Language teaching approaches


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Language teaching approaches , Language teaching approaches .

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Language teaching approaches

  1. 1. Introduction
  2. 2. To be able to communicate in the target language  To be able to use the language spontaneously and orally  Develop the ability to think in the target language 
  3. 3.     Use the target language only Rules of grammar are taught inductively Speaking begin with systematic attention to pronunciation Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught
  4. 4.    New teaching points are taught through modeling and practice Both speech and listening comprehension are taught Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized
  5. 5.   Use the target language communicatively Use the realia to enhance students’ leaning motivation
  6. 6.     Less attention on the grammatical accuracy and reading skill Students can’t apply the language communicatively in real-life situations Teacher may not be proficient in native language Teacher need to spend much time to prepare teaching materials
  7. 7.       Reading Aloud Question and Answer Exercise Student Self-Correction Conversation Practice Fill-in-the-blank Exercise Dictation
  8. 8.  This approach is selected for practical and academic reasons.  For specific uses of the language in graduate or scientific studies.  The approach is for people who do not travel abroad for whom reading is the one usable skill in a foreign language.
  9. 9.  One of the most influential models of reading in recent years has been the Psycholinguistic Model described by Goodman and drawing heavily on top-down processing.  It is based on a consideration of schema theory which says that comprehension depends on the activation of schemata.  These are pictures or frameworks of a situation which help us to understand the situation.
  10. 10.  Advantage Study target language Disadvantages     Minimal attention is paid to pronunciation and conversational skills. Inaccurate linguistic Enhance reading and writing ability analysis Improve comprehension ability   Build up vocabulary  Learn some grammatical pattern Paying attention to unfamiliar words which are not relevant to the purpose of reading .
  11. 11.  It is based on behaviorist theory -- From early psychology in the 19th century , proposed by John B Watson. ---Based on the proposition that all things which organisms do -- including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors.
  12. 12.  Language learning is a habit-formation.  This method aims at using the target language communicatively by intensive oral drilling of basic sentence.  Spoken language comes before written language.  Mistakes should be avoided.
  13. 13.  Structures are sequenced and taught one at a time.  Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills.  Little or no grammatical explanations are provide.  Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context.  Everything is simply memorized and recite in form.
  14. 14. Advantage    Disadvantages Target language is the  Teacher cantered only language to be used  Short of learning in the classroom. motivation  Limitations of structural linguistics Enhance speaking and and vocabulary listening ability.  It didn’t teach explicit grammar Suitable for beginning pattern. learners.  Students may feel bored.(mechanical drill)
  15. 15. Introduction
  16. 16. a practical command of the four basic skills of a language accuracy in both pronunciation and grammar ability to respond quickly and accurately in speech situations
  17. 17. Language teaching begins with the spoken language. Material is taught orally before it is presented in written form  The target language is the language of the classroom  New language points are introduced and practiced situationally 
  18. 18. Choose the vocabulary Grammar are taught from simple to complex Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexical and grammatical basis is established
  19. 19.  Bring the reality situation in the classroom
  20. 20.  Hard to teach the grammar rules from simple to complex  Turn students into parrots  Boring and reduce motivation
  21. 21.  Teacher-centered Demonstrate with teaching aids   Key word changed
  22. 22.  Instruction is often individualized  Vocabulary  Grammar-taught in either deductively or inductively way.  Language skills  Demands on teachers
  23. 23.  Grammar teaching should be planned and systematic  Necessary grammar instruction  Extensive exposure to instructed grammar points  Production activities  Group work and task performance
  24. 24. Advantages  Independent thinking.  Teacher provide teaching materials.  Teacher center.   Learning step by step. Disadvantages Neglect students interest and need.
  25. 25. Developed by Charles Curran and his associates in 1970s
  26. 26.  The teacher can successfully transfer his or her knowledge and proficiency in the L2 to the students; Specific purposes are not mentioned.
  27. 27.     S stands for security A stands for attention and aggression R stands for retention and reflection D represents discrimination
  28. 28.    Whole person learning Learning is dynamic and creative Client-counselor and learnerknower relationships
  29. 29.         Translation Group work Recording Transcription Analysis Reflection and observation Listening Free conversation
  30. 30.      Help students overcome their negative feeling Build good relationship with students Wants students to be responsible for their learning Provide free-pressure Emphasis of classroom interaction in cooperation, not competition
  31. 31.   Hard to control the learning process if students are too passive in learning Hard to run the class for the relaxing environment
  32. 32.      Small group and make sentences with the new forms Students take turns reading the transcript Teacher puts a picture of a person on the blackboard and students ask questions of that person as if they have just met him Students reconstruct the conversation they have created Students create a new dialog using words they have learned to say during their conversation
  33. 33.  It was developed by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose State University, California.  Based on the coordination of speech and action.  It is linked to the trace theory of memory, which holds that the more often or intensively a memory connection is traced, the stronger the memory will be.
  34. 34.  Second language learning is parallel to first language learning and should reflect the same naturalistic processes.  Listening should develop before speaking.  Children respond physically to spoken language, and adult learners learn better if they do that too.
  35. 35.  Once listening comprehension has been developed, speech develops naturally and effortlessly out of it.  Adults should use right-brain motor activities, while the left hemisphere watches and learns .  Delaying speech reduces stress.
  36. 36. Pros       Suitable for beginner Pressure free Develop listening ability first Comprehension Action feedback Interest Cons    Time consuming Energy costly Lack of reading and writing
  37. 37.  The Natural Approach was developed by Tracy Terrell and Stephen Krashen, starting in 1977.  Natural Approach there is an emphasis on exposure, or input, rather than practice .  Natural approach as an example of communicative approach.
  38. 38.  Optimizing emotional preparedness for learning .  A prolonged period of attention to what the language learners hear before they try to produce language .  Willingness to use written and other materials as a source of comprehensible input.
  39. 39. Advantages      Minimize stress Useful for beginning learners. Enhance listening ability. Use visual aids and realia. Depend on learner needs. Disadvantages   Hard to learn correct forms. Feedback of errors.
  40. 40. Introduction
  41. 41.  The goal of language teaching is learner ability to communicate in the target language
  42. 42.      Students regular work in groups or pairs to transfer meaning in situations Students often engage in role play or dramatization Classroom materials and activities are often authentic Teacher’s role is primarily to facilitate communication and secondarily to correct errors Teacher should be able to use the target language fluently and appropriately
  43. 43.   For real communication, students should know knowledge of linguistic forms, background information Produce real language in daily life
  44. 44.     No environment of ESL Ignore the training of reading and writing Difficulty in evaluating students’ performance Hard for beginning level students to express target language with foreigner
  45. 45.      Authentic materials scrambled sentences Language games Picture strip story Role play
  46. 46.  TBLL was popularized by N.Prabhu while working in Bangalore,India.  Prabhu figured out that his students could learn language just as easily with a nonlinguistic problem as when they are concentrating on linguistic questions.
  47. 47.  The main focus of this approach is the task while language is the means with which they complete it.  It focuses on the use of authentic language, and to students doing meaningful tasks using the target language .  The main idea of the task should be completing a problem-solving aspect.  Assessment is primarily based on task outcome .
  48. 48. Disadvantages Advantages  Student-centered  Hard for beginning learners.  Meaning communication  Focus on meaning instead of form.  More interaction  Students may feel stress.  More interesting  Occupy too much time in the class.  Learn how to cooperate with others.  Hard to manage the class.  Independent thinking  Difficult to prepare the materials.