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The Virtues of Science in the Holy Quran Part-2

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The Virtues of Science in the Holy Quran Part-2
পবিত্র কুরআনে বিজ্ঞানের ফজিলত
Mohammed Badruz Zaman
January 20, 2018

Published in: Science
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The Virtues of Science in the Holy Quran Part-2

  1. 1. The Virtues of Science in the Holy Quran Part-2 পবিত্র কুরআনে বিজ্ঞানের ফবিলত Mohammed Badruz Zaman January 20, 2018
  2. 2. Allah mentioned in Surah Al-Rum, Verse 58: َ‫ث‬َ‫م‬ ِ‫ل‬ُ‫ك‬ ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ِ‫آن‬ ْ‫ر‬ُ‫ق‬ْ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬ََٰ‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬ ِ‫اس‬َّ‫ن‬‫ل‬ِ‫ل‬ ‫َا‬‫ن‬ْ‫ب‬ َ‫ر‬َ‫ض‬ ْ‫د‬َ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬ َ‫و‬َ‫ل‬‫و‬ُ‫ق‬َ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬ ٍ‫ة‬َ‫ي‬‫آ‬ِ‫ب‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫ئ‬ ِ‫ج‬ ْ‫ن‬ِ‫ئ‬َ‫ل‬ َ‫و‬ ۚ ٍ‫ل‬ُ‫ر‬َ‫ف‬َ‫ك‬ َ‫ِين‬‫ذ‬َّ‫ال‬ َّ‫ن‬‫وا‬ َ‫ون‬ُ‫ل‬ِ‫ْط‬‫ب‬ُ‫م‬ َّ‫َّل‬ِ‫إ‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫أ‬ ْ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ “And surely We have presented in this Quran all kind of examples for the benefit of mankind. (Still) if you [O Muhammad] bring them a sign, the disbelievers will surely say, "You [believers] are nothing but men of falsehood".”
  3. 3. The Quran does not give a single, unified essay on  the universe began,  life created on earth,  human senses and brain function etc. Instead, keeping with the Quranic method of teaching, different aspects of signs are mentioned in different places in order to give authority to the particular lesson being taught.
  4. 4. The Story of the Creation of Life/Human in the Holy Quran The Story of the Creation of Universe in the Holy Quran
  5. 5. In 1927, a Belgian cosmologist and a Catholic priest Georges Lemaitre proposed a theory known as the Big Bang theory. Later in 1965, radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson made a Noble Prize winning discovery that confirmed the Big Bang theory. In 1965, Penzias and Wilson discovered that if the single point from which the universe came into existence was initially extremely hot, then remnants of this heat should be found. The Big Bang theory is accepted by the vast majority of scientists and astronomers.
  6. 6. It is mentioned in the Quran (Surah Al-Anbiya, verse 30) “Have not those who disbelieve (known) that  the heavens and the earth were both joined  then we splintered them apart and We made every living thing out of water? Will they not then believe?”
  7. 7. Interpretation/Commentary (Surah Al-Anbiya, verse 30): This world had been in the form of a single great unit of blazing vapor that, as a result of some different inward explosions and movements, it gradually divided into parts and the stars and planets, including the solar system and the earth, and the universe is still expanding. Allah also stated in “Surah Al-Dhariyat verse 47” that these havens (universe) are continuously expanding, “We have built the heaven with (the power of Our) hands, and We are expanding (it).”
  8. 8. In the Quran Allah explains that He is the creator of Heaven, Stars, the Sun, the Moon, and others: Surah Al-Furqan, Verse 61 “Most blessed is He Who set a constellation in the heavens, and placed in it a great lamp and a shining moon.”
  9. 9.  Copernicus (1473-1543) was claim that the Earth rotates around the Sun.  Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) – Planets are orbiting the Sun
  10. 10. Surah Al-Anbiya, Verse – 33 ۡ‫ال‬ َ‫و‬ َ‫س‬ ۡ‫م‬َّ‫ش‬‫ال‬ َ‫و‬ َ‫ار‬َ‫ه‬َّ‫ن‬‫ال‬ َ‫و‬ َ‫ل‬ۡ‫ي‬َّ‫ال‬ َ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬ ۡ‫ى‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ال‬ َ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ َ‫و‬َ‫ر‬َ‫م‬َ‫ق‬ؕ​ٍ‫ك‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ف‬ ۡ‫ى‬ِ‫ف‬ ٌّ‫ل‬ُ‫ك‬ُ‫ح‬َ‫ب‬ۡ‫َّس‬‫ي‬َ‫ن‬ ۡ‫و‬ And it is Allah, Who has made the night and the day and created the sun and the moon; all of them are floating, each in its own orbit. Surah Ya-Sin, Verse – 40 َ‫َّل‬ َ‫و‬ َ‫ر‬َ‫م‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ال‬ َ‫ك‬ ِ‫ر‬ْ‫د‬ُ‫ت‬ ْ‫ن‬َ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫غ‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ي‬ ُ‫س‬ْ‫م‬َّ‫ش‬‫ال‬ َ‫َّل‬ۚ ِ‫ار‬َ‫ه‬َّ‫ن‬‫ال‬ ُ‫ق‬ِ‫ب‬‫ا‬َ‫س‬ ُ‫ل‬ْ‫ي‬َّ‫الل‬ٌّ‫ل‬ُ‫ك‬ َ‫و‬ٍ‫ك‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ف‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬َ‫ون‬ُ‫ح‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫س‬َ‫ي‬ It is not permitted the sun to overtakes the moon, nor can the night overtrip the day. Each is floating in its own orbit.
  11. 11. Bottom line: The planets in our solar system orbit (revolve) around the sun, and the sun orbits (revolves) around the center of the Milky Way galaxy. We take about 225-250 million years to revolve once around the galaxy’s center. This length of time is called a cosmic year.
  12. 12. Surah Al-Anbiya, Verse – 33 ۡ‫ال‬ َ‫و‬ َ‫س‬ ۡ‫م‬َّ‫ش‬‫ال‬ َ‫و‬ َ‫ار‬َ‫ه‬َّ‫ن‬‫ال‬ َ‫و‬ َ‫ل‬ۡ‫ي‬َّ‫ال‬ َ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬ ۡ‫ى‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ال‬ َ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ َ‫و‬َ‫ر‬َ‫م‬َ‫ق‬ؕ​ٍ‫ك‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ف‬ ۡ‫ى‬ِ‫ف‬ ٌّ‫ل‬ُ‫ك‬ُ‫ح‬َ‫ب‬ۡ‫َّس‬‫ي‬َ‫ن‬ ۡ‫و‬ And it is Allah, Who has made the night and the day and created the sun and the moon; all of them are floating, each in its own orbit. Surah Ya-Sin, Verse – 40 َ‫َّل‬ َ‫و‬ َ‫ر‬َ‫م‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ال‬ َ‫ك‬ ِ‫ر‬ْ‫د‬ُ‫ت‬ ْ‫ن‬َ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫غ‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ي‬ ُ‫س‬ْ‫م‬َّ‫ش‬‫ال‬ َ‫َّل‬ۚ ِ‫ار‬َ‫ه‬َّ‫ن‬‫ال‬ ُ‫ق‬ِ‫ب‬‫ا‬َ‫س‬ ُ‫ل‬ْ‫ي‬َّ‫الل‬َ‫و‬ٌّ‫ل‬ُ‫ك‬ٍ‫ك‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ف‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ف‬َ‫ون‬ُ‫ح‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫س‬َ‫ي‬ It is not permitted the sun to overtakes the moon, nor can the night overtrip the day. Each is floating in its own orbit.
  13. 13. ٍ‫ك‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ف‬ ۡ‫ى‬ِ‫ف‬ ٌّ‫ل‬ُ‫ك‬َّ‫ي‬َ‫ن‬ ۡ‫و‬ُ‫ح‬َ‫ب‬ۡ‫س‬ Eachinan orbitfloating
  14. 14. ٍ‫ك‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ف‬ ۡ‫ى‬ِ‫ف‬ ٌّ‫ل‬ُ‫ك‬َّ‫ي‬َ‫ن‬ ۡ‫و‬ُ‫ح‬َ‫ب‬ۡ‫س‬ Eachinan orbitfloating
  15. 15. The Story of the Creation of Life/Human in the Holy Quran When life began? How life might have originated?
  16. 16. The Earth formed roughly 4.5 billion years ago – This estimate comes from measuring the ages of the oldest rocks on Earth, as well the ages of moon rocks and meteorites, by radiometric dating (in which decay of radioactive isotopes is used to calculate the time since a rock’s formation). and Life probably began between 3.5 and 3.9 billion years ago – The earliest evidence of life on Earth comes from fossils discovered in Western Australia that date back to about 3.5 billion years ago, which is also well-supported by radiometric dating. When life began?
  17. 17. Geological timeline: BBC Nature: History of life on Earth (updated Oct 2014) 200 thousand years ago
  18. 18. Code of Belief or Philosophy about life's origins  The theory of evolution  Aquatic ape hypothesis  Several hypotheses … These are much more theory, science, synthesis, model, hypothesis... hypothetical. We understand roughly when life began… How life originated on our planet is both a fascinating and incredibly complex question.
  19. 19. Darwin’s Theory of Evaluation Human Evaluation by Aliens
  20. 20. No one is sure which hypothesis is correct – or if the correct hypothesis is still out there, waiting to be discovered.
  21. 21. Oparin-Haldane hypothesis: In the 1920s, Russian scientist Aleksandr Oparin & English scientist Haldane both separately proposed that life on Earth could have arisen step-by-step from non-living matter through a process of “gradual chemical evolution.”
  22. 22. Allah tells us that He created us in stages, not at once, as stated in Surah Noo'h, Verse 14 “And indeed, He created you (in) stages.” ‫ا‬ً‫ار‬ َ‫و‬ْ‫ط‬َ‫أ‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬َ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬ ْ‫د‬َ‫ق‬ َ‫و‬ This may refer to the successive stages of the… 1. human creation and evolution. 2. development of a fetus in its mother’s womb. 3. ...
  23. 23. Schematic Overview – Hypotheses/Oparin Theory Formation of the Early Earth (inorganic Chemicals) Formation of Atmosphere and Prebiotic Synthesis Small Organic Molecules Polymerization Polymers (DNA, RNA, Proteins) complexes Metabolic Networks/protocells Plasma membrane Origin of genetic code Living Cells ChemicalEvaluationBiological Evaluation Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Biological Evaluation First self-replicating cell LUCL = Last Universal Common Ancestor Bacteria, Fish, Reptiles, Bird, Mammals, Human Stage 5
  24. 24. The Miller-Urey experiment: In 1953, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey did an experiment to test Oparin and Haldane’s ideas. This is the first experimental evidence that organic molecules needed for life could be formed from inorganic components. Organic molecules formed: amino acids, sugars, lipids, etc
  25. 25. video
  26. 26. Sixty (60) years after the Miller-Urey experiment scientist proof that this primordial soup was found to support the bacterial growth Scientific Reports, 2015, 5, 14338 www.nature.com/scientificreports/ Note that – the Earth’s early atmosphere probably was not composed of methane or ammonia, and thus would not have been conducive to Miller-Urey type chemistry.
  27. 27. The RNA world hypothesis: In 1990s experimentally showed that RNA nucleotides can be linked together when they are exposed to a clay surface. The "genes-first" hypothesis: Many scientists favor the RNA world hypothesis, in which RNA, not DNA, was the first genetic molecule of life on Earth. The "metabolism-first" hypothesis: Other ideas include the pre-RNA world hypothesis and the metabolism-first hypothesis, which suggests that self-sustaining networks of metabolic reactions may have been the first simple life (predating nucleic acids) Ref: Wilkin, D. and Akre, B. (2016, March 23). First organic molecules - Advanced. In CK-12 biology advanced concepts. Retrieved from http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Biology- Advanced-Concepts/section/10.8/. Ref: Ferris, J. P. 2006. Montmorillonite-catalysed formation of RNA oligomers: The possible role of catalysis in the origins of life. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Bio.l Sci., 361(1474), 1777-1786.
  28. 28. Panspermia Theory: Life seeds from outer space and Planets exchange life. Panspermia suggests that life could have existed on another planet and moved to Earth. Statistics have showed 7.5% of rocks from Mars reach Earth. The rocks would travel between less than 100 years to 16,000 years and more to get to earth. Ref: Kimball, J. W. (2015, May 17). Molecules from outer space? In Kimball's biology pages. Retrieved from http://www.biology-pages.info/A/AbioticSynthesis. ALH84001 meteorite, on display at Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, photo image by J. L. Stuby One meteorite that fell in 2000 in Canada contained tiny organic structures dubbed "organic globules." NASA scientists think this type of meteorite might have fallen to Earth often during the planet's early history, seeding it with organic compounds.
  29. 29. Who gave everything He created the best form. He began the creation of man from clay; Surah As Sajdah , Verse: 7 َ‫ب‬ َ‫و‬ ۖ ‫ُۥ‬‫ه‬َ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬ ٍ‫ء‬ْ‫َى‬‫ش‬ َّ‫ل‬ُ‫ك‬ َ‫ن‬َ‫س‬ْ‫ح‬َ‫أ‬ ٓ‫ى‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ٱل‬‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ِ‫ن‬ََٰ‫س‬‫ن‬ِ ْْ‫ٱ‬ َ‫ق‬ْ‫َل‬‫خ‬ َ‫أ‬َ‫د‬‫ي‬ِ‫ط‬ٍ‫ن‬ Quran supports – the original environment of creation of life. Allah says in Al-'Hijr, verse 26 ْ‫ل‬َ‫ص‬ ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ َ‫ان‬َ‫س‬‫ن‬ِ ْْ‫ا‬ ‫َا‬‫ن‬ْ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬ ْ‫د‬َ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬ َ‫و‬ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ٍ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ص‬ٍ‫إ‬َ‫م‬َ‫ح‬‫و‬ُ‫ن‬ْ‫س‬َّ‫م‬ٍ‫ن‬ Surely We brought human into being out of dry ringing clay which was wrought from black mud.
  30. 30. Translated by – Abdel Haleem “He is the one who created you from clay and specified a term [for you] and another fixed time, known only to Him; yet still you doubt!“ Translated by – Dr Mohammad Tahir-ul-Qadri (Allah) is He Who created you from mud (i.e., originated from it the chemical genesis of human life on the planet Earth). Then He fixed a term (for you to die). And with Him alone is the appointed time (for holding the Day of Resurrection); yet you doubt. Surah Al-An’am, Verse: 2 ۡ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ۡ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬َ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬ ۡ‫ى‬ِ‫ذ‬َّ‫ال‬ َ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ٍ‫ن‬ۡ‫ي‬ِ‫ط‬َّ‫م‬ُ‫ث‬ً‫ل‬َ‫ج‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ َٰٰۤ‫ض‬َ‫ق‬ٌؕ‫ل‬َ‫ج‬َ‫ا‬ َ‫و‬ َ‫ت‬ ۡ‫م‬َ‫ت‬ ۡ‫م‬ُ‫ت‬‫ـ‬ۡ‫ن‬َ‫ا‬ َّ‫م‬ُ‫ث‬ ​ٗ‫ه‬َ‫د‬ۡ‫ن‬ِ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬ًّ‫م‬َ‫س‬ُّ‫م‬َ‫ن‬ ۡ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬
  31. 31. Surah As Sajdah Verses: 7 - 9 8. then spread his progeny by an extract the nature of a despicable water; 9. Then He proportioned him and breathed into him from His [created] soul and made for you hearing and vision and hearts; little are you grateful. 7. Who gave everything He created the best form. He began the creation of man from clay; "He created him ..... spread his progeny ...... shaped him ...... breathed into him His spirit (soul)," "He gave you the ears . . . gave you the eyes . . . gave you the hearts," for after having been blessed with the Spirit, man became worthy of being addressed. <Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi>
  32. 32. …Summary… 1. These are not the only scientific ideas about how life might have originated, nor are any of them conclusive. 2. How life originated on our planet is both a fascinating and incredibly complex question. 3. The material from which life has been created is not eternal. It was created by Allah. 4. Humans’ creation involved an evolutionary process extending over a long period of time. Allah did not create humans in a moment. 5. Humans were created from an origin of his own species. It is not correct that human evolved from a species of monkeys or apes which is the theory advanced by Darwin. 6. One of the evolutionary stages through which Allah passed was something similar to dust, mud, clay, stone or rock. 7. In the final stage, humans devised a system of life which started on a road to civilization and culture. Instead of each individual living for himself, as is the case with animals, humans began to work in co-operation with others of his species, evolving a system and law of life.
  33. 33. Allah told us WHAT and We (human) found out WHY and HOW, which proves HIS existence and supported our faith.

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