M. Tech (I year)
Principle of antimicrobial packaging.
Antimicrobial packaging system
c) Methods of antimicrobial agent incorporation
Design of antimicrobial food packaging system.
• Antimicrobial packaging is one of the application of active
• It prevents surface growth of pathogenic microorganisms in
food by use of antimicrobial agents where large portion of
spoilage and contamination occurs.
• It allows a controlled release of antimicrobial agents into the
food surface during storage and distribution.
• Antimicrobial packaging system is a hurdle to prevent
degradation of total quality of packaged food, providing
protection against micro-organisms.
J. H. Han, The University of Manitoba, Canada
4. ANTIMICROBIAL PACKAGING SYSTEM
4. (a) COMPOSITION
These consists of two componentsANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS:1. Natural antimicrobial agents
– Plant sources-extracts of spices, oils.
– Animal sources- chitosan.
– Microorganism sources- bacteriocins, enzymes.
2. Chemical antimicrobial agents
– Benzoic acid, sorbic acid,
FILMS:– LDPE, LLDPE, PET, polyolefin, EVA
4. (b) TYPES OF ANTIMICROBIAL PACKAGING
4. (c) METHODS OF INCORPORATING ANTIMICROBIAL
AGENTS INTO FILMS
Addition of sachets – pads
Incorporation directly into the polymers
Coating or adsorption on polymer surface
Immobilization of antimicrobials by covalent
5. Antimicrobial polymers
Ham (infected by E.coli)
Inhibition zone of E.coli
Jung H. Han , Innovations in Food Packaging
6. DESIGN OF ANTIMICROBIAL PACKAGING
• Antimicrobial agent 34
• Incorporation methodSlide 32
• AM-agent packaging interactions32
• Regulatory requirements32
• Quality control 32
• Cost 32
COMMERCIAL ANTIMICROBIAL PACKAGING
PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURES
Microban Products Co.(USA)
Clove and others
Rhone- poulenc (USA)
Ag, copper oxide, zinc
Southwest Research Institute
(USA), Bernard Technologies
RECENT ADVANCEMENT IN ANTIMICROBIAL
A NEW ERA IN THE BATTLE AGAINST BACTERIA
• Oplon (Israel) along with Reynold group commercialized the
• No need for preservatives.
• Reduce the cost of refrigeration and chilling.
• Protects against antibiotic resistant and heat resistance
• Non-toxic, environmental friendly, and do not leach or release
• Han,J.H, (2000). Antimicrobial food packaging. Food
• Ha, J.U., Kim, Y.-M. and Lee, D.-S. (2001), Multilayered
antimicrobial polyethylene films applied to the packaging of
ground beef. Packag. Technol. Sci.
• Han,J.H, (2003 ). Antimicrobial food packaging. In: Novel Food
Packaging Techniques, edited by Ahvenainen, R., Cambridge:
Woodhead publishing, pp 50-70
• Jin, T. and Zhang, H. (2008), Biodegradable Polylactic Acid
Polymer with Nisin for Use in Antimicrobial Food Packaging.
Journal of Food Science, 73
• Ouattara, B., Simard, R.E., Piette, G., Bégin, A. and Holley, R.A.
(2000), Diffusion of Acetic and Propionic Acids from Chitosanbased Antimicrobial Packaging Films. Journal of Food Science,
Lee et. al (2001)
Evaluated the antimicrobial activity of grounded beef
against Micrococcus flavus and E. coli multilayer
polyethylene incorporated with 0.5 to 1.0 % grape fruit
seed extract (GFSE).
Rakshit et.al (2005)
Incorporated GO (garlic oil) up to levels at least 100 μl/g, PS
(potassium sorbate) at 100 mg/g or N (Nisin) at 51,000 IU/g
of chitosan have effective antimicrobial activity against S.
aureus, L. monocytogenes, and B. cereus.
Linshu Liu et. Al (2007)
Investigated the thermostability of both nisin & nisaplin in
the presence of pectin during preparation poly lactic coextruded film.
Dawson et. al (1998)
Examined the inhibition activity of bacterial growth by
introducing both nisin and lysozyme in combination with
EDTA into films made from soy protein and corn zein
Jin, and Zhang (2008)
Demonstrated the Antimicrobial activity of PLA/nisin films
against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and
Salmonella Enteritidis in orage juice and liquid egg white.
Lopez et.al (2007)
Developed flexible antimicrobial film PP and PE/EVOH
incorporated with vapour phase essensial oils of cinnamon.
Robert et. Al (2007)
Investigated antimicrobial activity of Listeria innocua by
incorporation of oregano oil (0.5 % w/w), lemongrass (1.01.5 % w/w) in puree alginate edible coating on fresh cut
Outtara et.al (2006)
Investigated that diffusion of acetic acid or propionic acid
from thin chitosan based antimicrobial packaging film was
reduced on lowering temperature from 24 to 4 °C
Han & Floros (2003)
Concluded no significant effect of potassium sorbate 3%
(w/w) (antimicrobial agent) on the tensile properties of
extruded packaging film.
Ku & Song (2007)
Suggested that incorporation of nisin (12000 IU/ml) into
corn zein and gelatin (edible film) increase the tensile
strength by 11.6 Mpa. It also reduce the water vapour
permeability of film resulting in 1.4 log cycle reduction for
corn zein and 0.6 log cycle reduction for gelatin