SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 20
Andreas Schleicher
Director
Directorate for Education and Skills
Andreas.SCHLEICHER@OECD.org
8 February 2024
Paris - SEARPN meeting
OECD Skills Outlook 2023
Skills for a Resilient Green and Digital Transition
https://oe.cd/skills-outlook
Making learning
resilient in a changing
climate
The prevalence of extreme weather events is increasing
-1
4
9
14
19
24
29
Days
Additional days per year of at least strong heat stress exposure (UTCI > 32°C) over 2017-21 compared to the
reference period 1981-2010
Exposure to extreme environmental conditions is
increasing
Source: OECD (2022). Skills Outlook 2023: Skills for a Resilient Green and Digital Transition.
Exposure to air pollution has decreased but remains
above acceptable thresholds
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
PM2.5 in micrograms per cubic
metre (µg/m3)
2000 2019 2021 WHO Air Quality Guidelines
Mean population exposure to PM2.5 in OECD countries, 2000 and 2019
Source: OECD (2022). Skills Outlook 2023: Skills for a Resilient Green and Digital Transition.
5
The role of skills policies to build a resilient green
transition
3
Adjust learning environments and develop
the range of skills and attitudes needed to
adapt to new environmental conditions
Strengthen the environmental
sustainability competence of individuals
Ensure that achieving ambitious climate
objectives does not lead to labour market
vulnerability
6
The role of skills policies to build a resilient green
transition
3
Adjust learning environments and develop
the range of skills and attitudes needed to
adapt to new environmental conditions
Strengthen the environmental
sustainability competence of individuals
Ensure that achieving ambitious climate
objectives does not lead to labour market
vulnerability
Achievement in PISA is lower for children experiencing
additional hot school days
• Test scores from 58 countries that participated
in PISA, 2000 – 2015
Park, Behrer and Goodman (2021)
• 10 additional school days above 27 °C (80 °F)
in the 3 years prior PISA exams correlate with
lowered scores of 15-year-olds by 2.2% of a SD
• The effect is larger in poorer countries,
consistent with lower adoption of adaptation
technologies (e.g., air conditioning)
.
Compulsory schooling
• Direct effect on brain development
• Impaired lung development
• Lowered birth weight
• Lowered height
High-stakes college
entrance exams
Tertiary educational attainment
and labour market sorting
Adult learning
Cognitive decline and
neurodegenerative diseases
In-utero
• Reduced school attendance due to
impaired health (e.g., asthma)
• Reduced quality of instructional time
due to behavioural and attentional
impairment and school closures
• Lower cognitive ability and performance
on high-stakes exams influence
educational and labour market sorting
• Lower willingness to engage in
cognitive activities
• Reduced work attendance and
increased breaks
• Increased risk of
neurodegenerative diseases such
as Alzheimer’s
• Lower performance
Extreme heat and air pollution impact skills
acquisition over the lifecourse
5
How does climate change influence learning
outcomes and skills acquisition
Mechanism
• Direct
• Indirect
Timing
• Transitory
• Cumulative
Birth weight
Height
Lung function / asthma
Behavioural issues
Cognitive ability &
achievement
High
temperatures
Pollution
Indirect mechanisms: in-utero exposure impairs
developmental health
Direct mechanisms: Effects on the brain in childhood
and beyond
Short-term physiological
impact on cognitive acuity
Transitory temperature and pollution exposures
during childhood and adulthood can directly lower
cognitive acuity and performance by:
• reducing the oxygen supplied to the brain
• short-term impact of temperature greater on
math skills
Long-term impact on brain
development
Transitory and cumulative pollution exposures
during gestation, early childhood and adulthood
can lead to
• brain abnormalities
• reduced white matter
• loss of neural tissue
• long-term impact of pollution greater on
verbal skills
High temperatures
and pollution
Indirect mechanisms: school effects
School
closures
Sickness
Lack of
attention
and
distraction
Behavioural
problems
 In low-income regions, the impact of heat also operates through an income
effect by reducing agricultural yields and lowering income, which results in:
• Lower body weight (BMI)
• Increased school absences
 … lowering further the quantity (e.g., absences) and quality of educational
investments and leading to long-term learning losses.
Indirect mechanisms: high-stakes exams
Decline in years of tertiary
education attained
Lower performance on high-
stakes exams
Pollution and temperature
Lower probability of getting into
Selective programmes
Suboptimal
labour market
sorting
Lower cognitive
skills
Indirect mechanisms: adult learning in cognitively-
demanding occupations
Environment-related illness
Discomfort and attentional
issues
Impaired mood / decision-
making
Work absences / lower quantity
worked
Lower quality of cognitive
investments
Cognitive ability
& performance
Caring for children or elderly
who are sick
Pollution and temperature
Inequalities: The effects of environmental conditions are
at least 1.5 – 2 times larger for disadvantaged students…
Higher exposure Disadvantaged students and adults are born in, live and work in areas with
greater exposure to environmental risks.
• Pollution is capitalised into housing prices
Lower ability for
adaptive investments
Performance is
‘’higher-stakes’’
Disadvantaged students and adults have a lower ability to invest in protective or
mitigating measures:
• Lower home and school-level adaptive investments (e.g., air conditioning)
• Tutoring
Each point on high-stakes exams is ‘’higher-stakes’’ in terms of educational and
labour-market sorting:
• Lower ability to re-take / invest in studying resources for exams
• Lower ability to capitalise and rely on social capital during the transition
to the labour market.
… and widen as people age.
Adaptive responses: technology for schools and
office-buildings
Air filters Air conditioning Ventilation
• Raises math scores by
20% of SD over 4
months, for $1000 per
class • Increasing ventilation can
improve performance of
office work by 6 percent, if
new air filters are installed
• In schools, offsets 50
percent of the impact of
heat on learning
Passive measures
• Flow of air in and out of a
building
• Removing indoor technology
• Painting ceilings white
• Installing heat-protective
windows
Mandating adaptive technologies in all
schools can ensure that low-SES students
have equal protection.
Re-organising the school curriculum
Curriculum
flexibility
High-stakes
exams
• Provision of online learning during high pollution and heat
episodes or school closures due to extreme weather events
• Allowing for re-scheduling / re-taking of exams due to adverse
environmental conditions, especially for disadvantaged students
• Adjusting the school calendar year according to local climate
• Starting school earlier in the day and placing all math courses in
the morning to attenuate the effects of heat on analytical skills
• Ensuring all students can attend testing sites with adequate adaptive
technologies
• Shifting reliance to other measures of student quality
Science proficiency does not guarantee
environmental sustainability competence
Students’ foundational levels environmental sustainability competence and science proficiency
% of students who achieved at least foundational levels in the four environmental sustainability competence areas and % of students with
science proficiency Level 2 and above
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
% Foundational Science proficiency Level 2 or above
Source: OECD Skills Outlook 2023, Chapter 2, PISA 2018
On average across OECD countries 78% of 15-year-old
students achieved at least at the PISA Level 2 but only
33% did the same and expressed attitudes and
behaviours in support of environmental sustainability.
14
Scope for improvement toward (equity in) enhancing
individuals' environmental sustainability competence
Foundational and advanced environmental competence levels by socio-economic status
% of 15-year-old students (OECD average)
Source: OECD Skills Outlook 2023, Chapter 2, PISA 2018
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Disadvantaged Advantaged Disadvantaged Advantaged
Foundational Advanced
%
On average, across OECD countries, 21% of
socio-economically disadvantaged but 46% of socio-
economically advantaged students had foundational levels
in environmental sustainability competence.
+25pp.
+19pp.
15
Want to know more?
Understanding how economic conditions and natural disasters shape environmental attitudes: A cross-
country comparison to inform policy making
The environmental sustainability competence toolbox: From leaving a better planet for our children to
leaving better children for our planet
Young people’s environmental sustainability competence: Emotional, cognitive, behavioural, and
attitudinal dimensions in EU and OECD countries
The effects of the EU Fit for 55 package on labour markets and the demand for skills
Swimming skills around the world: Evidence on inequalities in life skills across and within countries
Global warming, pollution and cognitive developments: The effects of high pollution and temperature
levels on cognitive ability throughout the life course
OECD Skills Outlook 2023. Skills for a Resilient Green and Digital Transition

More Related Content

What's hot

Future of technology in education 2019
Future of technology in education 2019Future of technology in education 2019
Future of technology in education 2019Sanket Bambodkar
 
The role of Education in an interconnected world webinar - Andreas Schleiche...
The role of Education in an interconnected world webinar - Andreas  Schleiche...The role of Education in an interconnected world webinar - Andreas  Schleiche...
The role of Education in an interconnected world webinar - Andreas Schleiche...EduSkills OECD
 
Internet of things and wireless sensor networks
Internet of things and wireless sensor networksInternet of things and wireless sensor networks
Internet of things and wireless sensor networksRonald Mutezo
 
Trends Shaping Education 2022 by Andreas Schleicher
Trends Shaping Education 2022 by Andreas SchleicherTrends Shaping Education 2022 by Andreas Schleicher
Trends Shaping Education 2022 by Andreas SchleicherEduSkills OECD
 
E learning is good for education system Powerpoint Presentation.
E learning is good for education system Powerpoint Presentation.E learning is good for education system Powerpoint Presentation.
E learning is good for education system Powerpoint Presentation.Nidhi Ladha
 
Air Quality Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks
Air Quality Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor NetworksAir Quality Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks
Air Quality Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networksijtsrd
 
Massive Open Online Course ( MOOC )
Massive Open Online Course ( MOOC )Massive Open Online Course ( MOOC )
Massive Open Online Course ( MOOC )Mabusela M.G
 
E Learning Presentation
E Learning PresentationE Learning Presentation
E Learning PresentationLBG
 
Home automation
Home automationHome automation
Home automationahmkashwa
 
Closing the Achievement Gap
Closing the Achievement GapClosing the Achievement Gap
Closing the Achievement GapEduSkills OECD
 
Industry 4.0 - Internet of Manufacturing
Industry 4.0 - Internet of ManufacturingIndustry 4.0 - Internet of Manufacturing
Industry 4.0 - Internet of ManufacturingInfosys Consulting
 
Block Chain Technology in Supply Chain for FMCG
Block Chain Technology in Supply Chain for FMCGBlock Chain Technology in Supply Chain for FMCG
Block Chain Technology in Supply Chain for FMCGAndrew Tan
 
Leveraging Cloud for Non-Production Environments
Leveraging Cloud for Non-Production EnvironmentsLeveraging Cloud for Non-Production Environments
Leveraging Cloud for Non-Production EnvironmentsCognizant
 
CII BCG big picture summit report 2021
CII BCG big picture summit report 2021CII BCG big picture summit report 2021
CII BCG big picture summit report 2021Social Samosa
 
About E learning
About E learning About E learning
About E learning Lili Lulu
 

What's hot (20)

Rethinking Education
Rethinking EducationRethinking Education
Rethinking Education
 
Future of technology in education 2019
Future of technology in education 2019Future of technology in education 2019
Future of technology in education 2019
 
The role of Education in an interconnected world webinar - Andreas Schleiche...
The role of Education in an interconnected world webinar - Andreas  Schleiche...The role of Education in an interconnected world webinar - Andreas  Schleiche...
The role of Education in an interconnected world webinar - Andreas Schleiche...
 
Internet of things and wireless sensor networks
Internet of things and wireless sensor networksInternet of things and wireless sensor networks
Internet of things and wireless sensor networks
 
Trends Shaping Education 2022 by Andreas Schleicher
Trends Shaping Education 2022 by Andreas SchleicherTrends Shaping Education 2022 by Andreas Schleicher
Trends Shaping Education 2022 by Andreas Schleicher
 
IoT Healthcare
IoT HealthcareIoT Healthcare
IoT Healthcare
 
E learning is good for education system Powerpoint Presentation.
E learning is good for education system Powerpoint Presentation.E learning is good for education system Powerpoint Presentation.
E learning is good for education system Powerpoint Presentation.
 
Education in covid19 era
Education in covid19 eraEducation in covid19 era
Education in covid19 era
 
Air Quality Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks
Air Quality Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor NetworksAir Quality Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks
Air Quality Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks
 
Massive Open Online Course ( MOOC )
Massive Open Online Course ( MOOC )Massive Open Online Course ( MOOC )
Massive Open Online Course ( MOOC )
 
E Learning Presentation
E Learning PresentationE Learning Presentation
E Learning Presentation
 
Industry 4.0
Industry 4.0Industry 4.0
Industry 4.0
 
Home automation
Home automationHome automation
Home automation
 
Closing the Achievement Gap
Closing the Achievement GapClosing the Achievement Gap
Closing the Achievement Gap
 
Industry 4.0 - Internet of Manufacturing
Industry 4.0 - Internet of ManufacturingIndustry 4.0 - Internet of Manufacturing
Industry 4.0 - Internet of Manufacturing
 
E learning
E learningE learning
E learning
 
Block Chain Technology in Supply Chain for FMCG
Block Chain Technology in Supply Chain for FMCGBlock Chain Technology in Supply Chain for FMCG
Block Chain Technology in Supply Chain for FMCG
 
Leveraging Cloud for Non-Production Environments
Leveraging Cloud for Non-Production EnvironmentsLeveraging Cloud for Non-Production Environments
Leveraging Cloud for Non-Production Environments
 
CII BCG big picture summit report 2021
CII BCG big picture summit report 2021CII BCG big picture summit report 2021
CII BCG big picture summit report 2021
 
About E learning
About E learning About E learning
About E learning
 

Similar to Andreas Schleicher - Making learning resilient in a changing climate - 8 February - Skills Outlook.pptx

Finland and PISA
Finland and PISAFinland and PISA
Finland and PISAOECD
 
Evaluation of Activities in the Network "GreeNET" - Michaela Marterer and Pet...
Evaluation of Activities in the Network "GreeNET" - Michaela Marterer and Pet...Evaluation of Activities in the Network "GreeNET" - Michaela Marterer and Pet...
Evaluation of Activities in the Network "GreeNET" - Michaela Marterer and Pet...EDEN Digital Learning Europe
 
Australia's education system in the mirror of other OECD systems
Australia's education system in the mirror of other OECD systemsAustralia's education system in the mirror of other OECD systems
Australia's education system in the mirror of other OECD systemsOECD
 
The impact of e-Learning in students daily life
The impact of e-Learning in students daily lifeThe impact of e-Learning in students daily life
The impact of e-Learning in students daily lifeFilipa Ramalhete
 
Symposium D: 'Physiology learning through social education' by Aléchia van Wyk
Symposium D: 'Physiology learning through social education' by Aléchia van WykSymposium D: 'Physiology learning through social education' by Aléchia van Wyk
Symposium D: 'Physiology learning through social education' by Aléchia van Wykmdxaltc
 
Zachary Community School District Town Hall Presentation
Zachary Community School District Town Hall PresentationZachary Community School District Town Hall Presentation
Zachary Community School District Town Hall Presentationadonicaduggan
 
AACTE Wilbur Cohen Lecture - Teachers teaching and learning
AACTE Wilbur Cohen Lecture - Teachers teaching and learningAACTE Wilbur Cohen Lecture - Teachers teaching and learning
AACTE Wilbur Cohen Lecture - Teachers teaching and learningOECD
 
Design and Technology Association’s 3rd Annual Consultant Conference
Design and Technology Association’s 3rd Annual Consultant ConferenceDesign and Technology Association’s 3rd Annual Consultant Conference
Design and Technology Association’s 3rd Annual Consultant ConferenceOfsted
 
ESC Metro Green Team Presentation "Greening the Culture of 325 Hudson Street
ESC Metro Green Team Presentation "Greening the Culture of 325 Hudson StreetESC Metro Green Team Presentation "Greening the Culture of 325 Hudson Street
ESC Metro Green Team Presentation "Greening the Culture of 325 Hudson Streetmojo61
 
Impact Report 061110
Impact Report 061110Impact Report 061110
Impact Report 061110rblamire
 
SCP: Our Shared Challenges - Dr. Zinaida Fadeeva (Advisor on Sustainable Cons...
SCP: Our Shared Challenges - Dr. Zinaida Fadeeva (Advisor on Sustainable Cons...SCP: Our Shared Challenges - Dr. Zinaida Fadeeva (Advisor on Sustainable Cons...
SCP: Our Shared Challenges - Dr. Zinaida Fadeeva (Advisor on Sustainable Cons...ESD UNU-IAS
 
BASIC-EDUCATION-LEARNING-RECOVERY-AND-CONTINUITY-PLAN-2022-23.pptx
BASIC-EDUCATION-LEARNING-RECOVERY-AND-CONTINUITY-PLAN-2022-23.pptxBASIC-EDUCATION-LEARNING-RECOVERY-AND-CONTINUITY-PLAN-2022-23.pptx
BASIC-EDUCATION-LEARNING-RECOVERY-AND-CONTINUITY-PLAN-2022-23.pptxroselimaguita
 
Speak Up 2020 Congressional Briefing
Speak Up 2020 Congressional BriefingSpeak Up 2020 Congressional Briefing
Speak Up 2020 Congressional BriefingJulie Evans
 
2010 e-stockholm (international compoarisons) - long - rev 1.1
2010 e-stockholm (international compoarisons) - long - rev 1.12010 e-stockholm (international compoarisons) - long - rev 1.1
2010 e-stockholm (international compoarisons) - long - rev 1.1OECD
 
AB0401 S02 Grp 3 Bryan Lim, Olivia Tan, Chong ZhiHui, Toh Yilin, Ang GuoXiang...
AB0401 S02 Grp 3 Bryan Lim, Olivia Tan, Chong ZhiHui, Toh Yilin, Ang GuoXiang...AB0401 S02 Grp 3 Bryan Lim, Olivia Tan, Chong ZhiHui, Toh Yilin, Ang GuoXiang...
AB0401 S02 Grp 3 Bryan Lim, Olivia Tan, Chong ZhiHui, Toh Yilin, Ang GuoXiang...NBS
 
Impact of technology in primary schools in Europe
Impact of technology in primary schools in EuropeImpact of technology in primary schools in Europe
Impact of technology in primary schools in Europerblamire
 
2010 B Paris (School Failure) Schleicher Short
2010 B Paris (School Failure)   Schleicher Short2010 B Paris (School Failure)   Schleicher Short
2010 B Paris (School Failure) Schleicher Shortguesta5fb2
 
2010 B Paris (School Failure) Schleicher Short
2010 B Paris (School Failure)   Schleicher Short2010 B Paris (School Failure)   Schleicher Short
2010 B Paris (School Failure) Schleicher Shortguesta5fb2
 

Similar to Andreas Schleicher - Making learning resilient in a changing climate - 8 February - Skills Outlook.pptx (20)

Francesca Borgonovi.pdf
Francesca Borgonovi.pdfFrancesca Borgonovi.pdf
Francesca Borgonovi.pdf
 
Finland and PISA
Finland and PISAFinland and PISA
Finland and PISA
 
Evaluation of Activities in the Network "GreeNET" - Michaela Marterer and Pet...
Evaluation of Activities in the Network "GreeNET" - Michaela Marterer and Pet...Evaluation of Activities in the Network "GreeNET" - Michaela Marterer and Pet...
Evaluation of Activities in the Network "GreeNET" - Michaela Marterer and Pet...
 
Australia's education system in the mirror of other OECD systems
Australia's education system in the mirror of other OECD systemsAustralia's education system in the mirror of other OECD systems
Australia's education system in the mirror of other OECD systems
 
The impact of e-Learning in students daily life
The impact of e-Learning in students daily lifeThe impact of e-Learning in students daily life
The impact of e-Learning in students daily life
 
Symposium D: 'Physiology learning through social education' by Aléchia van Wyk
Symposium D: 'Physiology learning through social education' by Aléchia van WykSymposium D: 'Physiology learning through social education' by Aléchia van Wyk
Symposium D: 'Physiology learning through social education' by Aléchia van Wyk
 
Zachary Community School District Town Hall Presentation
Zachary Community School District Town Hall PresentationZachary Community School District Town Hall Presentation
Zachary Community School District Town Hall Presentation
 
AACTE Wilbur Cohen Lecture - Teachers teaching and learning
AACTE Wilbur Cohen Lecture - Teachers teaching and learningAACTE Wilbur Cohen Lecture - Teachers teaching and learning
AACTE Wilbur Cohen Lecture - Teachers teaching and learning
 
Design and Technology Association’s 3rd Annual Consultant Conference
Design and Technology Association’s 3rd Annual Consultant ConferenceDesign and Technology Association’s 3rd Annual Consultant Conference
Design and Technology Association’s 3rd Annual Consultant Conference
 
ESC Metro Green Team Presentation "Greening the Culture of 325 Hudson Street
ESC Metro Green Team Presentation "Greening the Culture of 325 Hudson StreetESC Metro Green Team Presentation "Greening the Culture of 325 Hudson Street
ESC Metro Green Team Presentation "Greening the Culture of 325 Hudson Street
 
Impact Report 061110
Impact Report 061110Impact Report 061110
Impact Report 061110
 
SCP: Our Shared Challenges - Dr. Zinaida Fadeeva (Advisor on Sustainable Cons...
SCP: Our Shared Challenges - Dr. Zinaida Fadeeva (Advisor on Sustainable Cons...SCP: Our Shared Challenges - Dr. Zinaida Fadeeva (Advisor on Sustainable Cons...
SCP: Our Shared Challenges - Dr. Zinaida Fadeeva (Advisor on Sustainable Cons...
 
BASIC-EDUCATION-LEARNING-RECOVERY-AND-CONTINUITY-PLAN-2022-23.pptx
BASIC-EDUCATION-LEARNING-RECOVERY-AND-CONTINUITY-PLAN-2022-23.pptxBASIC-EDUCATION-LEARNING-RECOVERY-AND-CONTINUITY-PLAN-2022-23.pptx
BASIC-EDUCATION-LEARNING-RECOVERY-AND-CONTINUITY-PLAN-2022-23.pptx
 
Speak Up 2020 Congressional Briefing
Speak Up 2020 Congressional BriefingSpeak Up 2020 Congressional Briefing
Speak Up 2020 Congressional Briefing
 
2010 e-stockholm (international compoarisons) - long - rev 1.1
2010 e-stockholm (international compoarisons) - long - rev 1.12010 e-stockholm (international compoarisons) - long - rev 1.1
2010 e-stockholm (international compoarisons) - long - rev 1.1
 
AB0401 S02 Grp 3 Bryan Lim, Olivia Tan, Chong ZhiHui, Toh Yilin, Ang GuoXiang...
AB0401 S02 Grp 3 Bryan Lim, Olivia Tan, Chong ZhiHui, Toh Yilin, Ang GuoXiang...AB0401 S02 Grp 3 Bryan Lim, Olivia Tan, Chong ZhiHui, Toh Yilin, Ang GuoXiang...
AB0401 S02 Grp 3 Bryan Lim, Olivia Tan, Chong ZhiHui, Toh Yilin, Ang GuoXiang...
 
Impact of technology in primary schools in Europe
Impact of technology in primary schools in EuropeImpact of technology in primary schools in Europe
Impact of technology in primary schools in Europe
 
Mspp presentation
Mspp presentationMspp presentation
Mspp presentation
 
2010 B Paris (School Failure) Schleicher Short
2010 B Paris (School Failure)   Schleicher Short2010 B Paris (School Failure)   Schleicher Short
2010 B Paris (School Failure) Schleicher Short
 
2010 B Paris (School Failure) Schleicher Short
2010 B Paris (School Failure)   Schleicher Short2010 B Paris (School Failure)   Schleicher Short
2010 B Paris (School Failure) Schleicher Short
 

More from EduSkills OECD

Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...EduSkills OECD
 
Presentation by Andreas Schleicher Tackling the School Absenteeism Crisis 30 ...
Presentation by Andreas Schleicher Tackling the School Absenteeism Crisis 30 ...Presentation by Andreas Schleicher Tackling the School Absenteeism Crisis 30 ...
Presentation by Andreas Schleicher Tackling the School Absenteeism Crisis 30 ...EduSkills OECD
 
AI & cheating on high-stakes exams in upper secondary - Introduction by Shivi...
AI & cheating on high-stakes exams in upper secondary - Introduction by Shivi...AI & cheating on high-stakes exams in upper secondary - Introduction by Shivi...
AI & cheating on high-stakes exams in upper secondary - Introduction by Shivi...EduSkills OECD
 
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...EduSkills OECD
 
PISA-VET launch_El Iza Mohamedou_19 March 2024.pptx
PISA-VET launch_El Iza Mohamedou_19 March 2024.pptxPISA-VET launch_El Iza Mohamedou_19 March 2024.pptx
PISA-VET launch_El Iza Mohamedou_19 March 2024.pptxEduSkills OECD
 
Andreas Schleicher_OECD-ISSA webinar_Diversity plus Quality, does it equal Eq...
Andreas Schleicher_OECD-ISSA webinar_Diversity plus Quality, does it equal Eq...Andreas Schleicher_OECD-ISSA webinar_Diversity plus Quality, does it equal Eq...
Andreas Schleicher_OECD-ISSA webinar_Diversity plus Quality, does it equal Eq...EduSkills OECD
 
Managing Choice, Coherence and Specialisation in Upper Secondary Education - ...
Managing Choice, Coherence and Specialisation in Upper Secondary Education - ...Managing Choice, Coherence and Specialisation in Upper Secondary Education - ...
Managing Choice, Coherence and Specialisation in Upper Secondary Education - ...EduSkills OECD
 
Andreas Schleicher_ Strengthening Upper Secondary Education in Lithuania
Andreas Schleicher_ Strengthening Upper Secondary  Education in LithuaniaAndreas Schleicher_ Strengthening Upper Secondary  Education in Lithuania
Andreas Schleicher_ Strengthening Upper Secondary Education in LithuaniaEduSkills OECD
 
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...EduSkills OECD
 
Andreas Schleicher - Teach for All 8 February 2024.pptx
Andreas Schleicher - Teach for All 8 February 2024.pptxAndreas Schleicher - Teach for All 8 February 2024.pptx
Andreas Schleicher - Teach for All 8 February 2024.pptxEduSkills OECD
 
Jordan Hill - Presentation of Engaging with education research- With a little...
Jordan Hill - Presentation of Engaging with education research- With a little...Jordan Hill - Presentation of Engaging with education research- With a little...
Jordan Hill - Presentation of Engaging with education research- With a little...EduSkills OECD
 
RETHINKING ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL SKILLS by Adriano Linzarini OEC...
RETHINKING ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL SKILLS by Adriano Linzarini OEC...RETHINKING ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL SKILLS by Adriano Linzarini OEC...
RETHINKING ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL SKILLS by Adriano Linzarini OEC...EduSkills OECD
 
Andreas Schleicher Global Launch of PISA - Presentation - 5 December 2023
Andreas Schleicher Global Launch of PISA - Presentation - 5 December 2023Andreas Schleicher Global Launch of PISA - Presentation - 5 December 2023
Andreas Schleicher Global Launch of PISA - Presentation - 5 December 2023EduSkills OECD
 
Moving up into upper secondary by Hannah Kitchen - OECD Education Webinar 23N...
Moving up into upper secondary by Hannah Kitchen - OECD Education Webinar 23N...Moving up into upper secondary by Hannah Kitchen - OECD Education Webinar 23N...
Moving up into upper secondary by Hannah Kitchen - OECD Education Webinar 23N...EduSkills OECD
 
Mathematics in PISA by Andreas Schleicher - 31 October 2023 OECD Webinar.pptx
Mathematics in PISA by Andreas Schleicher - 31 October 2023 OECD Webinar.pptxMathematics in PISA by Andreas Schleicher - 31 October 2023 OECD Webinar.pptx
Mathematics in PISA by Andreas Schleicher - 31 October 2023 OECD Webinar.pptxEduSkills OECD
 
PISA in Practice - The Power of Data to Improve Education - Andreas Schleiche...
PISA in Practice - The Power of Data to Improve Education - Andreas Schleiche...PISA in Practice - The Power of Data to Improve Education - Andreas Schleiche...
PISA in Practice - The Power of Data to Improve Education - Andreas Schleiche...EduSkills OECD
 
Ana Carrero -European year of skills – EU update
Ana Carrero -European year of skills – EU updateAna Carrero -European year of skills – EU update
Ana Carrero -European year of skills – EU updateEduSkills OECD
 
Building Future Ready VET systems - EU OECD webinar, 26 October 2023 - Malgor...
Building Future Ready VET systems - EU OECD webinar, 26 October 2023 - Malgor...Building Future Ready VET systems - EU OECD webinar, 26 October 2023 - Malgor...
Building Future Ready VET systems - EU OECD webinar, 26 October 2023 - Malgor...EduSkills OECD
 
Key indicators on vocational education - Insights from Education at a Glance ...
Key indicators on vocational education - Insights from Education at a Glance ...Key indicators on vocational education - Insights from Education at a Glance ...
Key indicators on vocational education - Insights from Education at a Glance ...EduSkills OECD
 
Disrupted Futures 2023 | gender stereotype free career guidance
Disrupted Futures 2023 | gender stereotype free career guidanceDisrupted Futures 2023 | gender stereotype free career guidance
Disrupted Futures 2023 | gender stereotype free career guidanceEduSkills OECD
 

More from EduSkills OECD (20)

Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
 
Presentation by Andreas Schleicher Tackling the School Absenteeism Crisis 30 ...
Presentation by Andreas Schleicher Tackling the School Absenteeism Crisis 30 ...Presentation by Andreas Schleicher Tackling the School Absenteeism Crisis 30 ...
Presentation by Andreas Schleicher Tackling the School Absenteeism Crisis 30 ...
 
AI & cheating on high-stakes exams in upper secondary - Introduction by Shivi...
AI & cheating on high-stakes exams in upper secondary - Introduction by Shivi...AI & cheating on high-stakes exams in upper secondary - Introduction by Shivi...
AI & cheating on high-stakes exams in upper secondary - Introduction by Shivi...
 
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
 
PISA-VET launch_El Iza Mohamedou_19 March 2024.pptx
PISA-VET launch_El Iza Mohamedou_19 March 2024.pptxPISA-VET launch_El Iza Mohamedou_19 March 2024.pptx
PISA-VET launch_El Iza Mohamedou_19 March 2024.pptx
 
Andreas Schleicher_OECD-ISSA webinar_Diversity plus Quality, does it equal Eq...
Andreas Schleicher_OECD-ISSA webinar_Diversity plus Quality, does it equal Eq...Andreas Schleicher_OECD-ISSA webinar_Diversity plus Quality, does it equal Eq...
Andreas Schleicher_OECD-ISSA webinar_Diversity plus Quality, does it equal Eq...
 
Managing Choice, Coherence and Specialisation in Upper Secondary Education - ...
Managing Choice, Coherence and Specialisation in Upper Secondary Education - ...Managing Choice, Coherence and Specialisation in Upper Secondary Education - ...
Managing Choice, Coherence and Specialisation in Upper Secondary Education - ...
 
Andreas Schleicher_ Strengthening Upper Secondary Education in Lithuania
Andreas Schleicher_ Strengthening Upper Secondary  Education in LithuaniaAndreas Schleicher_ Strengthening Upper Secondary  Education in Lithuania
Andreas Schleicher_ Strengthening Upper Secondary Education in Lithuania
 
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
 
Andreas Schleicher - Teach for All 8 February 2024.pptx
Andreas Schleicher - Teach for All 8 February 2024.pptxAndreas Schleicher - Teach for All 8 February 2024.pptx
Andreas Schleicher - Teach for All 8 February 2024.pptx
 
Jordan Hill - Presentation of Engaging with education research- With a little...
Jordan Hill - Presentation of Engaging with education research- With a little...Jordan Hill - Presentation of Engaging with education research- With a little...
Jordan Hill - Presentation of Engaging with education research- With a little...
 
RETHINKING ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL SKILLS by Adriano Linzarini OEC...
RETHINKING ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL SKILLS by Adriano Linzarini OEC...RETHINKING ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL SKILLS by Adriano Linzarini OEC...
RETHINKING ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL SKILLS by Adriano Linzarini OEC...
 
Andreas Schleicher Global Launch of PISA - Presentation - 5 December 2023
Andreas Schleicher Global Launch of PISA - Presentation - 5 December 2023Andreas Schleicher Global Launch of PISA - Presentation - 5 December 2023
Andreas Schleicher Global Launch of PISA - Presentation - 5 December 2023
 
Moving up into upper secondary by Hannah Kitchen - OECD Education Webinar 23N...
Moving up into upper secondary by Hannah Kitchen - OECD Education Webinar 23N...Moving up into upper secondary by Hannah Kitchen - OECD Education Webinar 23N...
Moving up into upper secondary by Hannah Kitchen - OECD Education Webinar 23N...
 
Mathematics in PISA by Andreas Schleicher - 31 October 2023 OECD Webinar.pptx
Mathematics in PISA by Andreas Schleicher - 31 October 2023 OECD Webinar.pptxMathematics in PISA by Andreas Schleicher - 31 October 2023 OECD Webinar.pptx
Mathematics in PISA by Andreas Schleicher - 31 October 2023 OECD Webinar.pptx
 
PISA in Practice - The Power of Data to Improve Education - Andreas Schleiche...
PISA in Practice - The Power of Data to Improve Education - Andreas Schleiche...PISA in Practice - The Power of Data to Improve Education - Andreas Schleiche...
PISA in Practice - The Power of Data to Improve Education - Andreas Schleiche...
 
Ana Carrero -European year of skills – EU update
Ana Carrero -European year of skills – EU updateAna Carrero -European year of skills – EU update
Ana Carrero -European year of skills – EU update
 
Building Future Ready VET systems - EU OECD webinar, 26 October 2023 - Malgor...
Building Future Ready VET systems - EU OECD webinar, 26 October 2023 - Malgor...Building Future Ready VET systems - EU OECD webinar, 26 October 2023 - Malgor...
Building Future Ready VET systems - EU OECD webinar, 26 October 2023 - Malgor...
 
Key indicators on vocational education - Insights from Education at a Glance ...
Key indicators on vocational education - Insights from Education at a Glance ...Key indicators on vocational education - Insights from Education at a Glance ...
Key indicators on vocational education - Insights from Education at a Glance ...
 
Disrupted Futures 2023 | gender stereotype free career guidance
Disrupted Futures 2023 | gender stereotype free career guidanceDisrupted Futures 2023 | gender stereotype free career guidance
Disrupted Futures 2023 | gender stereotype free career guidance
 

Recently uploaded

How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptxHow to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptxCeline George
 
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital ManagementMBA Assignment Experts
 
Book Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint
Book Review of Run For Your Life PowerpointBook Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint
Book Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint23600690
 
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxAdelaideRefugio
 
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfFICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfPondicherry University
 
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSean M. Fox
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjMohammed Sikander
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesAmanpreetKaur157993
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxMarlene Maheu
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024Borja Sotomayor
 
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical PrinciplesTrauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical PrinciplesPooky Knightsmith
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnershipsexpandedwebsite
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................MirzaAbrarBaig5
 
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopale-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi RajagopalEADTU
 
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
ANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptxANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptx
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptxPoojaSen20
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchCaitlinCummins3
 
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17Celine George
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge AppAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge AppCeline George
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptxHow to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
 
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management
 
Book Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint
Book Review of Run For Your Life PowerpointBook Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint
Book Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint
 
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
 
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfFICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
 
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
 
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical PrinciplesTrauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................
 
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopale-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
 
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
ANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptxANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptx
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
 
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge AppAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
 

Andreas Schleicher - Making learning resilient in a changing climate - 8 February - Skills Outlook.pptx

  • 1. Andreas Schleicher Director Directorate for Education and Skills Andreas.SCHLEICHER@OECD.org 8 February 2024 Paris - SEARPN meeting OECD Skills Outlook 2023 Skills for a Resilient Green and Digital Transition https://oe.cd/skills-outlook Making learning resilient in a changing climate
  • 2. The prevalence of extreme weather events is increasing
  • 3. -1 4 9 14 19 24 29 Days Additional days per year of at least strong heat stress exposure (UTCI > 32°C) over 2017-21 compared to the reference period 1981-2010 Exposure to extreme environmental conditions is increasing Source: OECD (2022). Skills Outlook 2023: Skills for a Resilient Green and Digital Transition.
  • 4. Exposure to air pollution has decreased but remains above acceptable thresholds 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 PM2.5 in micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) 2000 2019 2021 WHO Air Quality Guidelines Mean population exposure to PM2.5 in OECD countries, 2000 and 2019 Source: OECD (2022). Skills Outlook 2023: Skills for a Resilient Green and Digital Transition.
  • 5. 5 The role of skills policies to build a resilient green transition 3 Adjust learning environments and develop the range of skills and attitudes needed to adapt to new environmental conditions Strengthen the environmental sustainability competence of individuals Ensure that achieving ambitious climate objectives does not lead to labour market vulnerability
  • 6. 6 The role of skills policies to build a resilient green transition 3 Adjust learning environments and develop the range of skills and attitudes needed to adapt to new environmental conditions Strengthen the environmental sustainability competence of individuals Ensure that achieving ambitious climate objectives does not lead to labour market vulnerability
  • 7. Achievement in PISA is lower for children experiencing additional hot school days • Test scores from 58 countries that participated in PISA, 2000 – 2015 Park, Behrer and Goodman (2021) • 10 additional school days above 27 °C (80 °F) in the 3 years prior PISA exams correlate with lowered scores of 15-year-olds by 2.2% of a SD • The effect is larger in poorer countries, consistent with lower adoption of adaptation technologies (e.g., air conditioning)
  • 8. . Compulsory schooling • Direct effect on brain development • Impaired lung development • Lowered birth weight • Lowered height High-stakes college entrance exams Tertiary educational attainment and labour market sorting Adult learning Cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases In-utero • Reduced school attendance due to impaired health (e.g., asthma) • Reduced quality of instructional time due to behavioural and attentional impairment and school closures • Lower cognitive ability and performance on high-stakes exams influence educational and labour market sorting • Lower willingness to engage in cognitive activities • Reduced work attendance and increased breaks • Increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s • Lower performance Extreme heat and air pollution impact skills acquisition over the lifecourse 5
  • 9. How does climate change influence learning outcomes and skills acquisition Mechanism • Direct • Indirect Timing • Transitory • Cumulative
  • 10. Birth weight Height Lung function / asthma Behavioural issues Cognitive ability & achievement High temperatures Pollution Indirect mechanisms: in-utero exposure impairs developmental health
  • 11. Direct mechanisms: Effects on the brain in childhood and beyond Short-term physiological impact on cognitive acuity Transitory temperature and pollution exposures during childhood and adulthood can directly lower cognitive acuity and performance by: • reducing the oxygen supplied to the brain • short-term impact of temperature greater on math skills Long-term impact on brain development Transitory and cumulative pollution exposures during gestation, early childhood and adulthood can lead to • brain abnormalities • reduced white matter • loss of neural tissue • long-term impact of pollution greater on verbal skills High temperatures and pollution
  • 12. Indirect mechanisms: school effects School closures Sickness Lack of attention and distraction Behavioural problems  In low-income regions, the impact of heat also operates through an income effect by reducing agricultural yields and lowering income, which results in: • Lower body weight (BMI) • Increased school absences  … lowering further the quantity (e.g., absences) and quality of educational investments and leading to long-term learning losses.
  • 13. Indirect mechanisms: high-stakes exams Decline in years of tertiary education attained Lower performance on high- stakes exams Pollution and temperature Lower probability of getting into Selective programmes Suboptimal labour market sorting Lower cognitive skills
  • 14. Indirect mechanisms: adult learning in cognitively- demanding occupations Environment-related illness Discomfort and attentional issues Impaired mood / decision- making Work absences / lower quantity worked Lower quality of cognitive investments Cognitive ability & performance Caring for children or elderly who are sick Pollution and temperature
  • 15. Inequalities: The effects of environmental conditions are at least 1.5 – 2 times larger for disadvantaged students… Higher exposure Disadvantaged students and adults are born in, live and work in areas with greater exposure to environmental risks. • Pollution is capitalised into housing prices Lower ability for adaptive investments Performance is ‘’higher-stakes’’ Disadvantaged students and adults have a lower ability to invest in protective or mitigating measures: • Lower home and school-level adaptive investments (e.g., air conditioning) • Tutoring Each point on high-stakes exams is ‘’higher-stakes’’ in terms of educational and labour-market sorting: • Lower ability to re-take / invest in studying resources for exams • Lower ability to capitalise and rely on social capital during the transition to the labour market. … and widen as people age.
  • 16. Adaptive responses: technology for schools and office-buildings Air filters Air conditioning Ventilation • Raises math scores by 20% of SD over 4 months, for $1000 per class • Increasing ventilation can improve performance of office work by 6 percent, if new air filters are installed • In schools, offsets 50 percent of the impact of heat on learning Passive measures • Flow of air in and out of a building • Removing indoor technology • Painting ceilings white • Installing heat-protective windows Mandating adaptive technologies in all schools can ensure that low-SES students have equal protection.
  • 17. Re-organising the school curriculum Curriculum flexibility High-stakes exams • Provision of online learning during high pollution and heat episodes or school closures due to extreme weather events • Allowing for re-scheduling / re-taking of exams due to adverse environmental conditions, especially for disadvantaged students • Adjusting the school calendar year according to local climate • Starting school earlier in the day and placing all math courses in the morning to attenuate the effects of heat on analytical skills • Ensuring all students can attend testing sites with adequate adaptive technologies • Shifting reliance to other measures of student quality
  • 18. Science proficiency does not guarantee environmental sustainability competence Students’ foundational levels environmental sustainability competence and science proficiency % of students who achieved at least foundational levels in the four environmental sustainability competence areas and % of students with science proficiency Level 2 and above 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Foundational Science proficiency Level 2 or above Source: OECD Skills Outlook 2023, Chapter 2, PISA 2018 On average across OECD countries 78% of 15-year-old students achieved at least at the PISA Level 2 but only 33% did the same and expressed attitudes and behaviours in support of environmental sustainability. 14
  • 19. Scope for improvement toward (equity in) enhancing individuals' environmental sustainability competence Foundational and advanced environmental competence levels by socio-economic status % of 15-year-old students (OECD average) Source: OECD Skills Outlook 2023, Chapter 2, PISA 2018 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Disadvantaged Advantaged Disadvantaged Advantaged Foundational Advanced % On average, across OECD countries, 21% of socio-economically disadvantaged but 46% of socio- economically advantaged students had foundational levels in environmental sustainability competence. +25pp. +19pp. 15
  • 20. Want to know more? Understanding how economic conditions and natural disasters shape environmental attitudes: A cross- country comparison to inform policy making The environmental sustainability competence toolbox: From leaving a better planet for our children to leaving better children for our planet Young people’s environmental sustainability competence: Emotional, cognitive, behavioural, and attitudinal dimensions in EU and OECD countries The effects of the EU Fit for 55 package on labour markets and the demand for skills Swimming skills around the world: Evidence on inequalities in life skills across and within countries Global warming, pollution and cognitive developments: The effects of high pollution and temperature levels on cognitive ability throughout the life course OECD Skills Outlook 2023. Skills for a Resilient Green and Digital Transition

Editor's Notes

  1. Thank you Sasha. This event is the third in a series of in depth discussions around topics covered in the latest Skills Outlook 2023 report which considers how to build resilience given broad transformations unleashed by the green transition and the digital transition. Technological innovations can help communities adapt to climate change and reduce environmental degradation, but technology can do so only when it is purposefully harnessed and used in conjunction with broader changes.
  2. The 2023 was the hottest year on record and got us very close to the 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial levels identified and agreed in the Paris agreement. Evidence in many OECD countries confirms that accelerated action on adaptation is needed to contain future loss and damage. Investments in climate adaptation measures are usually significantly less expensive than addressing loss and damage from extreme weather events.
  3. To give you a concrete example of worsening environmental condition, many OECD countries have experienced a significant increase in the number of days with strong heat stress exposure in the past 5 years compared to the reference period of 1981-2010. In particular, Israel, Costa Rica Italy, Mexico the United States Turkiye and Hungary have experienced increases of at least 2 weeks per year of strong heath stress exposure. Heath exposure allows to account for other meteorological effects besides air temperature, such as relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation NOTE WITH SPECIFIC DETAILS ON NUMBERS AND WHAT THEY MEAN The figure provides the additional days per year of at least strong heat stress exposure (UTCI > 32°C), which accounts for other meteorological effects besides air temperature, such as relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation, over the period 2017-21 compared to the reference period 1981-2010. Heat stress is estimated using the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). A UTCI value between 32°C and 38°C is considered as strong heat stress, between 38°C and 46°C as very strong heat stress, and above 46°C as extreme heat stress. For more information, see Maes et al. (2022). Countries are sorted in descending order of the number of additional days with strong heat stress exposure.
  4. At the same time, whereas improvements have been recorded in air pollution, air pollution remains significantly above WHO Recommended levels in all OECD countries. Climate change is likely to worsen air pollution because of wildfires and with high temperatures the negative effects of air pollution become more pronounced.
  5. The Skills Outlook provides an assessment of the role of skills policies in promoting a resilient green and digital transition. First, it considers how learning environments and learning processes can be adapted to a changing climate. And it considers the range of skills and attitudes that education systems should promote to adapt to new environmental conditions. Second, it identifies the role played by environmental sustainability competence and how this can be developed over the life course. Third, the Skills Outlook shows how skills policies can ensure that achieving ambitious climate objectives, such as substantially reducing CO2 emissions, does not lead to labour market vulnerability. Adult learning and vocational education and training can facilitate workers transition from declining industries and occupations into industries that are expanding as a result of the transition.
  6. In this session I will look into adaptation needs in schools and schooling and why this is critical.
  7. For a start, our PISA study reveals that children who experience additional hot school days perform at a lower level in PISA and that effect is larger in poorer countries in which communities have less access to mitigation technologies. Now, there can be many things that effect the causal nature of this relationship, but it should give us to think.
  8. Extreme heat and air pollution impact skills acquisition over the lifecourse. The impact starts in utero, shaping birth conditions and brain development. It shapes how children progress in compulsory schooling – both the conditions they experience in school but also whether schools can remain open. Impacts are especially pronounced during exams which require cognitive acuity and display overall learning progress. Differences in environmental conditions and access to mitigation technlogies can influence how well children from different socio-economic backgrounds perform in the exams, leading to inefficient educational and labour market sorting. Finally, extreme heath and poor health quality can reduce productivity and in old age lead to cognitive decline.
  9. Climate change induced weather events can influence learning outcomes and skills acquisition directly – for example by leading to school closures or indirectly - by reducing how effective schooling is translated in skills development. Climate change induced weather events can influence learning outcomes and skills acquisition in a transitory way– for example by inducing fatigue and loss of acuity leading children to display lower ability than the ability they accumulated for example in exams, or cumulative - by reducing how much students learn over time
  10. In the early years high temperatures and pollution have been associated with lower birth weight, shorter hight, reduced lung function and asthma and an increased likelihood of engaging in disreuptive behaviours, all factors that shape cognitive ability and the ability to learn.
  11. Transitory temperature and pollution exposures during childhood and adulthood can directly lower cognitive acuity and performance by: reducing the oxygen supplied to the brain Transitory and cumulative pollution exposures during gestation, early childhood and adulthood can lead to brain abnormalities reduced white matter loss of neural tissue long-term impact of pollution greater on verbal skills
  12. Distruptive climate related events can lead to decreases not only in the quantity of learning that occurs but also in the quality of learning. They can induce school closures and we know from the pandemic how distruptive school closures can be. In many countries schools are increasingly required to close because of floods, periods of intense heath and poor air quality due to wildfires. They can also induce an increased likelihood that children will miss schools because of sickness, lead to distraction and lack of attention and behavioural problem. In low-income regions, the impact of heat also operates through an income effect by reducing agricultural yields and lowering income, which results in: Lower body weight (BMI) Increased school absences
  13. In most countries exams are organised at the end of the school year which typically corresponds to their summer months (of course, this differs by hemisphere), In many countries end of secondary school exams are high stakes and determine selection into tertiary education. For example in Israel, the Bagrut exams are taken at the end of secondary school for matriculation and are used for selection into tertiary education. Lower access to mitigation technologies in disadvantaged communities, and the fact that they are often located in areas for which conditions are worse socio-economically disadvantaged youngsters maybe particularly affected by changing environmental conditions, leading them to underperform given their potential thus curtailing their educational and labour market opportunities,
  14. Finally, in adulthood air pollution and extreme temperatures could increase the likelihood that individuals will be sick or have to care for sick children or elderly relatives, reduce attention and increase discomfort and lead to impaired decision making – increasing risk taking and impulsivity. All these effects can reduce productivity
  15. Now the effects of climate change induced phenomena are problematic non only because of efficiency but also for equity. The effects of environmental conditions in fact appear to be at least 1.5 – 2 times larger for disadvantaged students. This is because disadvantaged students and adults are born in, live and work in areas with greater exposure to environmental risks. Moreover, disadvantaged students and adults have a lower ability to invest in protective or mitigating measures. These can be lower investments in home and school-level adaptive technologies such as air conditioning or tutoring to make up for lost learning opportunities. Finally, for disadvantaged young people, each point on high-stakes exams is ‘’higher-stakes’’ in terms of educational and labour-market sorting because they have a lower ability to re-take / invest in studying resources for exams and a lower ability to capitalise and rely on social capital or other non educational factors during the transition to the labour market. Schooling in other words counts more for them.
  16. Now what can be done? Investing in adaptive technologies such as air filters and other passive measures. In many cases these technologies can be very effective although cost varies. Mandating adaptive technologies in all schools can ensure that low-SES students have equal protection.
  17. Second is to re-organise the curriculum First, Online learning can be provided during high pollution and heat episodes. Here lessons from the pandemic can be instructive. Second, Adjusting the school calendar year according to local climate is important. There are calls to reduce the summer break to reduce summer learning loss. How can this be achieved? Third, some countries like Indonesia are considering starting school earlier in the day and researchers have called to place math courses in the morning to attenuate the effects of heat on analytical skills. At the same time we know that for teenagers early mornings can be a challenge for learning and attention. Fourth, we should ensure that all students can attend testing sites with adequate adaptive technologies and allowing for the re-scheduling / re-taking of exams due to adverse environmental conditions, especially for disadvantaged students. In general we can consider how best to assess young people and develop better metrics of student quality.
  18. Now in closing I would like to highlight how infrastructural investments and the reorganisation of learning should be accompanied by investments in building the environmental sustainability competences of young people. We need to motivate individuals to integrate sustainable practices into their daily lives as consumers. Therefore, it is essential to build environmental sustainability competence in young people in particular to ensure that they will possess the skills but also the will to protect the environment both at work and in everyday life. Our education systems should equip all young people with an understanding of science and scientific phenomena. This is a pre-requisite to ensure that they will have the tools to make informed decisions. On average across OECD countries 78% of 15-year-old students who sat the PISA test in 2018, almost 8 in 10, achieved foundational levels of scientific literacy. This means that they could at the minimum, draw on everyday knowledge and basic procedural knowledge to identify an appropriate scientific explanation, interpret data, and identify the question being addressed in a simple experimental design, use basic or everyday scientific knowledge to identify a valid conclusion from a simple data set. However, only 33% of 15-year-old students - in other words 3 in 10 - combined this level of achievement in science with taking concrete action to protect the environment, caring about the environment or being aware of climate change. On average as many as 5 in 10 students had the ‘skill’ but not the ‘will’ component of environmental sustainability competence.
  19. Crucially, our work indicates that there are important inequalities in how well education systems promote environmental sustainability competence. For example, On average, across OECD countries, 21% of socio‑economically disadvantaged but 46% of socio-economically advantaged students had foundational levels in environmental sustainability competence. That’s a difference of 25 percentage points.
  20. Here are resources that the OECD Centre for Skills has published and made available on this topic or related topics. And now I very much look forward to a fruitful discussion with our panel.