But, in the early days of Islam, the Khalifas also served as spiritual leaders in an interpretational sense. Remember, at this time, the Quran was predominantly an oral document and the practice of the Sunnah was mainly from memory.
According to tradition, the Umayyid family (also known as the Banu Abd-Shams) and Muhammad (Pbuh) both descended from a common ancestor, Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, and they originally came from the city of Mecca.
Muhammad (pbuh) descended from Abd Manāf via his son Hashim, While the Umayyids descended from Abd Manaf via a different son, Abd-Shams, whose son was Umayya. The two families are therefore considered to be different clans (those of Hashim and of Umayya, respectively) of the same tribe (that of the Quraysh). However Muslim Shia historians point out that Umayya was an adopted son of Abd Shams so he was not a blood relative of Abd Manaf ibn Qusai. Umayya was later discarded from the noble family.
The Umayyids, headed by Abū Sufyān, were a largely merchant family. They had initially resisted Islam, not converting until 627, but subsequently became prominent administrators under Muhammad and his immediate successors. After his conquest of Mecca, Muhammad gave many Quraysh elites, including members of Muawiya’s Umayyad family, high-ranking positions in his government. Muawiya joined the army of his older brother Yazid in the conquest of Syria. Yazid was granted governorship of Syria by Caliph Umar, and Muawiya continued to serve him.
The Umayyids' great expansion was primarily military and political, not religious; conversion to Islam was discouraged for some time since it would reduce the treasury's intake of taxes on non-Muslims. Its armies were originally exclusively Arab and Muslim, but clients were ultimately included, mostly of Iranian and Berber origin. During the Umayyad period, the majority of people living within the caliphate were not Muslim, but Christian, Jewish, Zoroastrian, or members of other small groups. These religious communities were not forced to convert to Islam, but were subject to a tax (jizyah) which was not imposed upon Muslims. There are reports that provincial governors actively discouraged such conversions.
One of Muawiya's first tasks was to create a stable administration for the empire. He followed the main ideas of the Byzantine Empire which had ruled the same region previously, and had three main governmental branches: political and military affairs, tax collection (revenue), and religious administration. A later caliph, Abd al-Malik , strengthened the organization of the empire, making Arabic the official language of government and replacing Byzantine and Sassanian coinage with coins with Arabic inscriptions.
The second major event of the early reign of Abd al-Malik was the construction of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Although the chronology remains somewhat uncertain, the building seems to have been completed in 692, which means that it was under construction during the conflict with Ibn al-Zubayr. This had led some historians, both medieval and modern, to suggest that the Dome of the Rock was built as a destination for pilgrimage to rival the Qaaba, which was under the control of Ibn al-Zubayr.
The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the Caliphate on their descent from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (AD 566-652), one of the youngest uncles of the prophet Muhammad. They regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as opposed to the UmayyIds. Muhammad ibn 'Ali, a great-grandson of Abbas, began to campaign for the return of power to the family of the prophet, the Hashimites, in Persia during the reign of Umar II, Muhammad ibn Ali.
During the reign of Marwan II this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas, who, supported by the province of Khorasan, achieved considerable successes, but was captured (AD 747) and died in prison (as some hold, assassinated). The quarrel was taken up by his brother Abdullah, known by the name of Abu al-'Abbas as-Saffah, who, after a decisive victory on the Greater Zab river (750), finally crushed the UmayyIds and was proclaimed Caliph (except for one, Abd al-Rahman, who escaped to Spain and continued the Umayyad Dynasty there).
The Abbasid Caliphate, which ruled the Islamic world, oversaw the golden age of Islamic culture. The dynasty ruled the Islamic Caliphate from 750 to 1258 AD, making it one of the longest and most influential Islamic dynasties. For most of its early history, it was the largest empire in the world, and this meant that it had contact with distant neighbors such as the Chinese and Indians in the East, and the Byzantines in the West, allowing it to adopt and synthesize ideas from these cultures.
Muslim world became an intellectual center for science, philosophy, medicine and education as ]the Abbasids championed the cause of knowledge and established the House of Wisdom in Baghdad; where both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars sought to translate and gather all the world's knowledge into Arabic. Many classic works of antiquity that would otherwise have been lost were translated into Arabic and Persian and later in turn translated into Turkish, Hebrew and Latin.
During this period the Muslim world was a cauldron of cultures which collected, synthesized and significantly advanced the knowledge gained from the ancient Roman, Chinese, Indian, Persian, Egyptian, North African, Greek and Byzantine civilizations. "In virtually every field of endeavor — in astronomy, alchemy, mathematics, medicine, optics and so forth — the Caliphate's scientists were in the forefront of scientific advance.
The first three centuries of Abbasid rule were a golden age in which Baghdad and Samarra’ functioned as the cultural and commercial capitals of the Islamic world. During this period, a distinctive style emerged and new techniques were developed that spread throughout the Muslim realm and greatly influenced Islamic art and architecture.
Al-Ma’mun founded the Bayt al-Hikma, the House of Wisdom, in Baghdad. A library, an institute for translators, and in many ways an early form of university, the House of Wisdom hosted Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who sought to translate and gather the cumulative knowledge of human history in one place, and in one language—Arabic.
Important ideas from around the world came together. The introduction of Indian numerals, which have become standard in the Islamic and Western worlds, greatly aided in mathematic and scientific discovery. Scholars such as Al-Kindi revolutionized mathematics and synthesized Greek philosophy with Islamic thought. Al-Biruni and Abu Nasr Mansur—among many other scholars—made important contributions to geometry and astronomy. Al-Khwarizmi, expanding upon Greek mathematical concepts, developed Algebra (the word “algorithm” is a corruption of his name). Ibn al-Haytham made important contributions to the field of optics, and is generally held to have developed the concept of the scientific method.
A number of very practical innovations took place, especially in the field of agriculture. Improved methods of irrigation allowed more land to be cultivated, and new types of mills and turbines were used to reduce the need for labor. Crops and farming techniques were adopted from far-flung neighboring cultures. Rice, cotton, and sugar were taken from India, citrus fruits from China, and sorghum from Africa. Thanks to Islamic famers, these crops eventually made their way to the West. Such Islamic innovation would continue, even as the Abbasid government fell into chaos.
Al-Muqtadir’s son, al-Radi (r. 934–940) is often considered the last caliph to exercise any real authority. He tried to raise a powerful governor of Iraq who would hold power over all the other independent emirs. Thus, al-Radi created the title Amir al- Umara, “emir of emirs,” for the governor of Iraq. This plan backfired, however, because the title effectively invested supreme authority in its holder, leaving the Caliph simply as a figurehead. The Shiite Buyids soon took the title and held it as a hereditary position, becoming the de facto rulers of Iraq.
From this point on, the Abbasid caliphs became little more than religious figureheads. In the mid-11th century, the Buyids were ousted by the Sunni Seljuq Turks, who conquered Iran, Iraq, Syria, and most of Asia Minor, forming a new and vibrant Islamic Empire. The Seljuqs continued to keep the Abbasid caliph as the titular ruler while exercising true authority over the empire as sultans. Seljuq sultanate collapsed at the beginning of the 12th century.
Al-Nasir (1180 -1225) forms alliance with Mongols to fight the Persian King Khwarezm. This plan backfired as his son refused to act as titular head to the non-muslim Mongols. In retaliation, Mongols sacked Baghdad and burnt the house of wisdom.
The Egyptian Mamluk sultans seeking legitimacy appointed an Abbasid caliphate only for religious purposes. This lasted for 250 years until 1517 when the Osmaniyes conquer Cairo. The last Abbasid caliph, al- Mutawakkil III, was forced to surrender all his authority to the Osmaniye Sultan Selim I. This was the end of seven-and-a-half centuries of Abbasid history.
The Fatimids (909 -1171). claim to be direct descendants of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) through his daughter, Fatima, and his cousin, Ali. The Fatimid Caliphate was an Ismaili Shia Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west. Capitals: Mahdia (921),El-Mansuriya.(948) in Tunisia and Cairo (969). Date dissolved: 1171. Countries: Egypt, Algeria, Jordan, Israel, Libya, Lebanon, more In 1171, Salahuddin captured Cairo and incorporated the Fatimid territories into the Abbasid caliphate, who by then had become titular rulers only.
Rulers interested in the good of the public, advancement of knowledge irrespective of the origin of the idea The creation of Emirs and Sultans who ultimately seized effective power Viziers, movement of capital to Samarra, the Turkish palace guards – the Mamluks One dynastic regime creates aspirations for another – Umayyids to Abbasids to Fatimids to Seljuqs to Mamluks and ultimately to the Osmaniyes What is a legitimate Islamic state – who should lead such a state – is it nearness to the Prophet (Abbasids vs. Fatimids), by force (Seljuqs, Mamluks) but then legitimized through a religious figurehead, or pure force (Mongols, Osmaniyes). The associated question is how it should be run.
The abbasids ppt 10 april 2016
10 April 2016
570-632 The Prophet (pbuh)
632 - 661 ✔ The Khulafae Rashidun
661-750 ✔ The Umayyids
751-983 The Abbasids
984-1289 The Seljuks and the Fatimids
1290-1918 The Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals
A Khalifa is the successor (in a line of
successors) to Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh)
position as the political, military, and
administrative leader of the Muslims.
The prophetic role of the Rasul-Allah (pbuh) is
strictly not included in this definition, as the
Qur'an and Hadith clearly state that He (pbuh)
was the last of the prophets.
The Khulafae Rashidun (632- 661)
Humility and Simplicity
Complete Commitment to the Quran and the
Preserve, Consolidate and Expand the islamic
Eventually captive of power and wealth
Parochial interests – Bani Hashim, Bani Shams
The Prophet (pbuh) , "Once the sword is
unsheathed among my followers, it will not be
sheathed until the Last Day."
The Umayyids: Legacy
First Muslim Dynasty: transformed the
caliphate from a religious institution to a
Largest empire at the time
Revenue, Postal and Justice systems
Arabaization – language, coinage
Construction of the Dome of the Rock
Khalifat Rasul Allah or Khalifat Allah ?
Discriminatory Social Organization
The Abbasids: The Beginning
Revolt against Umayyids
The treatment of Mawalis and non-Muslims
Abbasids create coalition of Persian Mawali,
Eastern Arabs and Shiites
Persian General Abu Muslim’s victories allow
Abul Abbas Al Saffah to defeat the Umayyids
The Abbasids: Golden Age (775 –
Reigns of Al-Mansour, Harun Al Rashid, Al-
Baghdad, Samarra – Global intellectual center
for science, philosophy, medicine and
Access to many different cultures and
philosophies as empire expanded.
Bayt al-Hikma – House of Wisdom
Gather the cumulative knowledge of human
history in one place, and in one language—
Introduction of Paper
Algebra (Al-Khwarizmi), Geometry, astronomy
(Al Biruni, Mansur)
Pendulum (AL-Masri,900 Ad)
Number Zero (Bin-Ahmad,976 Ad), Negative
New crops, Improved Irrigation
The Abbasids – A Slow Fall from
Big empire, big problems
The Growth of quasi-independent Sultanates
Alienation of the Caliph – the creation of Vizier
and the Mamluks
By 930, drastic reduction in territory, only
The advance of the Mongols and the
Righteous rulers interested in public welfare
created the golden age.
Effective control over a large empire was not
Separation of the Ruler from the people created
misperceptions which led to rebellions
Movement away from a representative process to
dynastic regimes proved to be untenable
The search for legitimacy in an Islamic state