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The Mughals

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Islamic discussion on "Islamic History – The Mughals"
Speaker: Sajjad bhai (Dr. Syed Sajjadur Rahman)

Published in: Spiritual
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The Mughals

  1. 1. ISLAMIC HISTORY The Mughals Syed Sajjadur Rahman 22 April 2018
  2. 2. Significant periods Year (AD) 570-632 The Prophet (pbuh) 632 - 661 ✔ The Khulafae Rashidun 661-750 ✔ The Umayyids 751-983 ✔ The Abbasids 984-1289 The Seljuks and the Fatimids 1290-1918 ✪ The Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals
  3. 3. Origins of the Mughal Empire  Founded by Babur, a Chagatai Turkic prince, descended from Timur (Tamerlane) on his father’s side and from Chagatai, second son of the Genghis Khan, on his mother’s side.  1526 - defeats Delhi sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī at the First Battle of Panipat. First Use of gunpowder in India  1527 – beats the Rajput confederacy under Rana Sanga of Mewar  1529 - defeats the Afghans of what are now eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states
  4. 4. The Greater Mughal Emperors Emperor Reign Babur 1526-1530 (4) Humayun 1530-1556 (26) Akbar 1556-1605 (49) Jahangir 1605-1627 (22) Shah Jahan 1627-1658 (31) Aurangzeb 1658 -1707 (49)
  5. 5. Mughal Empire
  6. 6. Lesser Mughal Emperors Emperor Reign Shah Alam I 1707-1712 Furrukhsiyar 1713-1719 Mohammed Shah 1719 - 1748 Shah Alam II 1759-1806 Akbar Shah 1806-1837 Bahadur Shah Jafar 1837-1857
  7. 7. Islam and the Mughals  Mughal ruling class was Muslim but dominated by Persian culture  Saw themselves as rulers by divine right not Islamic law  Believed in peaceful co-existence of religions  Akbar abolished Jiziya, advocated Din-i-ilahi (Godism) – pragmatism  But, they did build Maktabs in every province to teach Quran and Islamic law.  Aurangzeb imposed Sharia law, jiziya and started the decline of the empire
  8. 8. Mughal Achievements (1)  The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age"  Mughal India became world's largest economic power in the 17th Century  24.4% of World’s income and world leader in manufacturing  25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century  open economy  25% of World’s population resided in Mughal India in 1700
  9. 9. Mughals:The Bengal Subah1590-1757  Wealthiest province – 50% 0f total income  Leading Producer of grains, salt, pearls, fruits, precious metals, muslin  40% 0f Dutch imports from India, raw silk to Japan  Dhaka – the commercial hub of the empire  Mughals introduced modern Bengali calendar, agrarian reforms, tax collection  Sufis expanded the reach of Islam.  Bengal became semi-independent in 1717 until the British takeover in late 18th Century.
  10. 10. Mughals- Achievements (2)  Administrative Reforms: 15 Subahs(provinces) – Sarkars(districts) – Parganas/Mahals; merit-based  Money: Rupee (rupiya/silver), Dam (copper)  Higher living standards in 18th century Bengal and South India than in Great Britain  Agrarian reforms: irrigation, land revenue systems  Industries: textiles, ship-building, steel, spices  Bengal built more ships than the Dutch, British and North America combined during 16-18 Century.
  11. 11. Mughals - Architecture
  12. 12. Mughals - Architecture
  13. 13. Mughals - Art
  14. 14. Decline of the Mughal Empire  Struggle for succession  Aurangzeb’s Policies  Corruption of the State  Rise of new powers – Sikhs, Marathas  Coming of the Europeans  Foreign Invasion – Nadir Shah. Ahmed Shah Abdali  DECADENCE, ATTRITION, INTERNAL STRIFE

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