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Professional communication

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It is helpful for all students who are pursuing graduation and master degree courses as well as for lecturers who are teaching in colleges and university....

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Professional communication

  1. 1. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION
  2. 2. CONTENTS • INTRODUCTION OF COMMUNICATION • BARRIERS ,LISTENING VS HEARING • DRESS CODES • BUSSINESS ETIQUETTES & TELEPHONE ETIQUETTES • SPEECHES • AUDIO VISUAL AIDS • INTERVIEWS , MEETINGS • VIDEOCONFERENCING • BUSSINESS LETTERS • MEMOS , MINUTES & CIRCULARS
  3. 3. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ? • Communication (from Latin ”communicar e”, meaning "to share") • Communication is sending and receiving information or the transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through the use of sharing symbol
  4. 4. COMMUNICATION CYCLE
  5. 5. ONE WAY AND TWO WAY COMMUNICATION • In “one way communication” information flows only in one direction that is from sender to receiver with no feedback • In “two way communication” information flows in both direction from sender to receiver and vice versa with feedback
  6. 6. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION EXTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNAICATION INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION MASS COMMUNICATION
  7. 7. EXTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Communication between human beings and non human entities is called as extra personal communication. For e.g. Your parrot responding your greeting
  8. 8. INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION  This takes place within the individual. Sender = Our relevant organ. Receiver = Our brain. Feed back by brain
  9. 9. INTERPERSONEL COMMUNICATION Communication at this level refers to the sharing of information among people Intrapersonal communication can be formal or informal. For example, The interaction with family members , friends and different kind of people
  10. 10. ORGANISATION COMMUNICATION Communication in an organization takes place at different hierarchical levels. It can be divided into mainly two parts INTERNAL OPERATIONAL & EXTERNAL OPERATIONAL
  11. 11. Internal-operational All communication that occurs in organization is classified as internal-operational... External-operational Work related communication with people outside the organization is called extra- operational
  12. 12. MASS COMMUNICATION Communication through mass media like books , journals , TV , newspapers etc.. For this kind of communication we require a mediator to transmit information.
  13. 13. CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION • Upward communication • Downward communication  LATERAL COMMUNICATION
  14. 14. UPWARD COMMUNICATION • Upward communication refers to the employees giving feedback to the managers about the decision • It helps the manager to understand the employees ideas on the decision.
  15. 15. DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION • Downward communication means that the manager tells employees about the decisions that has already. • It allows decisions to carry out quickly
  16. 16. LATERAL COMMUNICATION • People in the same level within the same organization pass information to each other • It can strengthen the understanding and coordination between people in different department
  17. 17. 1ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS ? • IS COMMUNICATION ONE WAY? • A PERSON COMMUNICATING WITH GHOST IS WHICH TYPE OF COMMUNICATION IS IT COMMUNICATION OR NOT JUSTIFY? • ENCODING IN CHANNEL IS WHAT? • CLUSTER [1 TO 2 ,2 TO 4…] COMMUNICATION NETWORK EXIST OR NOT? • SAME ROW STUDENTS COMMUNICATING WITH EACH OTHER IS WHICH CHANNEL OF COMMUNICATION?
  18. 18. BARRIERS • Barriers to effective communication can retard or distort the message and intention of the message being conveyed which may result in failure of the communication process or an effect that is undesirable
  19. 19. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION • Intrapersonal: Stems from a person’s attitude, behaviours , knowledge, education and personality • Interpersonal: Stems from inappropriate transaction of words between two or more people • Organization :Refers to barriers in organizational communication
  20. 20. CAUSES OF INTRAPERSONAL BARRIERS • Let’s explore the causes that lead to intrapersonal barriers:- 1. Wrong assumptions 2. Varied perceptions 3. Differing background 4. Wrong inferences
  21. 21. WRONG ASSUMPTIONS • Wrong assumptions occur when sender and receiver does not have adequate knowledge about each other’s background. • Sometimes speaker does not realize the background, education etc of the receiver. • To be a good communicator try to put yourself in the shoes of the receiver.. • Example – Doctor and Patient
  22. 22. VARIED PERCEPTIONS • Individuals perceive situations in different ways • Best way is to step back and take a wider perspective of the whole situation. • Example: Elephant and six blind men
  23. 23. DIFFERING BACKGROUND • Our background plays a very important role in how we interpret the message. • To be a good communicator , the speaker should know about the background of the audience. • Example:- A computer company representative explaining about hardware details about the hospital management system he plans to install to groups of doctors
  24. 24. WRONG INFERENCE • Wrong Inference is when we assume something without knowing the whole truth. • They are more dramatic than facts and can cause gossip and rumors • Inference should always be supported by facts. • When presenting inferences you should always some evidences or facts behind it
  25. 25. INTERPERSONAL BARRIERS 1. Limited Vocabulary 2. Incongruity ( mismatch) of Verbal or Non- verbal message 3. Emotional outburst 4. Communication selectivity 5. Cultural variations 6. Poor listening skills
  26. 26. LIMITED VOCABALURY • If in your speech or writing , you are at a loss of words , your communication will be very ineffective. • On the other hand, if you have a good vocabulary and know how to use it properly, you would be a good communicator
  27. 27. INCOGRUITY[MISMATCH] • The difference between verbal and non-verbal message can confuse the listener. • Non-verbal communication enhances verbal communication. • Actions speaks louder than words • One very important aspect o non-verbal communication is physical appearance
  28. 28. EMOTIONAL OUTBURST • Excessive emotional involvement is harmful to communication. • Example:- extreme anger can create an emotionally charged environment an rational discussion is not possible. • Messages can be misinterpreted, ignored or overreacted to by people displaying such behaviour.
  29. 29. COMMUNICATION SELECTIVITY • If you are a receiver in any communication and you listen /pay attention to only a part of the messages, you are imposing a barrier known as Communication Selectivity. • Here receiver is at fault and not the sender. • This can also be part of written communication.
  30. 30. CULTURAL VARIATIONS • Business practices, social customs and etiquettes of a particular country should be taken into consideration when communicating with people across the globe. • This has become very important as nowadays businesses are happening across national boundaries
  31. 31. POOR LISTENING SKILLS • We should just not HEAR but LISTEN when we are the receiver in a communication process. • Listening requires careful attention and accurate decoding of the message
  32. 32. NOISE IN THE CHANNEL • Noise is any unwanted signal which acts as a hindrance in the flow of communication. • Example- Disturbance in telephone lines, dim typescripts, illegible handwriting, noisy place etc…
  33. 33. ORGANIZATIONAL BARRIERS • Too many Transfer points • Fear of Superiors • Negative Tendencies • Information Overload
  34. 34. TO MANY TRANSFER • More the transfer stations, more is the likelihood of message being distorted or lost • For effective communication, we should have less transfer points
  35. 35. FEAR OF SUPERIOR • In rigidly structured organization, subordinates would be fearful of the superiors and would not talk frankly
  36. 36. 2:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS? • IS BARRIER PHYSICAL OR PSYCOLOGICAL? • BARRIER IS GENERALLY DUE TO? • WHEN TWO PEOPLE TALK TO EACH OTHER AND ANY DOG BARKS ON YOU IS BARRIER OR NOT JUSTIFY? • WHEN YOU DON’T KNOW YOUR DESTINATION AND YOU START FROM SOURCE AND MOVE CONTINUOSLY WITHOUT KNOWING THE DESTINATION IS BARRIER OR NOT JUSTIFY?
  37. 37. BODY LANGUAGE • Body language is a kind of nonverbal communication, where thoughts, intentions, or feelings are expressed by physical behaviours , such as facial expressions, body posture , gestures, eye movement, touch and the use of space
  38. 38. GESTURES • Gestures are movements made with body parts (e.g. hands, arms, fingers, head, legs) and they may be voluntary or involuntary
  39. 39. POSTERS • There are many different types of body positioning to portray certain postures, including slouching, towering, legs spread, jaw thrust, shoulders forward, and arm crossing.
  40. 40. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS • Facial expression is integral when expressing emotions through the body. Combinations of eyes, eyebrow, lips, nose, and cheek movements help form different moods of an individual
  41. 41. 3:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS? • CLAPPING WITH YOUR HANDS IS WHAT? • THUMBS UP IS GESTURE OR POSTURE? • WAVING YOUR HANDS IS WHAT? • ELEPHANT BLINKING HIS EYES IS WHAT?
  42. 42. LISTENING • Listening is the process of receiving , interpreting , and reacting to a message received from the speaker
  43. 43. TYPES OF LISTENING • APPRECIATIVE LISTENING-> This is the listening for driving aesthetic pleasure ,as we do when we listen to comedian ,musician or entertainer. • EMPATHETIC LISTENING-> When we listen to a distressed friend who wants to release his feelings ,we provide emotional and moral support in the form of empathetic listening.
  44. 44. • COMPREHENSIVE LISTENING-> This type of listening is needed in the classroom when students have to listen to the lecturer to understand and comprehend the message. • CRITICAL LISTENING-> When the purpose is to accept and reject the message or to evaluate it critically one require this type of listening . For example , listening to sales person
  45. 45. RULES OF GOOD LISTENING
  46. 46. DRESSCODES • Dress codes are written and, more often, unwritten rules with regard to clothing. Clothing like other aspects of human physical appearance has a social significance, with different rules and expectations being valid depending on circumstance and occasion
  47. 47. BUSINESS ETIQUETTES • Business etiquette is a set of manners that is accepted or required in a profession • Often upheld by custom, it is enforced by the members of an organization. • Those who violate business etiquette are considered offensive. The penalty for such behaviour frequently lies in the disapproval of other organization members
  48. 48. IMPORTANCE OF BUSINESS ETIQUETTES • Business etiquette is important because: It creates a professional  mutually respectful atmosphere  improves communication
  49. 49. MANNERS OF BUSSINESS ETIQUOTTES • How do you treat clients or customers? • How do you treat your coworkers and supervisor? • How do you conduct yourself in your cubicle or office? • How do you conduct yourself during meetings? • What kind of email messages do you send? • Do you follow a dress code?
  50. 50. IMPROVING BUSSINESS ETIQUOTTES • Using please and thank you as appropriate • Addressing others using Mr., Mrs., Miss, or Ms. unless otherwise requested • Speaking clearly and distinctly while using a pleasant tone of voice • Maintaining eye contact • Smiling and offering a firm handshake when meeting someone new • Writing thank-you notes and letters of appreciation, congratulation
  51. 51. TELEPHONE ETIQUOTTES • Consult your organization's rules for telephone use. • Answer as quickly as possible. • Speak clearly and distinctly, stating your name and the name of your organization. • Use a pleasant but professional tone of voice. • Transfer calls to the correct personnel. • Take messages and deliver them promptly to the correct personnel. Return messages as quickly as possible.
  52. 52. 4:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS? • WEARING SNEAKERS IS BUSSINESS ETIQUOTTES OR NOT JUSTIFY? • ATTAINED CALLS LATELY IS GOOD ETIQUOTTES? • COMING NOT ON TIME IS GOOD ETIQUOTTES? • USING WHATSAPP AND FACEBOOK IN SERVER ROOM IS RIGHT ETIOUOTTES? • QUICKLY RESPONDING TO MESSAGE OF BOSS IS RIGHT ETIQUOTTES?
  53. 53. MANAGERIAL SPEECHES • A speech is a form of presentation and sometimes the two terms are interchanged • In Business practice speech means presenting your point of view on subject orally , formally and with preparation • A speech may be to inform , argue , or to persuade
  54. 54. MEHODS OF MAKING SPEECH • Extempore • By memorizing entire speech and delivering it • B y reading out a speech
  55. 55. ELEMENTS OF SPEECHES • Eye contact • Voice projection • Confidence • Sincerity • A friendly feeling for the audience
  56. 56. EFFECTIVE SPEECH Knowing your audience Practicing Dressing and appearance should be proper Using right language Talking with right attitude
  57. 57. TYPES OF SPEECHES • Informative speech • Layout speech • Demonstration speech • Persuasive speech
  58. 58. INFORMATIVE SPEECH • Teach something to the audience • Valuable and useful information • Essential information
  59. 59. LAYOUT SPEECH • Giving direction • Location of place • Tells where things are • Gestures are important
  60. 60. DEMONSTRATION SPEECH • Teach something • How to do something
  61. 61. PERSUASIVE SPEECH • Persuade people • Help make a decision • Do something you don’t know
  62. 62. REMEMBER • PLAN • PREPARE • PRACTICE • PRESENT
  63. 63. INTRODUCTION SPEECH • To introduce a speaker and/or to present a topic area that a speaker or a series of speakers will then address in detail
  64. 64. KEY POINTS • Don’t talk to long • Keep your introduction between 45 second to 3 minutes • Don’t include something embracing
  65. 65. THANKS SPEECH • A thank you speech is short public speech, which serves to express something that was presented and offered Awards Honour received Vote for thanks
  66. 66. OCASSIONAL SPEECH • EXAMPLE : Retirement and fairwell • The introduction integrates the person into the organization or society as one of the many whose impact on their development was enormous
  67. 67. 5:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS? • IS SPEECH IS FOR PERSUATION? • TEACHING SOMETHING IS WHICH TYPE OF SPEECH? • DO SOMETHING YOU DON’T KNOW IS WHICH TYPE OF SPEECH?
  68. 68. AUDIO VISUAL AIDS • Audio visual aids are those device which can be used to make the learning experience more concrete , more realistic , more dynamic
  69. 69. IMPORTANCE • Motivate students mental and physical activities • Save time • Make learning effective and durable • Help to bring change in the atmosphere of class
  70. 70. TYPES OF AUDIO VISUAL AIDS • Projected • Non projected
  71. 71. PROJECTED AIDS • FLIMS • FLIM STRIPS [NEGATIVES] • SLIDES • OVERHEAD PROJECTION
  72. 72. NON PROJECTED • PHOTOGRAPHS • POSTERS • CHARTS • DIAGRAMS • CARTOONS
  73. 73. 6:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS? • LISTENING BY HEADPHONES IS AUDIO VISUAL AIDS? • LOOKING IN MIRROR OF PICTURE IS AUDIO VISUAL AIDS?
  74. 74. INTERVIEW • A interview is a process in which a potential employee is evaluated by an employer for prospective employment in their company , organization , or firm • During this process , the employer hopes to employer hopes to determine whether or not the applicant is suitable for the job
  75. 75. HOW TO PREPARE INTERVIEWS • Research the company • Share examples of achievements • Describe the situation , task , action • Assemble relevant information • Re-read your resume and the job as a fresher
  76. 76. PLACEMENT INTERVIEW • Campus placement or campus interview is the program conducted within educational institutes or in a common place to provide jobs to students pursuing or in the stage of completing the programme. • In this programme, industries visit the colleges to select students depending on their ability to work, capability, focus and Aim.
  77. 77. DISCIPLINE INTERVIEW • A disciplinary interview is a meeting between at least one manager and an employee (who may be accompanied by a colleague or trade union representative) to investigate and deal with an employee's misconduct or performance in a fair and consistent manner.
  78. 78. APPRAISAL INTERVIEW • Talks between employee and manager happen on an almost daily basis. • Discuss work and performance of the past year tasks • Resolve problems and misunderstandings • Mutually voice acknowledgement and critique in a factual matter • Agree on measures to boost development and further education
  79. 79. EXIT INTERVIEW • An exit interview is a survey conducted with an individual who is separating from an organization or relationship. • the results from exit interviews to reduce employee, student, or member turnover and increase productivity and engagement
  80. 80. 7:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS ? • GOSSIPING IS INTERVIEW? • GENERAL KNOWLEDGE CONTAINS THE INTERVIEW? • SHIVERING WITH COLD IS GENERALLY DUE TO?
  81. 81. MEETINGS • A meeting is a gathering of two or more people that has been convened for the purpose of achieving a common goal through verbal interaction, such as sharing information or reaching agreement
  82. 82. GROUP DISCUSSION • A discussion group is a group of individuals with similar interest who gather either formally or informally to bring up ideas, solve problems or give comments. The major approaches are in person, via conference call or website
  83. 83. VIDEOCONFERENCING • Videoconferencing (VC) is the conduct of a videoconference (also known as a video conference or videoteleconference) by a set of telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to communicate by simultaneous two-way video and audio transmissions. It has also been called 'visual collaboration' and is a type of groupware.
  84. 84. COMPONENTS OF VIDEOCONFERENCING • Video input: video camera or webcam • Video output: computer monitor, television or projector • Audio input: microphones, CD/DVD player, cassette player, or any other source of PreAmp audio outlet. • Audio output: usually loudspeakers associated with the display device or telephone • Data transfer: analog or digital telephone network, LAN or Internet • Computer: a data processing unit that ties together the other components, does the compressing and decompressing, and initiates and maintains the data linkage via the network.
  85. 85. 8:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS? • GROUP DISCUSSION IS BETWEEN TWO MEMBERS? • GROUP DISCUSSION IS DEBUT OR NOT? • VIDEOCONFERNCING IS DUE TO NETWORK OR INTERNET OR BOTH? • CABLES OR CABLELESS OR BOTH THINGS ARE USED IN VIDEOCONFERENCING OR NOT?
  86. 86. BUSINESS LETTERS • A business letter is usually a letter from one company to another, or between such organizations and their customers, clients and other external parties
  87. 87. TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTER • There are two main styles of business letters: • Full block style: Align all elements on the left margin. • Modified block style: with other elements on the left page margin.
  88. 88. WHO WRITES LETTER TO WHOM ? • business «» business • business «» consumer • job applicant «» company • citizen «» government official • employer «» employee • staff member «» staff member
  89. 89. Company letter -head Name and address already printed Telephone No, fax Reference Date Mr./Mrs./Ms./Dr. Full name of recipient. Title/Position of Recipient Company name Address line Dear Ms./Mrs./Mr. Last Name , Subject: Title of Subject Body of the letter…………………………………………………………………………………. .………… ….. Body paragraph 2………………………………………………………………………………………………… Body paragraph 3……………………………………………………………………………………………….. Closing (Sincerely...), Signature Signatory’s printed name Signatory’s position in the company Enclosures Ref. Initials
  90. 90. GENERAL FORMAT • Margins • Side, top and bottom margins should be 1 to 1 1/4 inches (the general default settings in programs such as Microsoft Word). One-page letters and memos should be vertically centered. • Font formatting • No special character or font formatting is used, except for the subject line, which is usually underlined. • Punctuation • The salutation/greeting is generally followed by a comma in British style
  91. 91. INQUIRIES LETTER • The letters that are written for collecting information about job seekers, prices, products, and services before awarding jobs, granting credit, making contracts and giving promotions are known as letters of inquiry • These letters are written to a third party seeking information about either a job or a company that wishes to make business relationship.
  92. 92. CIRCULAR LETTER • Circular letter is a written document that is addressed for circulation to a group of people. It is usually formal and official. It may be for a closed group or general distribution. It may be an effective substitute for a personal visit
  93. 93. QUOTATION LETTER • A request for quotation (RFQ) is a standard business process whose purpose is to invite suppliers into a bidding process to bid on specific products or services • An RFQ typically involves more than the price per item. Information like payment terms, quality level per item or contract length are possible to be requested during the bidding process.
  94. 94. ORDER LETTER • The letter which conveys the message for supply of goods is known as letter of order. In other words, the letter by which a buyer formally requests a seller to supply goods is known as order letter
  95. 95. COMPLAINTS LETTER • A letter written by a consumer to a manufacturer or retailer regarding a problem with a product or service. • This type of letter is written usually with the expectation that corrective action will be taken
  96. 96. SILKY & CO. Bhopal M.P. 21/11/2010 SANCHITA PUBLICATION, Indore (M.P.) Subject : Letter for Complaint Dear sir We must of all thank you for prompt delivery of the books we had ordered only last week on telephone. For the last so many years of our contact we have been highly satisfied with your prompt and courteous service. Today unfortunately, on opening the carton we found three sets of contemporary English’, part 1, 2 and 3 incomplete. The last chapter of each of these books is missing. We are convinced it is not your fault. May be at some stage the books were not properly checked. Anyway, we request you to kindly replace them immediately so that we could send them to the text-book section where they are urgently needed. Yours faithfully, Mr. Piyush Tiwari SR & Co.
  97. 97. CLAIMS AND ADJUSTMENTS • A written response to a claim letter sent by a customer by a business representative or manager. An adjustment letter is generally written after a client of the business makes a material claim
  98. 98. COLLECTION LETTER • Collection letter is meant by the letter pertaining to the payment against the goods bought in credit by the customer. The customer purchase goods on credit. The render therefore, writes letter to them for collection of the payment against goods bought on credit
  99. 99. STAGE1 :“WILL PAY REMINDER” Reminder 1 Dear Mr. Ram Ji, This is just a friendly reminder that your account with us now is two months past due. Perhaps you have overlooked it. We genuinely appreciate your business look forward to serving you better in future. Sincerely, Shivam /Tarun cloth mill
  100. 100. Reminder 2. Dear Sirs, We check our accounts book and your account which has been due for more than two months. We end you a reminder last week. We know quite often such matters slip by. We are also confident that you don’t mind this friendly note. We look forward to hearing from you soon after you receive this letter. your faithfully, Shivam /Tarun cloth mills.
  101. 101. STAGE2:”SHOULD PAY” PERSUASIVE LETTER Persuasive letter 1. Dear Mr. Ram ji Looking into your records we find that your credit worthiness is really high what really worries us is that even the fourth reminder of ours has not been replied. I hope everything is fine with you. do let us know by return whether there has been any lapse on our part. Are you not satisfied with our goods or our services? Is there any thing that we can do to help you? In case there is any problem in settling the account we can talk it out so that you feel comfortable with us. you will always find us willing to accomodate you. With this promise we eagerly await your reply. Sincerely, Shivam /Tarun cloth mills,
  102. 102. STAGE3:”MUST PAY” LAST RESORT LETTER Last resort letter Dear M/r Ram ji, you have this last opportunity to set right your account by paying in full the out standing amount of Rs.40 lacks.or at least in part with a definite promise of paying the balance as son as possible. your account has been kept open for quite a long period in order to help you arrange for settlement of the above balance within 6 days. we are sue you will avoid the unpleasant consequences of our resorting other measures to collect. your sincerely, Shivam /Tarun cloth mills.
  103. 103. BANKING CORRESPONDENCE • A financial institution that provides services on behalf of another, equal or unequal, financial institution. A correspondent bank can conduct business transactions, accept deposits and gather documents on behalf of the other financial institution. • Correspondent banks are more likely to be used to conduct business in foreign countries, and act as a domestic bank's agent abroad.
  104. 104. SALES LETTER • A sales letter is a piece of direct mail which is designed to persuade the reader to purchase a particular product or service in the absence of a salesman. It has been defined as "A form of direct mail in which an advertiser sends a letter to a potential customer.
  105. 105. COVER LETTER • A cover letter, motivation letter or a letter of motivation is a letter of introduction attached to, another document such as a résumé /curriculum vitae • Job seekers frequently send a cover letter along with their curriculum vitae or applications for employment as a way of introducing themselves to potential employers and explaining their suitability for the desired positions
  106. 106. LETTER OF REFERENCE • A reference letter is provided for an employee by people who are familiar with his or her work or character and who have positive remarks to make. • The reference letter can be employment-related, personal, or it can attest to the character of the individual. Employees will request a reference letter for a variety of reasons that include both employment and personal needs
  107. 107. DO’S OF BUSINESS LETTER Do’s  Remember to use formal language.  Be to the point and straight forward.  Write the letter with polite tone  State your reason for writing the letter.
  108. 108. DON’TS OF BUSINESS LETTER Don’ts  Do not write long and unnecessary statements.  Avoid usage of slangs or messaging language.  If possible business letter should not be handwritten as it does not looks professional.
  109. 109. 9:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS? • SELLING A CAR IS WHICH TYPE OF LETTER? • BUYING A PERSHIBLE FOOD REQUIRES LETTER OR NOT? • THANKING TO SOMEBODY IS WHICH LETTER?
  110. 110. BIODATA • Biodata is biographical data is “...factual kinds of questions about life and work experiences, as well as items involving opinions, values, beliefs, and attitudes that reflect a historical perspective
  111. 111. MEMOS • A memorandum (abbrev.: memo) was from the Latin verbal phrase memorandum , "to mention, call to mind, recount, relate", which means "It must be remembered (that)...". • It is therefore a note, document or other communication that helps the memory by recording events or observations on a topic, such as may be used in a business office
  112. 112. MINUTES • Minutes, also known as protocols or, informally, notes, are the instant written record of a meeting or hearing. • They typically describe the events of the meeting, starting with a list of attendees, a statement of the issues considered by the participants, and related responses or decisions for the issues.
  113. 113. NOTICE • Notice is the legal concept describing a requirement that a party be aware of legal process affecting their rights, obligations or duties.
  114. 114. BUSINESS REPORTS • Business reporting is an essential part of any planning process in the workplace as it consists of providing data and information to specific audiences. Examples of business reports include financial plans, customer service reviews, and marketing research results.
  115. 115. 10:ARE YOU READY FOR QUESTIONS? • ALARM AT 4’O CLOCK IN THE MORNING IS WHAT? • REMEMBER OF BIRTHDAY OF A ANIMAL IS WHAT?
  116. 116. THANK YOU

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