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Slums

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Slums

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Slums

  1. 1. SLUMS.. Slums… SUBMITTED BY-SUBMITTED BY- Sheetu Goel
  2. 2. SLUMS..  A slum is an overcrowded poverty- sticken area having lack of open spaces and presence of unhealthy residential structure.  The formation of slum converts the and into a place of vices and miseries and more or less it results into the state hell on the surface of earth.  A slum is an area that combines to various extents the following characteristics- • Inadequate access to safe water • Inadequate access to sanitation and other infrastructure • Poor structural quality of housing • Overcrowding • Insecure residential status #22
  3. 3. SLUMS.. ■ DECENTRALIZATION ■ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ■ EDUCATION ■ IMPROPER USE OF LAND ■ INDUSTRIALIZATION ■ LACK OF ZONING #33 • Rich and middle class people move out to the extended portions of the town and thus, the poor people are left unattended in the overcrowded central area of the town.  Most important and universal characteristic of slums is poverty,  Unemployment & growth of population may force the affected persons to stay in unhealthy conditions.  lack of education drags the inhabitants into social evils Lack of attention to improve the living conditions  if land fit for any particular purpose, is used for another purpose, the slums may be formed.  if the town is not divided into suitable zones and development is allowed to place at random, the slums may be created.  the slums may be said to be the direct result evil result from industrialization which in the early stages never took care of panning houses for laborers.
  4. 4. SLUMS.. ■ REPAIRS AD MAINTENANCE ■ MIGRANTS ■ POWERS AND LOCAL AUTHORITY #44 Squatter is a person who illegally occupy the land without title. The colonies of squatters may result into slums. Flow of migrants per day increases in metropolitan cities. About one- third of the population live in ramshackle huts with no civic amenities.  if local authority does not have adequate powers to control the development of town, the slums may be formed.  cheap houses made for collecting rents are not maintained properly, slum favoring conditions may develop.
  5. 5. SLUMS.. ■ APPEARANCE ■ FIRE HAZARDS ■ HEALTH AND SANITATION ■ INCOME CRITERIA ■ MORALS #55  slum and its unpleasant appearance is offending Structures appear to be deteriorated and to be of over – age. Slum looks neglected with disorderly buildings, roads and yards. Fire is the biggest enemy of slum dwellers Slum area is often exposed to fire hazards & consequent damages Slums are the areas of high sickness and death rates, Characterized by low standards of sanitation Lack of public services for sanitation Slum areas are occupied by the lowest income group of the society.  lack of education drags the inhabitants into social evils Lack of attention to improve the living conditions Sum may prove to be an area of crime and vice,
  6. 6. SLUMS.. ■ SOCIAL ISOLATION ■ WAY OF LIFE #66■ OVERCROWDING ■ POPULATION ORIGIN OF CRIME… Slum population all over India is 40,297,341 (40 million).  40% of total Indian population lives in slums, Almost quarter of Indian metro cities live in slums Sadly 5 million o this population are young children (0 – 6 age group) Slum is overcrowded with buildings or the buildings are overcrowded with people or in the worst condition, both the conditions prevail in the slum. If the slum population Is racial or cultural, it grants a degree of social organization. For heterogeneous occupancy, the inhabitants are of different categories which are not welcome in other localities. The slum area is of the lowest social status and is linked up with the rest of the community through its labour force. In a democratic society, slum dwellers can identify them with certain political groups because of their equality of voting and other legal rights. The way of life of the inhabitants may be such that they are strangers to one another or they form a family slum with thick acquaintance with one another.
  7. 7. SLUMS.. ■ ABSENSCE OF AMENITIES ■ HEALTH ■ SURROUNDING LOCALITY ■ UNDESIRABLE SPOTS ■ WORKING CONDITIONS #77  due to overcrowding, essential amenities are lacking in required proportion in slum areas.  Climate of slums leads to unhealthy conditions of living,  Inhabitants are easily attacked by various types of diseases.  Working of nearby hospitals, institutes, schools is seriously affected by slums.  Slums are the undesirable spots on a city plan, .it disturbs the appearance of good features of a city plan.  due to noise, traffic, congestion, smoke, dust and all, it is not possible to work peacefully in slum areas. Contaminated water Inadequate disposal of human being W aste water and garbage Nutritional deficiencies No emergency services High rates of mental illness & suicideIndoor air pollution
  8. 8. SLUMS.. #88  SLUM CLEARANCE IS THE PROCESS OF IMPROVING THE EXISTING CONDITIONS OF SUMS. Bring down the difference between various classes (lowBring down the difference between various classes (low class, high class, etc.)class, high class, etc.) MAIN OBJECTIVESMAIN OBJECTIVES Prevention of occurrence of epidemics in the townPrevention of occurrence of epidemics in the town Providing essential amenities for healthy livingProviding essential amenities for healthy living Removal of ugly spots of slums from the mapRemoval of ugly spots of slums from the map COMPLETE REMOVALCOMPLETE REMOVAL METHODMETHOD IMPROVEMENT METHODIMPROVEMENT METHOD SLUM CLEARANCESLUM CLEARANCE METHODSMETHODS Following are the two methods by which slum clearance programmes can be carried out…
  9. 9. SLUMS.. COMPLETE REMOVALCOMPLETE REMOVAL METHODMETHOD IMPROVEMENT METHODIMPROVEMENT METHOD  Ill-constructed houses are demolished,Ill-constructed houses are demolished, only good houses are retained.only good houses are retained.  Open spaces left are used for widening ofOpen spaces left are used for widening of roads, recreational grounds or buildingroads, recreational grounds or building new houses.new houses.  This method is costly as the people whoThis method is costly as the people who are dishoused are to be provived withare dishoused are to be provived with alternative housing facilities.alternative housing facilities.  If the sum is due to poor drainageIf the sum is due to poor drainage arrangement or insanitary, houses are notarrangement or insanitary, houses are not demolished then.demolished then.  Certain steps may be taken up toCertain steps may be taken up to improve the conditions.improve the conditions.  This method includes Improvement ofThis method includes Improvement of street systems, removal of obstructingstreet systems, removal of obstructing structures, modification of drainagestructures, modification of drainage systems, etc.systems, etc. #99
  10. 10. SLUMS.. ■ Construction of open or covered drains, ■ Necessary repairs ■ Opening up or paving of courtyards, ■ Provision of additional or improved fixtures or fittings ■ Provision of bathing places, water taps and light points ■ Provision of latrines including conversion of dry latrines into flush latrines ■ Realignment of replotting of streets ■ Removal of rubbish and debris ■ Structural additions and alterations ■ Miscellaneous including the demolition of any building or any part of the building for executing any of the works mentioned above. #1010
  11. 11. SLUMS.. #1111  In this scheme, the available open land is suitably subdivided and allotted to slum dwellers. Constant watch should be kept on the area developed under this scheme so that the open plot scheme areas do not deteriorate into the worst slums. Some of the precautionary measures to be adopted for the successful implementationSome of the precautionary measures to be adopted for the successful implementation of the scheme are as follows:of the scheme are as follows:  The area of the plot should not exceed 20 sq.mt. to 25 sq.mt, so that the scheme may not attract the better off classes.  The individual lessees may be provided with the possible alternative designs for the construction of small houses.  The plots should be given on long – term lease with necessary conditions for cancellation and re – entry in case of breach of terms of the lease document. The self – help combined with the use of locally available materials and methods of construction should be encouraged.
  12. 12. SLUMS.. #1212  The complete removal of slum has been recognized as the ultimate objective and slum improvement has been considered as an immediate alternative to give relief to the slum dwellers. The main difficulties to be encountered whileThe main difficulties to be encountered while pursuing the slum clearance programme are aspursuing the slum clearance programme are as follows:follows: Following are some of the measures which may beFollowing are some of the measures which may be adopted to make the slum clearance and rehousingadopted to make the slum clearance and rehousing schemes successful:schemes successful: Constraint of resources; High cost of alternative sites near place of work; Lengthy and time consuming procedures of the acquisition of slum area; Low rent paying capacity of the slum dwellers; Unwillingness of the slum dwellers to move from the areas selected for clearance. In the surrounding areas of the metropolitan city, a chain of growth canters, known as satellite towns, should be formed. The slum rehabilitation scheme may be combined with some commercial schemes so as to make it self- supporting in finance. The minimum carpet area including sanitary convenience may be decided for a family. The potentialities of the open plot scheme combined with self-help housing on the part of the slum community should be fully exploited. The state government should make enough provision in the budget every year for the construction of minimum houses for the slum population.
  13. 13. SLUMS.. #1313 Cheap housingCheap housing Construction ofConstruction of buildingsbuildings Maintenance andMaintenance and repairrepair Rent restrictionsRent restrictions Social educationSocial education The formation of slum is very slowThe formation of slum is very slow process and extreme care should beprocess and extreme care should be exercised by the authorities concerned toexercised by the authorities concerned to prevent the springing up of new slums inprevent the springing up of new slums in the town.the town. Some of the important measures whichSome of the important measures which can be taken to prevent slum formationcan be taken to prevent slum formation are as follows:are as follows:
  14. 14. SLUMS.. #1414 National Agenda of Governance and ‘Housing for All’ National Agenda of Governance (NAG) has identified ‘Housing for All’, both in urban and rural sectors, as a priority area with particular emphasis on the needs of the vulnerable groups. Although, shelters or housing for the Economically Weaker Sections (EWSs), Low Income Groups (LIGs), slum dwellers and shelter less may be a common concern in both these sectors alike, the problems of the homeless are more acutely pronounced in the urban sector, particularly in the wake of large scale migration and the phenomena of rural-urban transition. In this context, Delhi Master Plan 2021, now being formulated, is also being influenced by us to provide space for the marginalized and homeless in Delhi. Although, the shelter has been very beautifully defined in the Master Plan of Delhi 1991, giving due importance to socio-economic compatibility, livelihood, education, health and other priority areas, in the context of the EWS/ LIG but in terms of actual space and facilities, it remains untranslated on the ground.
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