SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Effective
Communication Skills
Both Verbal and Non-Verbal
Dr. Deivasigamani Vasudevan
Agenda
 What is meant by
Communication ?
 Methods of
Communication
 Verbal Communication
 Written Communication
 Visual Communication
 Effective
Communication
Techniques
 Do’s and Don’ts
 Communication
techniques as Introducer
 Body Language
 Listening to Others
 What to do if you forget
what to speak
 Handling Question &
Answer sessions
 Practice Session
 Review & Analysis
 Future Reference
When does human being start
communicating?
 The just born baby starts
communicating with the
world the moment it is
out of the mother’s
womb by crying
 Some say the baby starts
communicating even
before birth by its
movement and kicking
right inside the womb
Communication
 Communication is Life
 Communication is the shift of an Object, a Written
Message, a Spoken Word or an Idea from one person to
other (s)
 The Intention of the communication is that it is
understood, duplicated, attended and responded as the
case may be
Two Way Communication
I Object your
Honor…
Objection
Sustained
I Hope you agree
with me Mr. Ravi…
Sure, I Do..
Taxi…
Yaeh…
This is the best
layout in my
opinion, Madam.
I Think so.
The Conference Hall
is at this side…
Oh, Thank You so
much..
The Communication Process
Mr. Gupta
will see
you now.
Communication Methods
 Verbal Communication
 Direct
 Indirect
 Written Communication
 Visual Communication
 Sight (visible) 75%
 Hearing (audible) 13%
 Feeling (Tactile) 6%
 Smell (olfactory) 3%
 Taste (gustatory) 3%
Direct Verbal Communication
Requirements of this Method are:
 Careful Preparation
 Good Individual Communication and Presentation
skills
 A broad knowledge of the Subject matter
 Ability to control and answer questions or seek
answers
 Credibility with the audience or the group
 The encouragement of Participation and Involvement
Direct Verbal Communication
Its Strengths are:
 Direct Impact on Individuals or the Group
 Permits assessment of reactions and allows discussion and
modification as appropriate
 Permits use of Plain words easily understood by others
 Audience can ask Question and Answers
 Permits the presenter to check the assimilation
 Allows for Reiteration, Recapitulation and Emphasis
 Aids the process of Participation and Involvement
 Can secure the Commitment from Groups and Individuals
Direct Verbal Communication
Its Limitations are:
 Depends upon the Presenters ability to Communicate
effectively
 Uses only one of the senses through which the people
acquire knowledge
 Requires time for preparation carefully in proportion to the
complexity of the subject
 Does not guarantee uniformity of content and Understanding
between groups unless based on a common agenda
 Time Consuming and usually most effective for
small groups
Indirect Verbal Communication
 Internal Broadcasting
System
 Public Address System
 Taped speeches,
conference proceedings
 Translated speeches
 Effectiveness Limited
 Overwhelmed by Noise
 No Guarantee that the
message has been
received by the target-
much less understood
 Inflexible and cannot
adapt to individual
requirement
Written Communication
 The Requirements of the written methods are:
 Ability to Express the message in words clearly and
concisely
 Ability to make the words interesting to read
 Ability to say exactly what is meant, unambiguously
 Sense of ‘Timing’ – Good administrative arrangement for
circulation
 Awareness of Limitations and Deployment in appropriate
situations
Written Communication
 The Strengths of written Communication are:
 Same messages goes to everyone, and consistent
 Speedy delivery and possibility of simultaneous receipt by
everyone
 Capable of reaching large audience
 The reply and feedback can be standardized
 The target can read, understand and respond at a time and
opportunity convenient
Written Communication
 The Limitations of the written methods are:
 Not Everyone chooses to read – no guarantee that the
message has ‘ got through’
 Written words may mean different things to different people
according to vocabulary
 Words may be ambiguous and create confusion and
misunderstanding
 No Opportunity for clarifications; cannot easily asks
questions, get replies or discuss
 Difficult to convey relative importance and Emphasis
 De-personalized communication process
 Reduces sense of Involvement and precludes exchange of
Information and views
Visual Communication
 Films, Audio-Video presentations
 Demonstrations
 Training Sessions, Workshops, Group Discussions
 Flip Charts, Touch Screens, Posters
 Presentations with Visual Aids (Over Head Projector,
LCD projector)
Mistakes to avoid
 Arriving late, leaving early or intermittently
 Exceeding the allotted time when giving presentation
 Not Coming prepared if called on
 Doodling, drumming fingers or yawning
 Being Sarcastic, attacking people rather than ideas,
being unfairly critical
 Not participating or listening effectively
 Going off on tangents
 Engaging in side conversations
 Reading, eating, smoking
 Falling asleep
 Making a mess
Dos and Don’ts: Manner
 Stand and Sit up Straight
 Have Good eye Contact
 Smile
 Keep Feet Still
 Keep Shoulders Relaxed
 Lean Slightly Forward
 Vary Gestures
 Rock back & forth
 Cross your arms
 Fidget
 Make a fist
 Point at any person while
speaking
 Slouch
 Drag or shuffle your feet
 Put Hands on hips
Dos Don’ts
Dos and Don’ts: Dress Code
 Learn the interpretation of
“ Business Casual “ dress
 Make sure the Garment fits
properly and you are
comfortable in it
 Limit or eliminate cologne or
perfume
 Wear limited makeup
 Wear Clean and pressed
clothing
 Ever wear ripped or torn
clothing
 Ever wear tight or revealing
outfits
 Ever wear fancy hats and
caps
 Wear noisy or otherwise
distractive jewelry
 Overdo it on the perfume or
Cologne
Dos Don’ts
Meeting Tools
 Self Introduction: be prepared to Introduce yourself in an
upbeat manner
 Business Cards: carry them with you all the time
 Handshake: firm, not bone crushing or wimpy
 Be Interested: Ask questions, listen and observe surroundings
 Be Interesting: read everything ! Observe the World
 Know Appropriate Talks for Conversation: Weather; Traffic;
Current Events; Travel; Hobbies; Sports; Cultural events;
Movies; Books; Food & Dining; Work
 Phone, email, fax, notes
 Keep in touch- send articles, meet for lunch
 Have a system which you follow diligently
Communication by Example
 People’s general positive attitude and alertness
 The way people conduct themselves at work place
 Adherence to rules, procedures, systems, standard
operations and practices
 Standards of house keeping and hygiene
 The way in which people tend to help others appreciate
and avoid potential problems
 The way in which the people exude enthusiasm, pride
and confidence in themselves and the organization for
which they work
Effective Communication
 It is a two way exercise
 We have two ears and one tongue-could it be we were
meant to listen twice as much as we speak?
 In order to communicate effectively the first step is to
listen to others
 Listen with attention, interest and courtesy
 There must be good affinity between people before any
meaningful communication takes place between them
The Importance of Introductions
 The primary purpose is to gain the audience’s attention
 A secondary purpose is to motivate the audience to
listen
 Let the audience know why it will be useful to them to
listen to the Speaker
 You can also hint publicly to the speaker, how keen
they are to listen to him/her
 Give proper edification to the speaker by stating his
qualifications, experience, organizations served, awards
won and his contributions to the cause and the Society
Introduction Tips
 Know the Speakers name and how to
pronounce it correctly
 Know the Speakers, Title or Position.
Don’t ask for clarifications from the
speaker
 Do not read out the Introduction
from a prepared speech
 Smile and be enthusiastic in tone,
gesture and choice of words
 Know enough about the subject to
sound Knowledgeable
 Announce the speech title as given by
the Speaker
 Introductions are no place to use
slides, OHP and presentations
 Anecdotes are good but should
pertain to the subject and be in
harmony. Avoid Jokes
 Share the outstanding credentials of
the speaker with the audience
 When Introducing a panel of speakers,
also mention the Speaking order,
timings
 Don’t say that the Speaker needs no
Introduction
 Remember you are only a catalyst, not
the performer. Don’t try to overdo
 Do not Dwell on your relationship
with the speaker
 Identify yourself with your name,
position. The Speaker also needs to
know you
When you introduce a speaker…
 Be brief
 Avoid stale phrases
 Get it Right
 Avoid giving the speaker
false starts
 Don’t try to steal the
spotlight
Your purpose as an Introducer is
to help the speaker to get off to a
fast and comfortable start: Answer,
Accurately, Interestingly, and
briefly:
 Why this Subject ?
 Why this Subject before this
audience ?
 Why this Subject, before this
audience at this point of time ?
 Why this Subject before this
audience at this point of time by
this speaker ?
“Ladies and Gentlemen, I present to you (slight pause) Mr. Sunil Kumar Verma”
Listening to others…
 Listen carefully and with an open mind: don’t be defensive, you
may miss a critical point
 End all other Tasks: Show respect to people by putting aside your
paper, lunch etc. and don’t take phone calls unless essential and
urgent
 Allow the Speaker to Finish: Don’t Interrupt; Remain quiet until
you are sure the speaker has completed his or her thoughts
 Read Between the Lines: As you listen to the speaker, listen for
what is left unsaid. You will need to probe
 Outline your Understanding: Once the person finished speaking,
reiterate what you believe the main issues are. State them simply
and if possible rank them in the order of priority
What to do, when you forget what to Say
 Prevention first : rehearse enough
 Use the visuals as road map
 Keep your notes nearby
 Focus your eyes on one person in the audience
 Repeat what you just said
 Ask the audience a open ended question
 Ask for Help
Understanding Body Language
 Watching people’s actions can bring you a lot closer to
the truth than merely listening to what they say
 Body language exhibits a person’s sub-conscious mind
and reveals many secrets
 If you can understand the body language well and
interpret it correctly, you can respond accordingly and
win people
 Effective Communication is therefore incomplete
without understanding the Body Language
Methods of Body language
Importance of Body language
 Only a small percentage of communication involves actual
words: 7%. In fact, 55% of communication is visual (body
language, eye contact) and 38% is vocal (pitch, speed, volume,
tone of voice).
 The human body can produce over 700,000 unique movements.
These movements have been partitioned into about 60 discrete
and symbolic signals and around 60 gestures, postures, and
expressions.
 Body language can be used to improve your negotiation skills,
your presentation ability, and in different social interactions,
including a client meeting or job interview.
 To succeed over other confronts, you must be attentive to what
silent body gestures you are giving off, you also need to be aware
of the other person’s body language.
Physical Aspects of
Non-Verbal Communication
Body Language
Brisk Erect Walk
Confidence
Body Language
Standing with hands
on the hips
Readiness, Aggression
Body Language
Sitting with Legs crossed,
foot kicking slightly
Boredom
Body Language
Armed Crossed on chest
Defensiveness
Body Language
Walking with hands in
Pocket, shoulders
hunched
Dejection
Body Language
Hand to Cheek
Evaluation
Thinking
Body Language
Touching,
Slightly rubbing nose
Rejection
Doubt
Lying
Body Language
Rubbing the eyes
Doubt
Disbelief
Body Language
Hands clasped
behind back
Apprehension
Anger, Frustration
Body Language
Locked ankles
Apprehension
Body Language
Head resting in hands,
eyes downcast
Boredom
Body Language
Rubbing Hands
Anticipation
Body Language
Sitting with hands clasped
behind head, legs crossed
Confidence
Superiority
Body Language
Open Palm
Sincerity
Openness
Innocence
Body Language
Pinching Bridge of Nose
Eyes Closed
Negative Evaluation
Common Fears
 Fear of Fainting:
 Fear of boring
your audience
 Fear of your
mind going
blank
 Fear of being
Judged
 Unless you have a medical problem,
this is quite unlikely
 Show Enthusiasm. If you are happy to
be there, so will be your audience
 This can happen. Pause, look at your
notes or outline, pick up where you
left off
 A Sincere presenter doing his or her
job best, who is obviously well
prepared will not be judged harshly
Three Basic rules to control Fear: (i) Arrive Early. This will give you a chance to relax, survey
your surroundings and get comfortable (ii) Eat Lightly: Avoid heavy meals, no alcohol; avoid
stomach upsets (iii) Try simple stretching exercises, which can be done anywhere
Effective Communication
Techniques
 Know your Purpose, Audience and Logistics
 Plan, Prepare and Practice
 Limit the presentation material based on time or
audience interest
 Hit the emotional button where necessary
 Create user friendly notes
 Practice Loudly as many times as you can
 Be enthusiastic but don’t get excited
 Deliver with Passion
 Anticipate Questions and prepare Answers
 Avoid Speaking out of Ego, be audience focused
Techniques of Good Speech
 Make an Impression: do some thing, say anything to captivate
the audience’s attention, create an everlasting Impression
 Repeat and reiterate as necessary: first you tell them what you are
going to tell them and then you tell them what you told them
 Draw a Sign: Tell the audience the important point is…
 Draw a Picture: to make the speech more memorable
 Use apt Jokes: to grab the attention of the audience and relieve
the tension
 Make a Plain Speech: yes, be simple and straight forward
 Be short and sweet: crystallize your thoughts and combine with
the main message and deliver in few words
 Use Narratives, anecdotes, small stories: to strengthen your point
 Be Relaxed: don’t get nervous ever
What to Avoid while Speaking ?
 Avoid Superlatives:
 ‘This is absolutely and positively essential’- This is essential
 ‘This is true beyond any possible shadow of doubt’- This is true
 Avoid Trite expressions:
 “As you can see”; “I would like to take few minutes”;
“Throughout the length and breadth of this land”
 Avoid Groping Expressions:
 “ What I am trying to get to say is…”
 Avoid Repetitious Expressions:
 “As I said before”; “so on so forth”; “etc, etc”
 Avoid Weasel Words:
 “ Of Course it is only my opinion:”; “more or less”; “It seems to me”
Handling Q&A sessions…
 Tell the audience when you and how you will take the questions
 Listen to the Question carefully and paraphrase before you respond
 Look at the Questioner when paraphrasing the Question, but look at
the audience while answering
 Call on Experts in the audience when appropriate, but take back
control after they have responded
 Set a time limit to control hostile questioners
 Tell those with multiple questions that are not relevant to the entire
group that you will respond to those at the end of the session
 Don’t let the stage hog steal the control from you
 Don’t tell a lie. If you don’t know the Answer, say so
 Handle hostile Questions carefully
 Conclude the Q & A session with a strong closing remark
Handling Interruptions
 Use of pagers and Mobile phones
 Interruption by Telephone calls
 Interruption by Sub-ordinates & Superiors
 Questions in the middle of the presentation
 Late comers
 People leaving in the middle of the presentation
 Disinterested people
 Talking on the Sidelines
Thank you…
mail@dvasudevan.com

More Related Content

What's hot

Communication
Communication Communication
Communication
Syed Shah
 
Communication skills ppt
Communication skills pptCommunication skills ppt
Communication skills ppt
Ketan T Bhatt (KT)
 
Communication Skills
Communication SkillsCommunication Skills
Communication Skills
pankaj kumar
 
Communication skill
Communication skillCommunication skill
Communication skill
coolarvindarora
 
Communication skills
Communication skillsCommunication skills
Communication skills
Jamshaid Iqbal
 
Effective communication
Effective communicationEffective communication
Effective communication
Abdalla Ibrahim
 
Communication skills PowerPoint presentation
Communication skills PowerPoint presentationCommunication skills PowerPoint presentation
Communication skills PowerPoint presentation
SULTANAJAMIL1
 
Effective communication Skills for Everyone
Effective communication Skills for EveryoneEffective communication Skills for Everyone
Effective communication Skills for Everyone
Today Indya
 
Listening skills
Listening skills Listening skills
Listening skills
Arvind Rai
 
Effective communication in the workplace
Effective communication in the workplaceEffective communication in the workplace
Effective communication in the workplace
David Giard
 
Improving your communication skills
Improving your communication skillsImproving your communication skills
Improving your communication skills
Nicole Oldham
 
Email Etiquette PPT
Email Etiquette PPTEmail Etiquette PPT
Email Etiquette PPT
Erin Orstrom
 
Oral Communication
Oral   CommunicationOral   Communication
Oral Communication
Paramjit Kaur
 
Effective communication in the work place
Effective communication in the work placeEffective communication in the work place
Effective communication in the work place
Celeretaudax
 
Effective comunication
Effective comunicationEffective comunication
Effective comunication
Zack Pratchawin
 
Soft skill enhancement presentation
Soft skill enhancement presentationSoft skill enhancement presentation
Soft skill enhancement presentation
Eclipse Techno Consulting Global (P) Ltd
 
Basic communication skills
Basic communication skillsBasic communication skills
Basic communication skills
Imprint Training Center
 
Business phone etiquette
Business phone etiquetteBusiness phone etiquette
Business phone etiquette
Shanellea Mclaggon
 
Effective Communication
Effective CommunicationEffective Communication
Effective Communication
Ajay
 
Business communication
Business communicationBusiness communication
Business communication
Arvind Rai
 

What's hot (20)

Communication
Communication Communication
Communication
 
Communication skills ppt
Communication skills pptCommunication skills ppt
Communication skills ppt
 
Communication Skills
Communication SkillsCommunication Skills
Communication Skills
 
Communication skill
Communication skillCommunication skill
Communication skill
 
Communication skills
Communication skillsCommunication skills
Communication skills
 
Effective communication
Effective communicationEffective communication
Effective communication
 
Communication skills PowerPoint presentation
Communication skills PowerPoint presentationCommunication skills PowerPoint presentation
Communication skills PowerPoint presentation
 
Effective communication Skills for Everyone
Effective communication Skills for EveryoneEffective communication Skills for Everyone
Effective communication Skills for Everyone
 
Listening skills
Listening skills Listening skills
Listening skills
 
Effective communication in the workplace
Effective communication in the workplaceEffective communication in the workplace
Effective communication in the workplace
 
Improving your communication skills
Improving your communication skillsImproving your communication skills
Improving your communication skills
 
Email Etiquette PPT
Email Etiquette PPTEmail Etiquette PPT
Email Etiquette PPT
 
Oral Communication
Oral   CommunicationOral   Communication
Oral Communication
 
Effective communication in the work place
Effective communication in the work placeEffective communication in the work place
Effective communication in the work place
 
Effective comunication
Effective comunicationEffective comunication
Effective comunication
 
Soft skill enhancement presentation
Soft skill enhancement presentationSoft skill enhancement presentation
Soft skill enhancement presentation
 
Basic communication skills
Basic communication skillsBasic communication skills
Basic communication skills
 
Business phone etiquette
Business phone etiquetteBusiness phone etiquette
Business phone etiquette
 
Effective Communication
Effective CommunicationEffective Communication
Effective Communication
 
Business communication
Business communicationBusiness communication
Business communication
 

Similar to Effective communication skills- introduction

Communication23
Communication23Communication23
Communication23
rajiv mittal
 
Communication Presentation
Communication PresentationCommunication Presentation
Communication Presentation
Malika Haddad
 
Effective communication skills hr
Effective communication skills hrEffective communication skills hr
Effective communication skills hr
Navin Roy
 
Soft skills & effective communication skills
Soft skills & effective communication skillsSoft skills & effective communication skills
Soft skills & effective communication skills
Shashank Shekhar
 
Soft skills and effective communication skills
Soft skills and  effective communication skillsSoft skills and  effective communication skills
Soft skills and effective communication skills
Shashank Shekhar
 
Oral communication
Oral communicationOral communication
Oral communication
Gaurav Muliya
 
Role Of Communication In Financial Planning
Role Of Communication In Financial PlanningRole Of Communication In Financial Planning
Role Of Communication In Financial Planning
Sunil Kumar
 
Effective communication skills
Effective communication skillsEffective communication skills
Effective communication skills
Seyid Kadher
 
250455473-EFFECTIVE-COMMUNICATION-SKILLS-ppt.ppt
250455473-EFFECTIVE-COMMUNICATION-SKILLS-ppt.ppt250455473-EFFECTIVE-COMMUNICATION-SKILLS-ppt.ppt
250455473-EFFECTIVE-COMMUNICATION-SKILLS-ppt.ppt
drneerajbhandari
 
F-Effective communication.ppt
F-Effective communication.pptF-Effective communication.ppt
F-Effective communication.ppt
Mujahid71
 
Strategies for Successful Speaking.pptx
Strategies for Successful Speaking.pptxStrategies for Successful Speaking.pptx
Strategies for Successful Speaking.pptx
USMAN ZAFAR
 
Communication and art of listening
Communication and art of listening Communication and art of listening
Communication and art of listening
gayathri2srcm
 
Listening Skills
Listening SkillsListening Skills
Listening Skills
Susan Lozano
 
Building relation listening nursing 2010 2011
Building relation listening  nursing 2010 2011Building relation listening  nursing 2010 2011
Building relation listening nursing 2010 2011
hawrazfaris
 
Communication skills
Communication skillsCommunication skills
Communication skills
abhi23agrawal
 
Facilitation and Media Interviews
Facilitation and Media InterviewsFacilitation and Media Interviews
Facilitation and Media Interviews
Sanjana Hattotuwa
 
6 Interpersonal Comm
6 Interpersonal Comm6 Interpersonal Comm
6 Interpersonal Comm
Deepak
 
Communication skills
Communication skillsCommunication skills
Communication skills
Suva Rastafarian
 
Communication and Presentation Skills cpf.ppt
Communication and Presentation Skills cpf.pptCommunication and Presentation Skills cpf.ppt
Communication and Presentation Skills cpf.ppt
Uday Kumar
 
Communication Skills
Communication SkillsCommunication Skills
Communication Skills
Abdul Rahim
 

Similar to Effective communication skills- introduction (20)

Communication23
Communication23Communication23
Communication23
 
Communication Presentation
Communication PresentationCommunication Presentation
Communication Presentation
 
Effective communication skills hr
Effective communication skills hrEffective communication skills hr
Effective communication skills hr
 
Soft skills & effective communication skills
Soft skills & effective communication skillsSoft skills & effective communication skills
Soft skills & effective communication skills
 
Soft skills and effective communication skills
Soft skills and  effective communication skillsSoft skills and  effective communication skills
Soft skills and effective communication skills
 
Oral communication
Oral communicationOral communication
Oral communication
 
Role Of Communication In Financial Planning
Role Of Communication In Financial PlanningRole Of Communication In Financial Planning
Role Of Communication In Financial Planning
 
Effective communication skills
Effective communication skillsEffective communication skills
Effective communication skills
 
250455473-EFFECTIVE-COMMUNICATION-SKILLS-ppt.ppt
250455473-EFFECTIVE-COMMUNICATION-SKILLS-ppt.ppt250455473-EFFECTIVE-COMMUNICATION-SKILLS-ppt.ppt
250455473-EFFECTIVE-COMMUNICATION-SKILLS-ppt.ppt
 
F-Effective communication.ppt
F-Effective communication.pptF-Effective communication.ppt
F-Effective communication.ppt
 
Strategies for Successful Speaking.pptx
Strategies for Successful Speaking.pptxStrategies for Successful Speaking.pptx
Strategies for Successful Speaking.pptx
 
Communication and art of listening
Communication and art of listening Communication and art of listening
Communication and art of listening
 
Listening Skills
Listening SkillsListening Skills
Listening Skills
 
Building relation listening nursing 2010 2011
Building relation listening  nursing 2010 2011Building relation listening  nursing 2010 2011
Building relation listening nursing 2010 2011
 
Communication skills
Communication skillsCommunication skills
Communication skills
 
Facilitation and Media Interviews
Facilitation and Media InterviewsFacilitation and Media Interviews
Facilitation and Media Interviews
 
6 Interpersonal Comm
6 Interpersonal Comm6 Interpersonal Comm
6 Interpersonal Comm
 
Communication skills
Communication skillsCommunication skills
Communication skills
 
Communication and Presentation Skills cpf.ppt
Communication and Presentation Skills cpf.pptCommunication and Presentation Skills cpf.ppt
Communication and Presentation Skills cpf.ppt
 
Communication Skills
Communication SkillsCommunication Skills
Communication Skills
 

Recently uploaded

Resume Psychologly Beat the Machine Be Seen Get Hired Overview 2024.pdf
Resume Psychologly Beat the Machine Be Seen Get Hired Overview 2024.pdfResume Psychologly Beat the Machine Be Seen Get Hired Overview 2024.pdf
Resume Psychologly Beat the Machine Be Seen Get Hired Overview 2024.pdf
Dirk Spencer Corporate Recruiter LION
 
_Earn through worldwide Online Writing Jobs .pdf
_Earn through worldwide Online Writing Jobs .pdf_Earn through worldwide Online Writing Jobs .pdf
_Earn through worldwide Online Writing Jobs .pdf
DEEPENDRA MERADEV
 
The Power of PM Job Search Councils | PMISSC Info Session | July 12, 2024.pdf
The Power of PM Job Search Councils | PMISSC Info Session | July 12, 2024.pdfThe Power of PM Job Search Councils | PMISSC Info Session | July 12, 2024.pdf
The Power of PM Job Search Councils | PMISSC Info Session | July 12, 2024.pdf
Hector Del Castillo, CPM, CPMM
 
Explore AI in Entertainment|ashokveda.pdf
Explore AI in Entertainment|ashokveda.pdfExplore AI in Entertainment|ashokveda.pdf
Explore AI in Entertainment|ashokveda.pdf
df2608021
 
Success in the Academic Job Market for Management Scholars
Success in the Academic Job Market for Management ScholarsSuccess in the Academic Job Market for Management Scholars
Success in the Academic Job Market for Management Scholars
MagdalenaPlesa1
 
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And N...
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And N...Busty Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And N...
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And N...
norina2645
 
New Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
New Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...New Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
New Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
bellared2
 
Essential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdf
Essential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdfEssential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdf
Essential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdf
df2608021
 
Busty Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Ava...
Busty Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Ava...Busty Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Ava...
Busty Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Ava...
ginni singh$A17
 
LinkedIn - Strategic Guidelines July 2024
LinkedIn - Strategic Guidelines July 2024LinkedIn - Strategic Guidelines July 2024
LinkedIn - Strategic Guidelines July 2024
Bruce Bennett
 
UI-UX-design-course-brochure-new 2024.pdf
UI-UX-design-course-brochure-new 2024.pdfUI-UX-design-course-brochure-new 2024.pdf
UI-UX-design-course-brochure-new 2024.pdf
EDIT Institute
 
LinkedIn for You Job Search Webinar July 2024
LinkedIn for You Job Search Webinar July 2024LinkedIn for You Job Search Webinar July 2024
LinkedIn for You Job Search Webinar July 2024
Bruce Bennett
 
Understanding the Types of Data in Data Science|ashokveda.pdf
Understanding the Types of Data in Data Science|ashokveda.pdfUnderstanding the Types of Data in Data Science|ashokveda.pdf
Understanding the Types of Data in Data Science|ashokveda.pdf
df2608021
 
Pune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Cash Payment Booking No advance
Pune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Cash Payment Booking No advancePune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Cash Payment Booking No advance
Pune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Cash Payment Booking No advance
chaddanishu186
 
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
3610stuck
 
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
susmagarg02
 
api 571 damage mechanisim for the industry
api 571 damage mechanisim for the industryapi 571 damage mechanisim for the industry
api 571 damage mechanisim for the industry
Ahmed Attyub
 
Dating Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Dating Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...Dating Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Dating Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Ak47
 
Certified Information Technology Professional CITP.pdf
Certified Information Technology Professional CITP.pdfCertified Information Technology Professional CITP.pdf
Certified Information Technology Professional CITP.pdf
GAFM ACADEMY
 
Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...
Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...
Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...
87tomato
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Resume Psychologly Beat the Machine Be Seen Get Hired Overview 2024.pdf
Resume Psychologly Beat the Machine Be Seen Get Hired Overview 2024.pdfResume Psychologly Beat the Machine Be Seen Get Hired Overview 2024.pdf
Resume Psychologly Beat the Machine Be Seen Get Hired Overview 2024.pdf
 
_Earn through worldwide Online Writing Jobs .pdf
_Earn through worldwide Online Writing Jobs .pdf_Earn through worldwide Online Writing Jobs .pdf
_Earn through worldwide Online Writing Jobs .pdf
 
The Power of PM Job Search Councils | PMISSC Info Session | July 12, 2024.pdf
The Power of PM Job Search Councils | PMISSC Info Session | July 12, 2024.pdfThe Power of PM Job Search Councils | PMISSC Info Session | July 12, 2024.pdf
The Power of PM Job Search Councils | PMISSC Info Session | July 12, 2024.pdf
 
Explore AI in Entertainment|ashokveda.pdf
Explore AI in Entertainment|ashokveda.pdfExplore AI in Entertainment|ashokveda.pdf
Explore AI in Entertainment|ashokveda.pdf
 
Success in the Academic Job Market for Management Scholars
Success in the Academic Job Market for Management ScholarsSuccess in the Academic Job Market for Management Scholars
Success in the Academic Job Market for Management Scholars
 
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And N...
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And N...Busty Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And N...
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And N...
 
New Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
New Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...New Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
New Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
 
Essential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdf
Essential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdfEssential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdf
Essential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdf
 
Busty Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Ava...
Busty Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Ava...Busty Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Ava...
Busty Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Ava...
 
LinkedIn - Strategic Guidelines July 2024
LinkedIn - Strategic Guidelines July 2024LinkedIn - Strategic Guidelines July 2024
LinkedIn - Strategic Guidelines July 2024
 
UI-UX-design-course-brochure-new 2024.pdf
UI-UX-design-course-brochure-new 2024.pdfUI-UX-design-course-brochure-new 2024.pdf
UI-UX-design-course-brochure-new 2024.pdf
 
LinkedIn for You Job Search Webinar July 2024
LinkedIn for You Job Search Webinar July 2024LinkedIn for You Job Search Webinar July 2024
LinkedIn for You Job Search Webinar July 2024
 
Understanding the Types of Data in Data Science|ashokveda.pdf
Understanding the Types of Data in Data Science|ashokveda.pdfUnderstanding the Types of Data in Data Science|ashokveda.pdf
Understanding the Types of Data in Data Science|ashokveda.pdf
 
Pune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Cash Payment Booking No advance
Pune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Cash Payment Booking No advancePune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Cash Payment Booking No advance
Pune Girls call Service 000XX00000 Cash Payment Booking No advance
 
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
 
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
 
api 571 damage mechanisim for the industry
api 571 damage mechanisim for the industryapi 571 damage mechanisim for the industry
api 571 damage mechanisim for the industry
 
Dating Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Dating Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...Dating Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Dating Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
 
Certified Information Technology Professional CITP.pdf
Certified Information Technology Professional CITP.pdfCertified Information Technology Professional CITP.pdf
Certified Information Technology Professional CITP.pdf
 
Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...
Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...
Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...
 

Effective communication skills- introduction

  • 1. Effective Communication Skills Both Verbal and Non-Verbal Dr. Deivasigamani Vasudevan
  • 2. Agenda  What is meant by Communication ?  Methods of Communication  Verbal Communication  Written Communication  Visual Communication  Effective Communication Techniques  Do’s and Don’ts  Communication techniques as Introducer  Body Language  Listening to Others  What to do if you forget what to speak  Handling Question & Answer sessions  Practice Session  Review & Analysis  Future Reference
  • 3. When does human being start communicating?  The just born baby starts communicating with the world the moment it is out of the mother’s womb by crying  Some say the baby starts communicating even before birth by its movement and kicking right inside the womb
  • 4. Communication  Communication is Life  Communication is the shift of an Object, a Written Message, a Spoken Word or an Idea from one person to other (s)  The Intention of the communication is that it is understood, duplicated, attended and responded as the case may be
  • 5. Two Way Communication I Object your Honor… Objection Sustained I Hope you agree with me Mr. Ravi… Sure, I Do.. Taxi… Yaeh… This is the best layout in my opinion, Madam. I Think so. The Conference Hall is at this side… Oh, Thank You so much..
  • 6. The Communication Process Mr. Gupta will see you now.
  • 7. Communication Methods  Verbal Communication  Direct  Indirect  Written Communication  Visual Communication  Sight (visible) 75%  Hearing (audible) 13%  Feeling (Tactile) 6%  Smell (olfactory) 3%  Taste (gustatory) 3%
  • 8. Direct Verbal Communication Requirements of this Method are:  Careful Preparation  Good Individual Communication and Presentation skills  A broad knowledge of the Subject matter  Ability to control and answer questions or seek answers  Credibility with the audience or the group  The encouragement of Participation and Involvement
  • 9. Direct Verbal Communication Its Strengths are:  Direct Impact on Individuals or the Group  Permits assessment of reactions and allows discussion and modification as appropriate  Permits use of Plain words easily understood by others  Audience can ask Question and Answers  Permits the presenter to check the assimilation  Allows for Reiteration, Recapitulation and Emphasis  Aids the process of Participation and Involvement  Can secure the Commitment from Groups and Individuals
  • 10. Direct Verbal Communication Its Limitations are:  Depends upon the Presenters ability to Communicate effectively  Uses only one of the senses through which the people acquire knowledge  Requires time for preparation carefully in proportion to the complexity of the subject  Does not guarantee uniformity of content and Understanding between groups unless based on a common agenda  Time Consuming and usually most effective for small groups
  • 11. Indirect Verbal Communication  Internal Broadcasting System  Public Address System  Taped speeches, conference proceedings  Translated speeches  Effectiveness Limited  Overwhelmed by Noise  No Guarantee that the message has been received by the target- much less understood  Inflexible and cannot adapt to individual requirement
  • 12. Written Communication  The Requirements of the written methods are:  Ability to Express the message in words clearly and concisely  Ability to make the words interesting to read  Ability to say exactly what is meant, unambiguously  Sense of ‘Timing’ – Good administrative arrangement for circulation  Awareness of Limitations and Deployment in appropriate situations
  • 13. Written Communication  The Strengths of written Communication are:  Same messages goes to everyone, and consistent  Speedy delivery and possibility of simultaneous receipt by everyone  Capable of reaching large audience  The reply and feedback can be standardized  The target can read, understand and respond at a time and opportunity convenient
  • 14. Written Communication  The Limitations of the written methods are:  Not Everyone chooses to read – no guarantee that the message has ‘ got through’  Written words may mean different things to different people according to vocabulary  Words may be ambiguous and create confusion and misunderstanding  No Opportunity for clarifications; cannot easily asks questions, get replies or discuss  Difficult to convey relative importance and Emphasis  De-personalized communication process  Reduces sense of Involvement and precludes exchange of Information and views
  • 15. Visual Communication  Films, Audio-Video presentations  Demonstrations  Training Sessions, Workshops, Group Discussions  Flip Charts, Touch Screens, Posters  Presentations with Visual Aids (Over Head Projector, LCD projector)
  • 16. Mistakes to avoid  Arriving late, leaving early or intermittently  Exceeding the allotted time when giving presentation  Not Coming prepared if called on  Doodling, drumming fingers or yawning  Being Sarcastic, attacking people rather than ideas, being unfairly critical  Not participating or listening effectively  Going off on tangents  Engaging in side conversations  Reading, eating, smoking  Falling asleep  Making a mess
  • 17. Dos and Don’ts: Manner  Stand and Sit up Straight  Have Good eye Contact  Smile  Keep Feet Still  Keep Shoulders Relaxed  Lean Slightly Forward  Vary Gestures  Rock back & forth  Cross your arms  Fidget  Make a fist  Point at any person while speaking  Slouch  Drag or shuffle your feet  Put Hands on hips Dos Don’ts
  • 18. Dos and Don’ts: Dress Code  Learn the interpretation of “ Business Casual “ dress  Make sure the Garment fits properly and you are comfortable in it  Limit or eliminate cologne or perfume  Wear limited makeup  Wear Clean and pressed clothing  Ever wear ripped or torn clothing  Ever wear tight or revealing outfits  Ever wear fancy hats and caps  Wear noisy or otherwise distractive jewelry  Overdo it on the perfume or Cologne Dos Don’ts
  • 19. Meeting Tools  Self Introduction: be prepared to Introduce yourself in an upbeat manner  Business Cards: carry them with you all the time  Handshake: firm, not bone crushing or wimpy  Be Interested: Ask questions, listen and observe surroundings  Be Interesting: read everything ! Observe the World  Know Appropriate Talks for Conversation: Weather; Traffic; Current Events; Travel; Hobbies; Sports; Cultural events; Movies; Books; Food & Dining; Work  Phone, email, fax, notes  Keep in touch- send articles, meet for lunch  Have a system which you follow diligently
  • 20. Communication by Example  People’s general positive attitude and alertness  The way people conduct themselves at work place  Adherence to rules, procedures, systems, standard operations and practices  Standards of house keeping and hygiene  The way in which people tend to help others appreciate and avoid potential problems  The way in which the people exude enthusiasm, pride and confidence in themselves and the organization for which they work
  • 21. Effective Communication  It is a two way exercise  We have two ears and one tongue-could it be we were meant to listen twice as much as we speak?  In order to communicate effectively the first step is to listen to others  Listen with attention, interest and courtesy  There must be good affinity between people before any meaningful communication takes place between them
  • 22. The Importance of Introductions  The primary purpose is to gain the audience’s attention  A secondary purpose is to motivate the audience to listen  Let the audience know why it will be useful to them to listen to the Speaker  You can also hint publicly to the speaker, how keen they are to listen to him/her  Give proper edification to the speaker by stating his qualifications, experience, organizations served, awards won and his contributions to the cause and the Society
  • 23. Introduction Tips  Know the Speakers name and how to pronounce it correctly  Know the Speakers, Title or Position. Don’t ask for clarifications from the speaker  Do not read out the Introduction from a prepared speech  Smile and be enthusiastic in tone, gesture and choice of words  Know enough about the subject to sound Knowledgeable  Announce the speech title as given by the Speaker  Introductions are no place to use slides, OHP and presentations  Anecdotes are good but should pertain to the subject and be in harmony. Avoid Jokes  Share the outstanding credentials of the speaker with the audience  When Introducing a panel of speakers, also mention the Speaking order, timings  Don’t say that the Speaker needs no Introduction  Remember you are only a catalyst, not the performer. Don’t try to overdo  Do not Dwell on your relationship with the speaker  Identify yourself with your name, position. The Speaker also needs to know you
  • 24. When you introduce a speaker…  Be brief  Avoid stale phrases  Get it Right  Avoid giving the speaker false starts  Don’t try to steal the spotlight Your purpose as an Introducer is to help the speaker to get off to a fast and comfortable start: Answer, Accurately, Interestingly, and briefly:  Why this Subject ?  Why this Subject before this audience ?  Why this Subject, before this audience at this point of time ?  Why this Subject before this audience at this point of time by this speaker ? “Ladies and Gentlemen, I present to you (slight pause) Mr. Sunil Kumar Verma”
  • 25. Listening to others…  Listen carefully and with an open mind: don’t be defensive, you may miss a critical point  End all other Tasks: Show respect to people by putting aside your paper, lunch etc. and don’t take phone calls unless essential and urgent  Allow the Speaker to Finish: Don’t Interrupt; Remain quiet until you are sure the speaker has completed his or her thoughts  Read Between the Lines: As you listen to the speaker, listen for what is left unsaid. You will need to probe  Outline your Understanding: Once the person finished speaking, reiterate what you believe the main issues are. State them simply and if possible rank them in the order of priority
  • 26. What to do, when you forget what to Say  Prevention first : rehearse enough  Use the visuals as road map  Keep your notes nearby  Focus your eyes on one person in the audience  Repeat what you just said  Ask the audience a open ended question  Ask for Help
  • 27. Understanding Body Language  Watching people’s actions can bring you a lot closer to the truth than merely listening to what they say  Body language exhibits a person’s sub-conscious mind and reveals many secrets  If you can understand the body language well and interpret it correctly, you can respond accordingly and win people  Effective Communication is therefore incomplete without understanding the Body Language
  • 28. Methods of Body language
  • 29. Importance of Body language  Only a small percentage of communication involves actual words: 7%. In fact, 55% of communication is visual (body language, eye contact) and 38% is vocal (pitch, speed, volume, tone of voice).  The human body can produce over 700,000 unique movements. These movements have been partitioned into about 60 discrete and symbolic signals and around 60 gestures, postures, and expressions.  Body language can be used to improve your negotiation skills, your presentation ability, and in different social interactions, including a client meeting or job interview.  To succeed over other confronts, you must be attentive to what silent body gestures you are giving off, you also need to be aware of the other person’s body language.
  • 31. Body Language Brisk Erect Walk Confidence
  • 32. Body Language Standing with hands on the hips Readiness, Aggression
  • 33. Body Language Sitting with Legs crossed, foot kicking slightly Boredom
  • 34. Body Language Armed Crossed on chest Defensiveness
  • 35. Body Language Walking with hands in Pocket, shoulders hunched Dejection
  • 36. Body Language Hand to Cheek Evaluation Thinking
  • 37. Body Language Touching, Slightly rubbing nose Rejection Doubt Lying
  • 38. Body Language Rubbing the eyes Doubt Disbelief
  • 39. Body Language Hands clasped behind back Apprehension Anger, Frustration
  • 41. Body Language Head resting in hands, eyes downcast Boredom
  • 43. Body Language Sitting with hands clasped behind head, legs crossed Confidence Superiority
  • 45. Body Language Pinching Bridge of Nose Eyes Closed Negative Evaluation
  • 46. Common Fears  Fear of Fainting:  Fear of boring your audience  Fear of your mind going blank  Fear of being Judged  Unless you have a medical problem, this is quite unlikely  Show Enthusiasm. If you are happy to be there, so will be your audience  This can happen. Pause, look at your notes or outline, pick up where you left off  A Sincere presenter doing his or her job best, who is obviously well prepared will not be judged harshly Three Basic rules to control Fear: (i) Arrive Early. This will give you a chance to relax, survey your surroundings and get comfortable (ii) Eat Lightly: Avoid heavy meals, no alcohol; avoid stomach upsets (iii) Try simple stretching exercises, which can be done anywhere
  • 47. Effective Communication Techniques  Know your Purpose, Audience and Logistics  Plan, Prepare and Practice  Limit the presentation material based on time or audience interest  Hit the emotional button where necessary  Create user friendly notes  Practice Loudly as many times as you can  Be enthusiastic but don’t get excited  Deliver with Passion  Anticipate Questions and prepare Answers  Avoid Speaking out of Ego, be audience focused
  • 48. Techniques of Good Speech  Make an Impression: do some thing, say anything to captivate the audience’s attention, create an everlasting Impression  Repeat and reiterate as necessary: first you tell them what you are going to tell them and then you tell them what you told them  Draw a Sign: Tell the audience the important point is…  Draw a Picture: to make the speech more memorable  Use apt Jokes: to grab the attention of the audience and relieve the tension  Make a Plain Speech: yes, be simple and straight forward  Be short and sweet: crystallize your thoughts and combine with the main message and deliver in few words  Use Narratives, anecdotes, small stories: to strengthen your point  Be Relaxed: don’t get nervous ever
  • 49. What to Avoid while Speaking ?  Avoid Superlatives:  ‘This is absolutely and positively essential’- This is essential  ‘This is true beyond any possible shadow of doubt’- This is true  Avoid Trite expressions:  “As you can see”; “I would like to take few minutes”; “Throughout the length and breadth of this land”  Avoid Groping Expressions:  “ What I am trying to get to say is…”  Avoid Repetitious Expressions:  “As I said before”; “so on so forth”; “etc, etc”  Avoid Weasel Words:  “ Of Course it is only my opinion:”; “more or less”; “It seems to me”
  • 50. Handling Q&A sessions…  Tell the audience when you and how you will take the questions  Listen to the Question carefully and paraphrase before you respond  Look at the Questioner when paraphrasing the Question, but look at the audience while answering  Call on Experts in the audience when appropriate, but take back control after they have responded  Set a time limit to control hostile questioners  Tell those with multiple questions that are not relevant to the entire group that you will respond to those at the end of the session  Don’t let the stage hog steal the control from you  Don’t tell a lie. If you don’t know the Answer, say so  Handle hostile Questions carefully  Conclude the Q & A session with a strong closing remark
  • 51. Handling Interruptions  Use of pagers and Mobile phones  Interruption by Telephone calls  Interruption by Sub-ordinates & Superiors  Questions in the middle of the presentation  Late comers  People leaving in the middle of the presentation  Disinterested people  Talking on the Sidelines