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The ummayids 8 march slides

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The ummayids 8 march slides

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The ummayids 8 march slides

  1. 1. ISLAMIC HISTORY The Umayyids Syed Sajjadur Rahman 8 March 2015
  2. 2. Significant periods Year (AD) 570-632 The Prophet (pbuh) 632 - 661 The Khalifas 661-750 The Umayyids 751-983 The Abbasids 984-1289 The Seljuks and the Fatimids 1290-1918 The Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals
  3. 3. Khalifa: Definition  A Khalifa is the successor (in a line of successors) to Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) position as the political, military, and administrative leader of the Muslims.  The prophetic role of the Rasul-Allah (pbuh) is strictly not included in this definition, as the Qur'an and Hadith clearly state that He (pbuh) was the last of the prophets.
  4. 4. The Khalifas (632- 661): Conclusions  Humility and Simplicity  Complete Commitment to the Quran and the Sunnah  Preserve, Consolidate and Expand the islamic Empire  Eventually captive of power and wealth  Parochial interests – Bani Hashim, Bani Shams  Political expediency  The Prophet (pbuh) , "Once the sword is unsheathed among my followers, it will not be sheathed until the Last Day."
  5. 5. The Umayyids: Origins pbuh
  6. 6. The Fitnas (civil wars)  Rise and decline of the Umayyids can be traced to three fitnas  First Fitna: following the assassination of Uthman (ra)  Second Fitna: The rise of Marwan  Third Fitna: The rise of the Abbasids
  7. 7. The Umayyid Dynasties  The Sufyanids (661-680)  Muwayiya  Yazid  The Marwanids (681-756)  Marwan 1 ibn Al Hakam  Abd al Malik ibn Marwan  Al Walid Ibn Abd Al Malik  Emirs of Cordoba (756-929)  Abd al- Rahman I  Abd al-Rahman II  Khalifas of Cordoba (929-1017)  Abd al-Rahman III  Al-Hakak  Sulayman al-Hakam
  8. 8. The Spread of Islam 622-750 AD
  9. 9. Conclusions and Legacy  First Muslim Dynasty: transformed the caliphate from a religious institution to a dynastic one.  Created the largest empire at the time – primarily for military and political reasons  Administrative Structures:  Shift from Medina to Damascus  Revenue, Postal and Justice systems  Arabaization – language, coinage  Construction of the Dome of the Rock
  10. 10. Conclusions and Legacy  Social Organization: Four main social classes:  Muslim Arabs  Muslim non-Arabs (clients of the Muslim Arabs)  Non-Muslim free persons (Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians)  Slaves  Khalifat Rasul Allah or Khalifat Allah ?

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