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The usage of the future tenses


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The usage of the future tenses

  1. 1. Future Time <ul><li>Be going to </li></ul><ul><li>Will </li></ul><ul><li>Present Continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Present Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  2. 2. Be going to <ul><li>We use am/is/are going to to speak about: </li></ul><ul><li>Intention </li></ul><ul><li>We use the special “be going to” construction when we have the intention to do something before we speak. We have already made a decision before speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at these examples: </li></ul><ul><li>I have won $1,000. I am going to buy a new TV. </li></ul><ul><li>We're not going to see my mother tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>When are you going to go on holiday? </li></ul><ul><li>In these examples, we had an intention or plan before speaking. The decision had been made before we started to speak. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Be going to <ul><li>2. Prediction </li></ul><ul><li>We often use “be going to” to make a prediction about the future. Our prediction is based on evidence. We are saying what seems sure to happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are some examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The sky is very black. It is going to snow. </li></ul><ul><li>It's 8.30! You're going to miss the train! </li></ul><ul><li>I crashed the company car. My boss isn't going to be very happy! </li></ul><ul><li>In these examples, the present situation (black sky/the time/damaged car) gives us a good idea of what is going to happen. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Will <ul><li>One of the most common ways to talk about the future is using “will”, for example: I will call you tonight. We often call this the &quot;future simple tense&quot;, but technically there are no future tenses in English. In this construction, the word will is a modal auxiliary verb. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Will <ul><li>1. No plan </li></ul><ul><li>We use will when there is no prior plan or decision to do something before we speak. We make the decision at the time of speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at these examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Hold on. I'll get a pen. </li></ul><ul><li>We will see what we can do to help you. </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight. </li></ul><ul><li>In these examples, we had no firm plan before speaking. The decision was made at the time of speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>We often use will with the verb to think: </li></ul><ul><li>I think I'll go to the gym tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>I think I'll have a holiday next year. </li></ul><ul><li>I don't think I'll buy that car. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Will <ul><li>2 . Will be </li></ul><ul><li>The verb “be” is an exception with will. Even when we have a very firm plan, and we are not speaking spontaneously, we can use will with be. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at these examples: </li></ul><ul><li>I will be in London tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>There will be 50 people at the party. </li></ul><ul><li>The meeting will be at 9.30 am. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Will <ul><li>3. Prediction </li></ul><ul><li>We often use will to make a prediction about the future. Again, there is no firm plan. We are saying what we think will happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are some examples: </li></ul><ul><li>It will rain tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>People won't go to Jupiter before the 22nd century. </li></ul><ul><li>Who do you think will get the job? </li></ul>
  8. 8. “ Be going to” or “Will”? <ul><li>We use be going to for prediction when there is some real evidence: &quot;It's going to rain.&quot; (There's a big, black cloud in the sky and if it doesn't rain I'll be very surprised.) </li></ul><ul><li>We use will for prediction when we have no real evidence: &quot;It will rain tomorrow.&quot; (It's my feeling but I am not sure.) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Present Continuous <ul><li>1. Future arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>The present continuous is used to talk about arrangements for events at a time later than now. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a suggestion that more than one person is aware of the event, and that some preparation has already happened. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at these examples: </li></ul><ul><li>I'm meeting Jim at the airport = and both Jim and I have discussed this. </li></ul><ul><li>I am leaving tomorrow. = and I've already bought my train ticket. </li></ul><ul><li>We're having a staff meeting next Monday = and all the members of the staff have been told about it. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: use the Present Continuous especially with such verbs: meet, have, arrive and leave </li></ul>
  10. 10. Present Simple <ul><li>Timetable </li></ul><ul><li>When an event is on a schedule or timetable (for example, the take-off time for a plane), we often use the present simple to express the future. We usually use a future word (expressed or understood) like tomorrow, at 6.30pm, next week. </li></ul><ul><li>Only a few verbs are used in this way, for example: </li></ul><ul><li>be, open, close, begin, start, end, finish, arrive, come, leave, return </li></ul><ul><li>Look at these sentences: </li></ul><ul><li>The train leaves Detroit at 9pm tonight. </li></ul><ul><li>John starts work next week. </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow is Thursday. </li></ul><ul><li>BE CAREFUL! Present Simple is used when a future event is a part of a time-table. Notice the difference between: </li></ul><ul><li>We're having a staff meeting next Monday. </li></ul><ul><li>We have a staff meeting next Monday.(= we have a meeting every Monday, it's on our time-table.) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Summary <ul><li>This table gives a simple scale of probability for each structure. It is not exact because language is not a science, and there are many variables. This table should help you to think about the &quot;concept&quot; of the future in English. This concept does not exist in all languages, but it is rather important in English. </li></ul>% probability before speaker speaks of event happening structure used for example 0% will no plan Don't get up. I'll answer the phone. 70% Be going to intention We're going to watch TV tonight. 90% present continuous plan I'm taking my exam in June. 99.999% present simple schedule My plane takes off at 6.00am tomorrow.