WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ?
• Communication (from Latin ”communicar
e”, meaning "to share")
• Communication is sending and receiving
information or the transmission of
information and meaning from one party to
another through the use of sharing symbol
ONE WAY AND TWO WAY
• In “one way communication” information
flows only in one direction that is from sender
to receiver with no feedback
• In “two way communication” information
flows in both direction from sender to receiver
and vice versa with feedback
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
Communication between human beings
and non human entities is called as extra
For e.g. Your parrot responding your greeting
This takes place within the individual.
Sender = Our relevant organ.
Receiver = Our brain.
Feed back by brain
Communication at this level refers to the
sharing of information among people
Intrapersonal communication can be formal or
For example, The interaction with family
members , friends and different kind of people
Communication in an organization takes place at
different hierarchical levels.
It can be divided into mainly two parts
All communication that occurs in organization
is classified as internal-operational...
Work related communication with people
outside the organization is called extra-
Communication through mass media like
books , journals , TV , newspapers etc..
For this kind of communication we require a
mediator to transmit information.
CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
• Upward communication
• Downward communication
• Upward communication refers to the
employees giving feedback to the
managers about the decision
• It helps the manager to understand the
employees ideas on the decision.
• Downward communication means that the
manager tells employees about the decisions
that has already.
• It allows decisions to carry out quickly
• People in the same level within the same
organization pass information to each other
• It can strengthen the understanding and
coordination between people in different
1ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS ?
• IS COMMUNICATION ONE WAY?
• A PERSON COMMUNICATING WITH GHOST IS
WHICH TYPE OF COMMUNICATION IS IT
COMMUNICATION OR NOT JUSTIFY?
• ENCODING IN CHANNEL IS WHAT?
• CLUSTER [1 TO 2 ,2 TO 4…] COMMUNICATION
NETWORK EXIST OR NOT?
• SAME ROW STUDENTS COMMUNICATING WITH
EACH OTHER IS WHICH CHANNEL OF
• Barriers to effective communication can retard
or distort the message and intention of the
message being conveyed which may result in
failure of the communication process or an
effect that is undesirable
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
• Intrapersonal: Stems from a person’s attitude,
behaviours , knowledge, education and
• Interpersonal: Stems from inappropriate
transaction of words between two or more
• Organization :Refers to barriers in
CAUSES OF INTRAPERSONAL BARRIERS
• Let’s explore the causes that lead to
1. Wrong assumptions
2. Varied perceptions
3. Differing background
4. Wrong inferences
• Wrong assumptions occur when sender and
receiver does not have adequate knowledge
about each other’s background.
• Sometimes speaker does not realize the
background, education etc of the receiver.
• To be a good communicator try to put yourself
in the shoes of the receiver..
• Example – Doctor and Patient
• Individuals perceive situations in different ways
• Best way is to step back and take a wider
perspective of the whole situation.
• Example: Elephant
and six blind men
• Our background plays a very important role in
how we interpret the message.
• To be a good communicator , the speaker
should know about the background of the
• Example:- A computer company
representative explaining about hardware
details about the hospital management
system he plans to install to
groups of doctors
• Wrong Inference is when we assume
something without knowing the whole truth.
• They are more dramatic than facts and can
cause gossip and rumors
• Inference should always be supported by
• When presenting inferences you should
always some evidences or facts
1. Limited Vocabulary
2. Incongruity ( mismatch) of Verbal or Non-
3. Emotional outburst
4. Communication selectivity
5. Cultural variations
6. Poor listening skills
• If in your speech or writing , you are at a loss
of words , your communication will be very
• On the other hand, if you have a good
vocabulary and know how to use it properly,
you would be a good communicator
• The difference between verbal and non-verbal
message can confuse the listener.
• Non-verbal communication enhances verbal
• Actions speaks louder than words
• One very important aspect o non-verbal
communication is physical appearance
• Excessive emotional involvement is harmful to
• Example:- extreme anger can create an
emotionally charged environment an rational
discussion is not possible.
• Messages can be misinterpreted, ignored or
overreacted to by people displaying such
• If you are a receiver in any communication
and you listen /pay attention to only a part of
the messages, you are imposing a barrier
known as Communication Selectivity.
• Here receiver is at fault and not the sender.
• This can also be part of written
• Business practices, social customs and
etiquettes of a particular country should be
taken into consideration when communicating
with people across the globe.
• This has become very important as nowadays
businesses are happening across national
POOR LISTENING SKILLS
• We should just not HEAR but LISTEN when we
are the receiver in a communication process.
• Listening requires careful attention and
accurate decoding of the message
NOISE IN THE CHANNEL
• Noise is any unwanted signal which acts as a
hindrance in the flow of communication.
• Example- Disturbance in telephone lines, dim
typescripts, illegible handwriting, noisy place
• Too many Transfer points
• Fear of Superiors
• Negative Tendencies
• Information Overload
TO MANY TRANSFER
• More the transfer stations, more is the
likelihood of message being distorted or lost
• For effective communication, we should have
less transfer points
FEAR OF SUPERIOR
• In rigidly structured organization,
subordinates would be fearful of the superiors
and would not talk frankly
2:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS?
• IS BARRIER PHYSICAL OR PSYCOLOGICAL?
• BARRIER IS GENERALLY DUE TO?
• WHEN TWO PEOPLE TALK TO EACH OTHER AND ANY
DOG BARKS ON YOU IS BARRIER OR NOT JUSTIFY?
• WHEN YOU DON’T KNOW YOUR DESTINATION AND
YOU START FROM SOURCE AND MOVE CONTINUOSLY
WITHOUT KNOWING THE DESTINATION IS BARRIER OR
• Body language is a kind of nonverbal
communication, where thoughts, intentions,
or feelings are expressed by physical
behaviours , such as facial expressions, body
posture , gestures, eye movement, touch and
the use of space
• Gestures are movements made with body
parts (e.g. hands, arms, fingers, head, legs)
and they may be voluntary or involuntary
• There are many different types of body
positioning to portray certain postures,
including slouching, towering, legs spread, jaw
thrust, shoulders forward, and arm crossing.
• Facial expression is integral when expressing
emotions through the body. Combinations of
eyes, eyebrow, lips, nose, and cheek
movements help form different moods of an
3:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS?
• CLAPPING WITH YOUR HANDS IS WHAT?
• THUMBS UP IS GESTURE OR POSTURE?
• WAVING YOUR HANDS IS WHAT?
• ELEPHANT BLINKING HIS EYES IS WHAT?
• Listening is the process of receiving ,
interpreting , and reacting to a message
received from the speaker
TYPES OF LISTENING
• APPRECIATIVE LISTENING->
This is the listening for driving aesthetic pleasure
,as we do when we listen to comedian ,musician
• EMPATHETIC LISTENING->
When we listen to a distressed friend who wants to
release his feelings ,we provide emotional and
moral support in the form of empathetic
• COMPREHENSIVE LISTENING->
This type of listening is needed in the classroom
when students have to listen to the lecturer to
understand and comprehend the message.
• CRITICAL LISTENING->
When the purpose is to accept and reject the
message or to evaluate it critically one require this
type of listening . For example ,
listening to sales person
• Dress codes are written and, more
often, unwritten rules with regard to clothing.
Clothing like other aspects of human physical
appearance has a social significance, with
different rules and expectations being valid
depending on circumstance and occasion
• Business etiquette is a set of manners that is
accepted or required in a profession
• Often upheld by custom, it is enforced by the
members of an organization.
• Those who violate business etiquette are
considered offensive. The penalty for such
behaviour frequently lies in the disapproval of
other organization members
IMPORTANCE OF BUSINESS
• Business etiquette is important because:
It creates a professional
mutually respectful atmosphere
MANNERS OF BUSSINESS ETIQUOTTES
• How do you treat clients or customers?
• How do you treat your coworkers and supervisor?
• How do you conduct yourself in your cubicle or
• How do you conduct yourself during meetings?
• What kind of email messages do you send?
• Do you follow a dress code?
IMPROVING BUSSINESS ETIQUOTTES
• Using please and thank you as appropriate
• Addressing others using Mr., Mrs., Miss, or Ms.
unless otherwise requested
• Speaking clearly and distinctly while using a
pleasant tone of voice
• Maintaining eye contact
• Smiling and offering a firm handshake when
meeting someone new
• Writing thank-you notes and letters of
• Consult your organization's rules for telephone
• Answer as quickly as possible.
• Speak clearly and distinctly, stating your name
and the name of your organization.
• Use a pleasant but professional tone of voice.
• Transfer calls to the correct personnel.
• Take messages and deliver them promptly to the
correct personnel. Return messages
as quickly as possible.
4:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS?
• WEARING SNEAKERS IS BUSSINESS ETIQUOTTES
OR NOT JUSTIFY?
• ATTAINED CALLS LATELY IS GOOD ETIQUOTTES?
• COMING NOT ON TIME IS GOOD ETIQUOTTES?
• USING WHATSAPP AND FACEBOOK
IN SERVER ROOM IS RIGHT
• QUICKLY RESPONDING TO MESSAGE OF
IS RIGHT ETIQUOTTES?
• A speech is a form of presentation and
sometimes the two terms are interchanged
• In Business practice speech means presenting
your point of view on subject orally , formally
and with preparation
• A speech may be to inform , argue , or to
MEHODS OF MAKING SPEECH
• By memorizing entire speech and delivering it
• B y reading out a speech
ELEMENTS OF SPEECHES
• Eye contact
• Voice projection
• A friendly feeling for the audience
Knowing your audience
Dressing and appearance should be proper
Using right language
Talking with right attitude
6:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS?
• LISTENING BY HEADPHONES IS AUDIO VISUAL
• LOOKING IN MIRROR OF PICTURE IS AUDIO
• A interview is a process in which a potential
employee is evaluated by an employer for
prospective employment in their company ,
organization , or firm
• During this process , the employer hopes to
employer hopes to determine whether or not
the applicant is suitable for the job
HOW TO PREPARE INTERVIEWS
• Research the company
• Share examples of achievements
• Describe the situation , task , action
• Assemble relevant information
• Re-read your resume and the job as a fresher
• Campus placement or campus interview is the
program conducted within educational
institutes or in a common place to provide
jobs to students pursuing or in the stage of
completing the programme.
• In this programme, industries visit the
colleges to select students depending on their
ability to work, capability, focus
• A disciplinary interview is a meeting between
at least one manager and an employee (who
may be accompanied by a colleague or trade
union representative) to investigate and deal
with an employee's misconduct or
performance in a fair and consistent manner.
• Talks between employee and manager happen on
an almost daily basis.
• Discuss work and performance of the past
• Resolve problems and misunderstandings
• Mutually voice acknowledgement and critique in
a factual matter
• Agree on measures to boost
development and further education
• An exit interview is a survey conducted with
an individual who is separating from
an organization or relationship.
• the results from exit interviews to reduce
employee, student, or member turnover and
increase productivity and engagement
7:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS ?
• GOSSIPING IS INTERVIEW?
• GENERAL KNOWLEDGE CONTAINS THE
• SHIVERING WITH COLD IS GENERALLY DUE
• A meeting is a gathering of two or more
people that has been convened for the
purpose of achieving a common goal through
verbal interaction, such as sharing information
or reaching agreement
• A discussion group is a group of individuals
with similar interest who gather either
formally or informally to bring up ideas, solve
problems or give comments. The major
approaches are in person, via conference
call or website
• Videoconferencing (VC) is the conduct of
a videoconference (also known as a video
conference or videoteleconference) by a set
of telecommunication technologies which
allow two or more locations to communicate
by simultaneous two-way video and audio
transmissions. It has also been called 'visual
collaboration' and is a type of
• Video input: video camera or webcam
• Video output: computer monitor, television or projector
• Audio input: microphones, CD/DVD player, cassette player,
or any other source of PreAmp audio outlet.
• Audio output: usually loudspeakers associated with the
display device or telephone
• Data transfer: analog or digital telephone
network, LAN or Internet
• Computer: a data processing unit that ties together the
other components, does the compressing and
decompressing, and initiates and maintains
the data linkage via the network.
8:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS?
• GROUP DISCUSSION IS BETWEEN TWO
• GROUP DISCUSSION IS DEBUT OR NOT?
• VIDEOCONFERNCING IS DUE TO NETWORK OR
INTERNET OR BOTH?
• CABLES OR CABLELESS OR BOTH THINGS ARE
USED IN VIDEOCONFERENCING
• A business letter is usually a letter from one
company to another, or between such
organizations and their customers, clients and
other external parties
TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTER
• There are two main styles of business letters:
• Full block style: Align all elements on the left
• Modified block style: with other elements on
the left page margin.
WHO WRITES LETTER TO WHOM ?
• business «» business
• business «» consumer
• job applicant «» company
• citizen «» government official
• employer «» employee
• staff member «» staff member
Company letter -head
Name and address already printed
Telephone No, fax
Mr./Mrs./Ms./Dr. Full name of recipient.
Title/Position of Recipient
Dear Ms./Mrs./Mr. Last Name ,
Subject: Title of Subject
Body of the letter…………………………………………………………………………………. .………… …..
Body paragraph 2…………………………………………………………………………………………………
Body paragraph 3………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Signatory’s printed name
Signatory’s position in the company
• Side, top and bottom margins should be 1 to 1 1/4
inches (the general default settings in programs such as
Microsoft Word). One-page letters and memos should
be vertically centered.
• Font formatting
• No special character or font formatting is used, except
for the subject line, which is usually underlined.
• The salutation/greeting is generally
followed by a comma in British style
• The letters that are written for collecting
information about job seekers, prices,
products, and services before awarding jobs,
granting credit, making contracts and giving
promotions are known as letters of inquiry
• These letters are written to a third party
seeking information about either a job or a
company that wishes to make business
• Circular letter is a written document that is
addressed for circulation to a group of people.
It is usually formal and official. It may be for a
closed group or general distribution. It may be
an effective substitute for a personal visit
• A request for quotation (RFQ) is a
standard business process whose purpose is
to invite suppliers into a bidding process to bid
on specific products or services
• An RFQ typically involves more than the price
per item. Information like payment terms,
quality level per item or contract length are
possible to be requested during the bidding
• The letter which conveys the message for
supply of goods is known as letter of order. In
other words, the letter by which a
buyer formally requests a seller to supply
goods is known as order letter
• A letter written by a consumer to a
manufacturer or retailer regarding a problem
with a product or service.
• This type of letter is written usually with the
expectation that corrective action will be
SILKY & CO.
Subject : Letter for Complaint
We must of all thank you for prompt delivery of the books we had ordered only last week on
telephone. For the last so many years of our contact we have been highly satisfied with your
prompt and courteous service.
Today unfortunately, on opening the carton we found three sets of contemporary English’, part 1,
2 and 3 incomplete. The last chapter of each of these books is missing. We are convinced it is not
your fault. May be at some stage the books were not properly checked.
Anyway, we request you to kindly replace them immediately so that we could send them to the
text-book section where they are urgently needed.
Mr. Piyush Tiwari
SR & Co.
CLAIMS AND ADJUSTMENTS
• A written response to a claim letter sent by
a customer by a business
representative or manager. An adjustment
letter is generally written after a client of the
business makes a material claim
• Collection letter is meant by the letter
pertaining to the payment against the goods
bought in credit by the customer. The
customer purchase goods on credit. The
render therefore, writes letter to them for
collection of the payment against goods
bought on credit
STAGE1 :“WILL PAY REMINDER”
Dear Mr. Ram Ji,
This is just a friendly reminder that your account
with us now is two months past due. Perhaps
you have overlooked it.
We genuinely appreciate your business look
forward to serving you better in future.
Shivam /Tarun cloth mill
We check our accounts book and your account which has
been due for more than two months. We end you a
reminder last week.
We know quite often such matters slip by. We are also
confident that you don’t mind this friendly note.
We look forward to hearing from you soon after you
receive this letter.
Shivam /Tarun cloth mills.
STAGE2:”SHOULD PAY” PERSUASIVE
Persuasive letter 1.
Dear Mr. Ram ji
Looking into your records we find that your credit worthiness is really high
what really worries us is that even the fourth reminder of ours has not
been replied. I hope everything is fine with you.
do let us know by return whether there has been any lapse on our part. Are
you not satisfied with our goods or our services? Is there any thing that
we can do to help you? In case there is any problem in settling the account
we can talk it out so that you feel comfortable with us.
you will always find us willing to accomodate you. With this promise we
eagerly await your reply.
Shivam /Tarun cloth mills,
STAGE3:”MUST PAY” LAST RESORT
Last resort letter
Dear M/r Ram ji,
you have this last opportunity to set right your account by paying in
full the out standing amount of Rs.40 lacks.or at least in part with a
definite promise of paying the balance as son as possible.
your account has been kept open for quite a long period in order
to help you arrange for settlement of the above balance within 6
we are sue you will avoid the unpleasant consequences of our
resorting other measures to collect.
Shivam /Tarun cloth mills.
• A financial institution that provides services on
behalf of another, equal or unequal, financial
institution. A correspondent bank can conduct
business transactions, accept deposits and gather
documents on behalf of the other financial
• Correspondent banks are more likely to be used
to conduct business in foreign countries, and act
as a domestic bank's agent abroad.
• A sales letter is a piece of direct mail which is
designed to persuade the reader to purchase
a particular product or service in the absence
of a salesman. It has been defined as "A form
of direct mail in which an advertiser sends a
letter to a potential customer.
• A cover letter, motivation letter or a letter of
motivation is a letter of introduction attached to,
another document such as a résumé /curriculum
• Job seekers frequently send a cover letter along
with their curriculum vitae or applications for
employment as a way of introducing themselves
to potential employers and explaining
their suitability for the desired
LETTER OF REFERENCE
• A reference letter is provided for an employee by
people who are familiar with his or her work or
character and who have positive remarks to
• The reference letter can be employment-related,
personal, or it can attest to the character of the
individual. Employees will request a reference
letter for a variety of reasons that
include both employment and
DO’S OF BUSINESS LETTER
Remember to use formal language.
Be to the point and straight forward.
Write the letter with polite tone
State your reason for writing the letter.
DON’TS OF BUSINESS LETTER
Do not write long and unnecessary
Avoid usage of slangs or messaging language.
If possible business letter should not be
handwritten as it does not looks professional.
9:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS?
• SELLING A CAR IS WHICH TYPE OF LETTER?
• BUYING A PERSHIBLE FOOD REQUIRES LETTER
• THANKING TO SOMEBODY IS WHICH LETTER?
• Biodata is biographical data is “...factual kinds
of questions about life and work experiences,
as well as items involving opinions, values,
beliefs, and attitudes that reflect a historical
• A memorandum (abbrev.: memo) was from
the Latin verbal phrase memorandum , "to
mention, call to mind, recount, relate", which
means "It must be remembered (that)...".
• It is therefore a note, document or other
communication that helps the memory by
recording events or observations on a topic,
such as may be used in a
• Minutes, also known as protocols or,
informally, notes, are the instant written
record of a meeting or hearing.
• They typically describe the events of the
meeting, starting with a list of attendees, a
statement of the issues considered by the
participants, and related responses or
decisions for the issues.
• Notice is the legal concept describing a
requirement that a party be aware of legal
process affecting their rights, obligations or
• Business reporting is an essential part of any
planning process in the workplace as it
consists of providing data and information to
specific audiences. Examples of business
reports include financial plans, customer
service reviews, and marketing research
10:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS?
• ALARM AT 4’O CLOCK IN THE MORNING IS
• REMEMBER OF BIRTHDAY OF A ANIMAL IS