2. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 38. Before we use wood, what should we think about? Wood - sustainability considerations. How does using wood affectg Climate Change? lid ti bIf you use solid timber there is very little processing. Energy is used to plant and then fellgy p the trees, move them, saw and plane the timber and then transport it. The further it is transported the more energy is used. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 39. Before we use wood, what should we think about? Wood - sustainability considerations. Manufactured boards use more energy to produce. They can use the waste fromThey can use the waste from milling solid timber. They mostly use adhesives, and the formaldehyde that is used in MDF is a health risk. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 40. Before we use wood, what should we think about? Wood - sustainability considerations. Other ecological impacts Some tropical hardwoods have hugeSome tropical hardwoods have huge impacts. Mahogany trees grow in amongst a variety of other trees and plants. Cutting down the mahogany causes the destructiondown the mahogany causes the destruction of a whole area of rainforest which cannot regrow easily. Does it’s use harm other people? If we add to Climate Change that affects e er one in the World b t partic larl theeveryone in the World but particularly the poor who are most affected by drought and flooding. If we destroy areas of rainforest that affects the lives of the people who livethat affects the lives of the people who live in the forest. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN
  • 41. Before we use wood, what should we think about? Wood - sustainability considerations. Can we keep on using as much as lik ?we like? The planet has a limited amount of land to grow food and trees so there is a limit to the amount of timber we can use. However, the amount that is used in the production of the paperis used in the production of the paper that comes into the average house each year will be a far bigger impact than the timber in your school projectthan the timber in your school project. But the products we do design and make should be well made, so they b fcan be used for a number of years. AAERT _SCHOOL OF INTERIOR DESIGN