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Chapter 1 public speaking

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Chapter 1 public speaking

  1. 1. Public Speaking Chapter 1 Dra. Baby Poernomo, M.A Department of Human Services
  2. 2. Chapter 1 a. The Power of Public Speaking b. Similarities between Public Speaking & Conversation c. Differences between Public Speaking & Conversation d. Developing Confidence e. Public Speaking & Critical Thinking f. Cultural Diversity & Public Speaking
  3. 3. The Power of Public Speaking During modern times many women and men Around the globe have spread their ideas And influence through public speaking.
  4. 4. Similarities between Public Speaking & Conversation a. Organizing your thought logically b. Tailoring your message to your audience c. Telling a story for maximum impact d. Adapting to listener feedback
  5. 5. Differences between Public Speaking & Conversation a. Public Speaking is more highly structured b. Public Speaking requires more formal language c. Public Speaking requires a different method of delivery
  6. 6. Developing your confidence Nervousness is normal “Rather than trying to eliminate every trace of stage fright, you should aim at transforming it from a negative force into what one expert calls positive nervousness - azesty, enthusiastic”
  7. 7. 6 ways to turn your nervousness Turn From a negative force into a positive one 1. Acquire speaking experience 2. Prepare-Prepare-Prepare 3. Think Positively 4. Use the Power of Visualization (VIDEO) 5. Know that most nervousness is not visible 6. Don’t Expect Perfection
  8. 8. Think Positively Negative Thought Positive Thought (1) I wish I didn’t have to give (1) This speech is a chance for me to this speech share my ideas and gain experience as a speaker (2) I’m not a great public (2) No one’s perfect, but I’m getting speaker better with each speech I give (3) I’m always nervous when I (3) Everyone’s nervous. If other give a speech people can handle it, I can too (4) No one will be interested (4) I have a good topic and I’m fully prepared. Of course they’ll be in what I have to say interested.
  9. 9. 22/02/2013 9
  10. 10. Public Speaking & Critical Thinking
  11. 11. “Disciplined, self-directed thinking . . . ”* The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, 1987.
  12. 12. In “everyday” language: • Thinking “outside” the box • Thinking about thinking • “Unlimited” thinking • Divergent thinking
  13. 13. “The intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information.”* * The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, 1987.
  14. 14. “Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and evaluating thinking with a view to improving it.”* *The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Concepts And Tools, 5 ed. The Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2008.
  15. 15. “Critical thinking is . . . • Self-disciplined • Self-monitored • Self-corrective thinking.”* *The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Concepts and Tools, 5th ed. The Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2008.
  16. 16. It concerns itself with 8 elements of thought • Point of view • Purpose • Questions at issue • Implications and consequences • Information • Interpretation and Inference • Concepts • Assumptions *The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Concepts and Tools, 5 ed. The Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2008.
  17. 17. Point of View What are the . . . –Frames of reference –Perspectives – Orientations And how do they influence “point of view”?
  18. 18. Purpose What are the • Goals • Objectives And how do they relate to point of view?
  19. 19. What does critical thinking involve? • Making logical inferences (based upon the information presented) • Drawing logical conclusions (based upon the information presented) • Higher levels of thinking, such as . . .
  20. 20. • Conceptualizing — developing a “mind picture” • Conceptualizing to use • Applying—putting conceptual info • •Applying orexamining, to Analyzing—closely tearing apart breaking down • Analyzingreally look at • •Synthesizing things together in a well- organized Synthesizing—pulling logical way • Evaluating decisions • Evaluating—making about; reviewing; assessing; Etc.
  22. 22. Critical thinking helps us develop: Why Is Critical Thinking Important? • • Intellectual Humility Intellectual Autonomy • Intellectual Integrity • Intellectual Courage  . . . it underlies the basic elements of • Intellectual Perseverance • Confidence in Reason •communication Intellectual Empathy • Fair-mindedness . . . .traitsit plays the development of a multi-cultural in social . . important to an important part world view and the diminishing of irrational thought! change. . .  . . . it is a path to freedom from half- truths and deceptions
  23. 23. Characteristics of “cultivated” critical Goal: to become cultivated critical thinkers thinkers Cultivated critical thinkers . ..
  24. 24. A :well cultivated critical thinker . . . By --raising vital questions --formulating questions • clearly and precisely Raises vital questions and Raise vital questions problems, formulating them Formulate questions and problems clearly, precisely clearly and precisely;
  25. 25. •Gather information •Analyze and assess it • Evaluate it • Gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to By: interpret itinformation, then --gathering effectively, --assessing it and determining what it means and what it is worth
  26. 26. Draw conclusions Find solutions By: Use relevant criteria --drawing conclusions from to test them the information • Comes to well-reasoned presented --finding possible conclusions and solutions, solutions and testing them against relevant testing them with relevant criteria criteria and standards;
  27. 27. Keep an open mind By --maintaining an open mind
  28. 28. Network w/others; keep lines of communication open • Communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions By networking with others and to complex problems. maintaining open lines of communication with them and others.
  29. 29. To become a cultivated critical thinker: Dare to think outside the box! • Develop a sense of observation and curiosity • Become interested in finding new solutions • Share ideas • Ask pertinent questions • Assess statements and arguments • Seek understanding and information
  30. 30. Also . . . • Examine beliefs, assumptions, and opinions; weigh them against truth • Listen to others, think about what they say, give feedback • Become an open-minded listener and reader
  31. 31. Who are the critical thinkers? • Parents Who Thinks Critically ? • Nurses • Athletic coaches  Parents • Doctors • Air traffic controllers  Nurses commanders • Military • Lawyers, Judges  Doctors • Supervisors • Accountants  Athletic coaches • Day Care Providers  Teachers/Professors
  32. 32. Who SHOULD think critically?
  33. 33. 7 Elements of the Speech Communication process Speaker Situation Message Interference Channel Feedback Listener
  34. 34. Cultural Diversity & Public Speaking Avoiding Ethnocentrism
  35. 35. Thank You 22/02/2013 35