Khulafae Rashedin: Humility and Simplicity; Complete Commitment to the Quran and the Sunnah; Preserve, Consolidate and Expand the Islamic Empire ;Eventually captive of power and wealth; Parochial interests – Bani Hashim, Bani Shams; Political expediency ; The Prophet (pbuh) , "Once the sword is unsheathed among my followers, it will not be sheathed until the Last Day."
The Umayyids: great expansion was primarily military and political, not religious; conversion to Islam was discouraged for some time since it would reduce the treasury's intake of taxes on non-Muslims. Its armies were originally exclusively Arab and Muslim, but clients were ultimately included, mostly of Iranian and Berber origin. During the Umayyad period, the majority of people living within the caliphate were not Muslim, but Christian, Jewish, Zoroastrian, or members of other small religions subject to a tax (jizyah) w. There are reports that provincial governors actively discouraged such conversions.
The Abbasids: : Rulers interested in the good of the public, advancement of knowledge irrespective of the origin of the idea
The Osmaniyes: Integration of eastern and western civilizations ;Propagation of Islam in Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean regions; Created a centralized political, military structure for ruling over a long lasting large, diverse empire. ;Fell victim to inertia
The dynasty was founded by a Chagatai Turkic prince named Bābur (reigned 1526–30), who was descended from the Turkic conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) on his father’s side and from Chagatai, second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother’s side. Ousted from his ancestral domain in Central Asia, Bābur turned to India to satisfy his appetite for conquest. From his base in Kabul (Afghanistan) he was able to secure control of the Punjab region, and in 1526 he routed the forces of the Delhi sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī at the First Battle of Panipat where they used gunpowder for the first time in India. The following year he overwhelmed the Rajput confederacy under Rana Sanga of Mewar, and in 1529 he defeated the Afghans of what are now eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states.
The Succession Question
The Mughal Empire was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled parts of Afghanistan, Balochistan and most of the Indian Subcontinent between 1526 and 1857 – 4 million square kms..
Babur: At his death in 1530 he controlled all of northern India from the Indus River on the west to Bihar on the east and from the Himalayas south to Gwalior.
Bahadur Shah I (Shah Alam I), born October 14, 1643, in Burhanpur, ruler from 1707-1712, died February 1712, in Lahore. Jahandar Shah, born 1664, ruler from 1712-1713, died February 11, 1713, in Delhi. Furrukhsiyar, born 1683, ruler from 1713-1719, died 1719 in Delhi. Granted the British East India Company customs exemption in Bengal. Rafi Ul-Darjat, ruler 1719, died 1719 in Delhi. Rafi Ud-Daulat (Shah Jahan II), ruler 1719, died 1719 in Delhi. Nikusiyar, ruler 1719, died 1719 in Delhi. Mohammed Ibrahim, ruler 1720, died 1720 in Delhi. Mohammed Shah, born 1702, ruler from 1719-1720 and 1720-1748, died April 26, 1748 in Delhi. Ahmad Shah Bahadur, born 1725, ruler from 1748-1754, died January 1775 in Delhi. Alamgir II, born 1699, ruler from 1754-1759, died 1759. Shah Jahan III, ruler 1760? Shah Alam II, born 1728, ruler from 1759-1806, died 1806. Ruled as a puppet of the British, granting them the Diwani of Bengali, Bihar and Orissa. Akbar Shah II, born 1760, ruler from 1806-1837, died 1837. Bahadur Shah II or Bahadur Shah Zafar, born 1775 in Delhi, ruler from 1837-1857, died 1862 in exile in Rangoon, Burma.
Babur: Did not emphasize his religion, but rather his Mongol heritage. Akbar:Tthe court abolished the jizya, the tax on non-Muslims. Din-i-Ilahi (“Godism” in English), which was an eclectic mix of Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. Aurangzeb: Imposed Sharia law, which he codified, re-imposed the jizya. He is known to have treated non-Muslims harshly. Under Aurangzeb, Mughal court life changed dramatically. According to his interpretation, Islam did not allow music, so he banished court musicians, dancers, and singers. Further, based on Muslim precepts forbidding images, he stopped the production of representational
Although they recognized the Ottoman claim to the title of caliph, they saw the Ottomans as just another Muslim empire like themselves. Certainly, such Sufi teachers as Kabir (1414-1518) who flourished at an earlier period had represented a 'peace to all' type of Islam that was attractive to many people in the subcontinent.
Around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP ( Angus Maddison) and the world leader in manufacturing producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century 9jeffrey Williamson)The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age"
India's GDP faster growth rate during the Mughal era than in the 1,500 years prior to the Mughal era
1700 – Mughals – 158 million; World Population 679 million
The origin of Dhaka.
Administration - The subahs were established by Badshah (emperor) Akbar during his administrative reforms of 1572–1580; initially they numbered 12, but his conquests expanded the number of subahs to 15 by the end of his reign. Subahs were divided into Sarkars, or districts. Sarkars were further divided into Parganas or Mahals. His successors, most notably Aurangzeb, expanded the number of subahs further through their conquests. As the empire began to dissolve in the early 18th century, many subahs became effectively independent, or were conquered by the Marathas or the British.
Money – value of money retained by high degree of purity of the metal – at least 96%; made by imported bullion financed by export of agricultural and industrial products. Main source of exports – Bengal
Agriculture - Under the zabt system, the Mughals also conducted extensive cadastral surveying to assess the area of land under plow cultivation, with the Mughal state encouraging greater land cultivation by offering tax-free periods to those who brought new land under cultivation.
Jama Masjid Red Fort Humayun’s Tomb Fatehpur Sikri - Akbar
Taj Mahal Agra Fort – Shahjahan Lalbagh – Dhaka – Construction started in 1678 AD by Subahdar Azam Shah later Emperor (son of Aurangzeb) – Shaista Khan lived here until 1688 – Mosque, Tomb of Bibi Pari (daughter of Shaista Khan), Diwan-i-Am (Residence)
Succession: No definite law. Weak succession resulted in breakup of the empire. Aurangzeb: moved away from the principle of religious tolerance. Re-imposed Jiziya (1679). Lost the loyalty of the Rajputs. Execution of the Sikh Guru Banda Bahadur. Annexation of Deccan extremely expensive. The corruption of the state including soldiers – overtaxation led to revolts Europeans – Jahangir gives permission to the British to trade in 1620. 1688 – British blockade Bombay and Mughal ports. 1700 – establish Fort William Foreign Invasion
One dynastic regime creates aspirations for another – Umayyids to Abbasids to Fatimids to Seljuqs to Mamluks and ultimately to the Osmaniyes. What is a legitimate Islamic state – who should lead such a state – is it nearness to the Prophet (Abbasids vs. Fatimids), by force (Seljuqs, Mamluks) but then legitimized through a religious figurehead, or pure force (Mongols, Osmaniyes). The associated question is how it should be run.
22 April 2018
570-632 The Prophet (pbuh)
632 - 661 ✔ The Khulafae Rashidun
661-750 ✔ The Umayyids
751-983 ✔ The Abbasids
984-1289 The Seljuks and the Fatimids
1290-1918 ✪ The Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals
Origins of the Mughal Empire
Founded by Babur, a Chagatai Turkic prince,
descended from Timur (Tamerlane) on his father’s
side and from Chagatai, second son of
the Genghis Khan, on his mother’s side.
1526 - defeats Delhi sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī at the First
Battle of Panipat. First Use of gunpowder in India
1527 – beats the Rajput confederacy under Rana
Sanga of Mewar
1529 - defeats the Afghans of what are now
eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states
The Greater Mughal Emperors
Babur 1526-1530 (4)
Humayun 1530-1556 (26)
Akbar 1556-1605 (49)
Jahangir 1605-1627 (22)
Shah Jahan 1627-1658 (31)
Aurangzeb 1658 -1707 (49)
Lesser Mughal Emperors
Shah Alam I 1707-1712
Mohammed Shah 1719 - 1748
Shah Alam II 1759-1806
Akbar Shah 1806-1837
Bahadur Shah Jafar 1837-1857
Islam and the Mughals
Mughal ruling class was Muslim but dominated by
Saw themselves as rulers by divine right not Islamic
Believed in peaceful co-existence of religions
Akbar abolished Jiziya, advocated Din-i-ilahi (Godism) –
But, they did build Maktabs in every province to teach
Quran and Islamic law.
Aurangzeb imposed Sharia law, jiziya and started the
decline of the empire
Mughal Achievements (1)
The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden
Mughal India became world's largest economic power in
the 17th Century
24.4% of World’s income and world leader in
25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century
25% of World’s population resided in Mughal India in
Mughals:The Bengal Subah1590-1757
Wealthiest province – 50% 0f total income
Leading Producer of grains, salt, pearls, fruits, precious
40% 0f Dutch imports from India, raw silk to Japan
Dhaka – the commercial hub of the empire
Mughals introduced modern Bengali calendar, agrarian
reforms, tax collection
Sufis expanded the reach of Islam.
Bengal became semi-independent in 1717 until the
British takeover in late 18th Century.
Mughals- Achievements (2)
Administrative Reforms: 15 Subahs(provinces) –
Sarkars(districts) – Parganas/Mahals; merit-based
Money: Rupee (rupiya/silver), Dam (copper)
Higher living standards in 18th century Bengal and
South India than in Great Britain
Agrarian reforms: irrigation, land revenue systems
Industries: textiles, ship-building, steel, spices
Bengal built more ships than the Dutch, British and North
America combined during 16-18 Century.
Decline of the Mughal Empire
Struggle for succession
Corruption of the State
Rise of new powers – Sikhs, Marathas
Coming of the Europeans
Foreign Invasion – Nadir Shah. Ahmed Shah Abdali
DECADENCE, ATTRITION, INTERNAL STRIFE