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Education in China - a Snapshot


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In 2015, three economies in China participated in the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment, or PISA, for the first time: Beijing, a municipality, Jiangsu, a province on the eastern coast of the country, and Guangdong, a southern coastal province. Shanghai, which, like Beijing, is also a Chinese megacity of over 20 million people, has participated in PISA since 2009. These four economies alone are home to more than 233 million people – more than the entire population of Brazil, nearly three times the population of Germany and nearly four times the population of France. What do we know about the largest education system in the world? A system that is educating 260 million young people, and that employs 15 million teachers? Not very much. This paper aims to change that. It provides a broad overview of how China’s education system is organised and operates, and how reforms, both past and current, have reshaped education in China over time. The report then examines in greater detail education in the four economies within China that participated in PISA 2015. It provides the context in which China’s participation in PISA – and its results in PISA – should be interpreted.

Published in: Education
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Education in China - a Snapshot

  1. 1. EDUCATION IN CHINA A SNAPSHOT Yuanyuan PAN (20/02/2017)
  2. 2. Outline • Background information • Organisation and management of education • Educational reforms and current issues • Participating regions in PISA 2015 2
  3. 3. Background Information on China’s Administrative System 3
  4. 4. Administrative DivisionsCentralGovernment Municipalities Counties Towns Provinces Counties Towns Autonomous Regions Special Administrative Regions Districts 4 • 4 Municipalities: Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing • 2 Special Administrative Regions: Hong Kong, Macao Province Level County Level Township Level Prefectures Prefectural Level
  5. 5. Hukou System (Domicile System) • Mainly issued by family (living place) • Two important feature – Type: • Agricultural • Non-agricultural – Location • Reform coming soon 5
  6. 6. Organisation and Management of Education in China 6
  7. 7. Schooling Development Ministry of Education Managing Development Policies and Reforms Educational Finance Teacher Student Curriculum 7
  8. 8. 8 Schooling Development Tertiary PhD. Program (3/5 years) Non-formal/Lifelong Master Program (3 years) Bachelor Program (4 years) Senior Secondary (3 years) General Specialized Vocational Crafts Junior Secondary/ Lower Secondary (3 years) Primary (6 years) Pre-School (3-4 years) About 6 years old High School Entrance Exam Graduate program Entrance Exam Compulsory Education College Entrance Exam (Gaokao) Specialized Degree (3 years) 15
  9. 9. Ministry/Bureau of EducationStateCouncil Ministry of Education 27 Departments 32 Affiliated Organizations NEEA … 75 Universities… 9 • Bureau of Education in local government with similar structure • Policies go from higher level to lower level • Each public school belongs to one level of Bureau/Ministry of Education
  10. 10. Managing the Development of Education • Five-year Guideline for Education – Educational development goal and basic ideas – Quantitative growth – Qualitative improvement in various areas • Special Development Plan 10 Basic goals in National 5-year Guideline 5-year Guideline for Education Development Summarize before the next 5-year period
  11. 11. National Policies Pilot Experiments Analyse the pilot experiments Implement nationwide Educational Policies and Reforms Research or Proposals Draft by MOE or BOE Draft for commands Published in bulletin 11 Send to lower-level government Policies: Reforms: • National medium and long-term educational reform and development program (2010-2020) • Department of Comprehensive Reform is established to lead reforms
  12. 12. Educational Finance • Main source: Government Appropriation for Education • 4 priorities are emphasized by MOE 1. Rural (especially primary education), remote, poor and minority areas 2. Vocational education and pre-school education 3. Subsidization for students from poor families 4. Expense on building high-quality teaching team 12
  13. 13. Teacher (Qualification and Register) Written Exam Interview Compliance certification 13 • 4 kinds of examinations for pre-school, primary, secondary, and vocational education separately, same mode: Both Passed • Regular Register System (implemented in 2013, every 5 years) • Requirements: – Pass the ethic evaluation and annual assessment – Finish no less than the required 360 training hours or get the equivalent amount credits – Psychological and physical health qualified – Other requirement by local governments
  14. 14. Teacher (Training) Teacher: • 360 class hours/5 years • 120 class hours for new • National Teacher Training Program – Project of Exemplary Teacher Training – Project of Rural Key Teacher Training 14 School Principal: • 240 class hours/5 years • 300 class hours for new • National School Principal Training Program • A half-year sabbatical leave every 5 years
  15. 15. Teacher (Training) • Teaching and Research Group System • Lecture Auditing System 15 Grade 1 Class 1 Grade 2 Class 1 Grade 3 Class1 Grade 1 Class 2 Grade 2 Class 2 Grade 3 Class 3 Grade 1 Class 3 Grade 2 Class 3 Grade 3 Class 3 – One leader in every class – One leader in every grade – All math teachers in one grade form a group with a leader – All math teachers in the school form a group with a leader
  16. 16. Teacher (Titles and Salaries) Professor Senior Senior First-grade Second-grade Third-grade 16 Professional titles: • Starting point can be Third/Second/First grade • Fixed percentage of all kinds of titles • Publications and rewards are needed to win the promotion chance • Proof of help with other teachers’ improvement is also required • Special-Grade Teacher Salaries (started in 2009): • Basic (about 70% of the total salary) • Performance salary
  17. 17. Curriculum 17 National Curriculum General principles Some course with lecture hours Provincial Curriculum Practical plan Some course with lecture hours Supervise schools School Curriculum School Courses with lecture hours Three -level Curriculum Morality Chinese Math PE Art English Practice Science Social S. Elective Primary Grade 1-3 √ √ √ √ √ Primary Grade 4-6 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Junior Secondary √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Senior Secondary Encourage individuality development ; pilot in credit system National-wide subjects for different grades
  18. 18. Educational Reforms and Current Issues 18
  19. 19. Inspection System Reform Rural-urban Difference Curriculum Reform College Entrance Examination Reform 19
  20. 20. Inspection System Reform • Office of National Education Inspectorate (1986) • Inspector for every school (Over 99% of schools have the inspector) • Specialized team Administration & Teaching • Standardized process 20 Visit School Feedback & Report School adjustment Revisit School
  21. 21. Rural-urban Difference • Balanced development of compulsory education – Infrastructure: • Rural Primary and Secondary Schools Dilapidated Building Renovation Project in Central and Western China • Rural Primary and Secondary Boarding Schools Project. – Better teaching resource • Special Teaching Post Plan for Rural Schools • Free Pre-Service Teacher Education Program – Special inspection certificate • Migrant student’s get access to education equally – All children real free compulsory education – Gaokao in living province 21
  22. 22. Curriculum Reform 22 Knowledge transmission Subject-centered curriculum Abstruse curriculum content Passive learning Exclusive identification and selection evaluation Centralization in curriculum control Learning how to learn Balanced, integrated and elective curriculum Essential knowledge and skills for lifelong learning Problem-solving Improvement centred Evaluation Central government, local authorities, and schools
  23. 23. College Entrance Examination Reform 23 Old • “3+X” mode • Once a year • Province independent New • “3+3” mode • More national • English level test • Some subjects twice a year • Shanghai & Zhejiang pilot experiment • Shanghai’s Spring Gaokao • University specific examinations Pilots: 2014 National promotion: 2017
  24. 24. PISA 2015 Chinese Participants 24 Beijing Shanghai Jiangsu Guangdong
  25. 25. General Statistics 25 City Name Population (in million) Area (in km2) GDP (in CNY trillion) GDP per capita (in CNY) Beijing 21.516 16,410 2.133 99,136 Shanghai 24.257 6,340 2.356 97,127 Jiangsu 79.600 102,600 6.509 81,771 Guangdong 107.240 179,800 6.779 63,213 City Name Primary Education Rank Lower Secondary Education Rank Beijing 21,727 1 32,544 1 Shanghai 19,518 2 25,445 2 Jiangsu 10,584 5 15,140 4 Guangdong 6,742 19 7,509 26 National Average 6,901 (31) 9,258 (31) Budgetary Government Appropriated Funds for Education per School Student (in 2013, in CNY) (“(31)” stands for the total. Data Source: Ministry of Education) (All the data are of 2014. Data Source: Beijing/Shanghai/Jiangsu/Guangdong Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin 2014, published in 2015)
  26. 26. Beijing • Capital • Leads in the citizen’s education level • Best higher education resource • Developed in science and technology research 26 Quality Equality Reform Goal • Training teachers at School • Introduce good resource through branches • Migrant children’s education • Electronic enrolment system City Features
  27. 27. Shanghai 27 • Largest city by population • Commercial and finance centre, highest GDP per capita • Most international city City Features • Lead in all kinds of reforms • Examination reform • Curriculum reform • Lead in universal education and balanced development
  28. 28. • Demonstration Zone for provincial pre-school education reform and development • First province to get the certificate of balanced development in compulsory education • First province to open Gaokao to migrant students 28 Jiangsu • Wealthy: second highest total GDP • Narrow difference in rural and urban compare to other provinces • Wealth gap between poor north and wealthy south City Features
  29. 29. • Increase the educational investment • Cooperation with Hong Kong and Macao • Shenzhen Special Economic Zone 29 Guangdong • Highest total GDP • Most populated, most migrant labours • Highest urbanized rate in provinces • Share Cantonese with Hong Kong and Macao, located nearby City Features (Source:
  30. 30. Personal Summary • Independent among province-level divisions, different but also similar • Large regional difference – West and East – Big city and other areas • Always on reform • Cultural influence: – Outstanding in education = brilliant future – Good at math = clever; Social science are lower than STEM 30
  31. 31. Thank You! Q&A 31 Email: