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The khalifas slides 12 october 2014


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The khalifas slides 12 october 2014 by Syed Sajjadhur Rahman

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The khalifas slides 12 october 2014

  1. 1. ISLAMIC HISTORY The Khulafae Rashedeen Syed Sajjadur Rahman 12 October 2014
  2. 2. Significant periods Year (AD) 570-632 The Prophet (pbuh) 632 - 661 The Khalifas 661-750 The Umayyids 751-983 The Abbasids 984-1289 The Seljuks and the Fatimids 1290-1918 The Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals
  3. 3. The Khulafae Rashedeen (632 -661 AD)  Definition of the word Khalifa  The four Khalifas  Selection  Achievements  The seeds of dissent  Conclusions
  4. 4. Definition (1)  Khalifah  Successor, Substitute, Steward, Deputy  Literal meaning – one who replaces someone who left or died.  Quran Reference  Al-Baqara (30) – Allah creating humanity as his Khalifah on earth  Sad (26) – King David as Allah’s Khalifa reminding him of his obligation to rule with justice
  5. 5. Definition (2)  In our context,  A Khalifa is the successor (in a line of successors) to Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) position as the political, military, and administrative leader of the Muslims.  The prophetic role of the Rasul-Allah (pbuh) is strictly not included in this definition, as the Qur'an and Hadith clearly state that He (pbuh) was the last of the prophets.
  6. 6. The Khulafae Rashedeen  Rightly guided successors  Abu bakr as-Siddiq (ra) – 632 -634 ad  Umar Ibn al-Khattab (ra) – 634 – 644 ad  Uthman ibn Affan (ra) – 644 -656 ad  Ali ibn Abu Talib (ra) – 656 -661 ad
  7. 7. The Selection of the Khalifas -1  The Prophet (pbuh) left no clear instructions about his successor or the succession process  Prevailing Arabian practice  The prominent men of a kinship group, or tribe, gathered after a leader's death and elected a leader from amongst themselves.  There was no specified procedure for this shura or consultation.  Candidates were not necessarily, from the same lineage as the deceased leader. Capable men who would lead well were preferred
  8. 8. The Selection of the Khalifas - 2  Abu Bakr (ra) was elected as the first successor, with the other companions of Muhammad (pbuh) giving an oath of allegiance to him.  On his deathbed, Abu Bakr (ra) appointed Umar (ra) as his successor without an election by the community of Believers. The oath, approving the appointment of Umar (ra), was taken only by the Companions present in Medina at the time.
  9. 9. The Selection of the Khalifas - 3  Before he was assassinated, Umar(ra) decided that his successor would come from a group of six. Ultimately Uthman(ra) was chosen as Umar's successor.  After the assassination of Uthman(ra), Ali(ra) was elected as the final Khulafae Rashedeen.
  10. 10. Selection Controversies  Abu Bakr (ra)  The Sunni, Shia interpretations  Muhajirs and Ansars  Uthman (ra)  Umar (ra) mentionned six sahabas – Ali (ra), Uthman (ra), Az-Zubair (ra)Talha (ra), Sad (ra), Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra)  Bin Auf served as the negotiator and decider  First Umayyad Khalifa
  11. 11. Achievements: Abu Bakr (ra)  Preserve: defeated false prophets, suppressing rebellion, enforce Zakat  Consolidate: Collect all pieces of the Quran and organized the tHafez system  Expand: Muslim armies defeated the Roman forces and Persian forces. Conquest of Syria
  12. 12. Achievements: Umar (ra)  Provide Administrative Structure  Establish Majlish-e-shura  Create provinces  Establish the Treasury  Build schools and mosques  Introduce islamic calendar  Define treatment of non-Muslims  Expand  Iran, iraq, Egypt  Jerusalem – 17 Hijri
  13. 13. Achievements: Uthman (ra)  Preserve: Complete and distribute the authoritative text of the Holy Quran all over the Muslim world.  Consolidate:  Crushed rebellion in Iran; Romans prevented from invading Egypt  Established Navy  Expand: Iran, Asia minor and Egypt  Rebellion
  14. 14. The Spread of Islam 622-750 AD
  15. 15. The Seeds of Dissent – Ali (ra)  Demands for punishment of Uthman’s murderers unmet  Aisha(ra)’s rebellion  Muwaiya of the Umayyad tribe refuses to step down and remains in place  Forced to move capital to kufa  The Kharajites (outsiders) and the assassination of Ali (ra)
  16. 16. Conclusions  Humility and Simplicity  Complete Commitment to the Quran and the Sunnah  Preserve, Consolidate and Expand the islamic Empire  Captive of power and wealth  Parochial interests – Bani hasim, Umayads  Political expediency  The Prophet (pbuh) , "Once the sword is unsheathed among my followers, it will not be sheathed until the Last Day."