Antimicrobial packaging - An Introduction


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Antimicrobial packaging - An Introduction

  1. 1. ANTIMICROBIAL PACKAGING Pragati Singham M. Tech (I year) FPEM 1
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction. Objective. Principle of antimicrobial packaging. Antimicrobial packaging system a) Composition b) Types c) Methods of antimicrobial agent incorporation d) Mechanism Engineering properties Effectiveness Design of antimicrobial food packaging system. References. 2
  3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION • Antimicrobial packaging is one of the application of active packaging. • It prevents surface growth of pathogenic microorganisms in food by use of antimicrobial agents where large portion of spoilage and contamination occurs. • It allows a controlled release of antimicrobial agents into the food surface during storage and distribution. 3
  4. 4. 2. OBJECTIVES Antimicrobial packaging Conventional food packaging 4
  5. 5. 3. PRINCIPLE • Antimicrobial packaging system is a hurdle to prevent degradation of total quality of packaged food, providing protection against micro-organisms. Fig. 5 J. H. Han, The University of Manitoba, Canada
  6. 6. 4. ANTIMICROBIAL PACKAGING SYSTEM 4. (a) COMPOSITION These consists of two componentsANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS:1. Natural antimicrobial agents – Plant sources-extracts of spices, oils. – Animal sources- chitosan. – Microorganism sources- bacteriocins, enzymes. 2. Chemical antimicrobial agents – Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, FILMS:– LDPE, LLDPE, PET, polyolefin, EVA 6
  8. 8. 4. (c) METHODS OF INCORPORATING ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS INTO FILMS 1. 2. 3. 4. Addition of sachets – pads Incorporation directly into the polymers Coating or adsorption on polymer surface Immobilization of antimicrobials by covalent linkages 5. Antimicrobial polymers 8
  9. 9. 4.(c) METHODS… 4.(c).1 ADDITION OF SACHETS-PADS (Source: Darby, PKGSC 430)
  10. 10. 4.(c) METHODS… 4. (c). 2. INCORPORATING DIRECTLY INTO POLYMERS32 EXTRUDER 10 (Source: Dzrby, PKGSC 430)
  11. 11. 4.(c) METHODS… 4.(C). 3. COATING OR ADSORPTION ON POLYMER SURFACE32 Fig. Gravure coater Gravure coater 11 (Source: Darby, PKGSC 430)
  13. 13. 4.(c) METHODS… 4. (c). 5.ANTIMICROBIAL POLYMER Chitosan polymer Chitosan polymer Poly-L-lysine 13 (Source: Darby, PKGSC 430
  14. 14. 4.(d) MECHANISM OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS:-23 Package/food system Package/headspace/food system 14 J. H. Han, The University of Manitoba, Canada
  15. 15. RELEASE PROFILE OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS FROM VARIOUS SYSTEM 15 Jung H. Han , Innovations in Food Packaging
  16. 16. 5. ENGINEERING PROPERTIES33 1. Gas barrier properties 2. Tensile strength 16
  17. 17. EFFECTIVENESS Ham (infected by E.coli) Inhibition zone of E.coli 17 Jung H. Han , Innovations in Food Packaging
  18. 18. 6. DESIGN OF ANTIMICROBIAL PACKAGING SYSTEM • Antimicrobial agent 34 • Incorporation methodSlide 32 • AM-agent packaging interactions32 • Regulatory requirements32 • Quality control 32 • Cost 32 18
  19. 19. COMMERCIAL ANTIMICROBIAL PACKAGING PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURES Trade name Active compounds Manufacturer Microban Triclosan Microban Products Co.(USA) Micro garde Clove and others Rhone- poulenc (USA) Take guard Bamboo extract Takex.Co. (Japan) Microfree Ag, copper oxide, zinc silicate DuPont (USA) Microatmosphere Chlorine dioxide Southwest Research Institute (USA), Bernard Technologies (USA). 19
  20. 20. RECENT ADVANCEMENT IN ANTIMICROBIAL PACKAGING FILMS A NEW ERA IN THE BATTLE AGAINST BACTERIA • Oplon (Israel) along with Reynold group commercialized the antimicrobial packaging. • No need for preservatives. • Reduce the cost of refrigeration and chilling. • Protects against antibiotic resistant and heat resistance pathogens. • Non-toxic, environmental friendly, and do not leach or release chemicals. 20
  21. 21. 7. REFERNCES • Han,J.H, (2000). Antimicrobial food packaging. Food technology 54(3):56-65 • Ha, J.U., Kim, Y.-M. and Lee, D.-S. (2001), Multilayered antimicrobial polyethylene films applied to the packaging of ground beef. Packag. Technol. Sci. • Han,J.H, (2003 ). Antimicrobial food packaging. In: Novel Food Packaging Techniques, edited by Ahvenainen, R., Cambridge: Woodhead publishing, pp 50-70 • Jin, T. and Zhang, H. (2008), Biodegradable Polylactic Acid Polymer with Nisin for Use in Antimicrobial Food Packaging. Journal of Food Science, 73 • Ouattara, B., Simard, R.E., Piette, G., Bégin, A. and Holley, R.A. (2000), Diffusion of Acetic and Propionic Acids from Chitosanbased Antimicrobial Packaging Films. Journal of Food Science, 21 65: 768–773.
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  24. 24. ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS:-6 Lee et. al (2001) Evaluated the antimicrobial activity of grounded beef against Micrococcus flavus and E. coli multilayer polyethylene incorporated with 0.5 to 1.0 % grape fruit seed extract (GFSE). Rakshit (2005) Incorporated GO (garlic oil) up to levels at least 100 μl/g, PS (potassium sorbate) at 100 mg/g or N (Nisin) at 51,000 IU/g of chitosan have effective antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and B. cereus. Linshu Liu et. Al (2007) Investigated the thermostability of both nisin & nisaplin in the presence of pectin during preparation poly lactic coextruded film. 24
  25. 25. ANTIMICROBIAL FILMS:-6 Dawson et. al (1998) Examined the inhibition activity of bacterial growth by introducing both nisin and lysozyme in combination with EDTA into films made from soy protein and corn zein Jin, and Zhang (2008) Demonstrated the Antimicrobial activity of PLA/nisin films against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Enteritidis in orage juice and liquid egg white. Lopez (2007) Developed flexible antimicrobial film PP and PE/EVOH incorporated with vapour phase essensial oils of cinnamon. Robert et. Al (2007) Investigated antimicrobial activity of Listeria innocua by incorporation of oregano oil (0.5 % w/w), lemongrass (1.01.5 % w/w) in puree alginate edible coating on fresh cut ‘Fuji’ apples. 25
  26. 26. MECHANISM:-16 Outtara (2006) Investigated that diffusion of acetic acid or propionic acid from thin chitosan based antimicrobial packaging film was reduced on lowering temperature from 24 to 4 °C 26
  27. 27. PROPERTIES19 Han & Floros (2003) Concluded no significant effect of potassium sorbate 3% (w/w) (antimicrobial agent) on the tensile properties of extruded packaging film. Ku & Song (2007) Suggested that incorporation of nisin (12000 IU/ml) into corn zein and gelatin (edible film) increase the tensile strength by 11.6 Mpa. It also reduce the water vapour permeability of film resulting in 1.4 log cycle reduction for corn zein and 0.6 log cycle reduction for gelatin 27
  29. 29. Incorporation of Antimicrobial Agents 29
  30. 30. Slide 19 30
  31. 31. Slide 19 31
  32. 32. SUITABLE FABRICATION METHOD OF ANTIMICROBIAL PACKAGING SYSTEM Antimocrobial substance Extrusion or heat pressing11 Surface Solvent coating12 immobilization or chemical bonding13 Organic acids and their salts PE, LDPE, PET, PS PEMA Chitosan film, proteins, methyl cellulose Bacteriocins or peptides LDPE PS, silicon, starch Proteins, polysaccharides PVOH, nylon Cellulose acetate, PVOH Enzymes Volatile and non volatile plant extracts LDPE ------ Chitosan Ag-zeolite in PP, LLDPE, PVC Polysaccharides, protein, paper, copolymer with olefins ----------32